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The Connoisseur 

An Illustrated Magazine 
For Collectors 

Edited by C. Reginald Grundy 

Vol. LIV. 

(MAY-AUGUST, 1919) 


Published by the Proprietor, W. CLAUDE JOHNSON, at the 

Editorial and Advertisement Offices of The Connoisseur, 

AT I, Duke Street, St. James's, S.W. i 








// V -4 • 





[Alt.) denotes Arlide. 


Adam Silver (Current Art Notes) 56 

Alsace-Lorraine, Tlie Art of. By R. K. M. See (Art.) 25 

Ancient Art of the East (Note) 23^ 

Anne, Queen, Silver (Art.). Ry Cecil Boyce 15S 

Answers to Correspondence 60, iig, rS4, 24S 

Answers to Correspondence (Heraldic) 60,110,184 

Authors and Contrihutors. 

Boyce, Cecil. Queen Anne Silver (Art.) 158 

Brinton, Selwyn. Burlington Fine Arts Club (Note! 172 

Burnett, K. M. Types of Old Pewter Plates (Letter) 40 
Cotterell, Howard Herschel, F.R.H.S. 

Pewter Baluster Measures (Art.) i<)7 

Types of Old Pewter Plates (Letter) 40 

Gibson, Eugenie. Stuart l'".mbroideries at Clictiucrs, 

Pan IL (Art.) Sj 

C.ray, H. St. George. Tabard (Note) 37 

Jones, E. Alfred, M.A. Old Plate in tlie Imperial 

Museum at Vienna (Art.) ... ... ... 135 

Litchfield, Frederick. Syon House, Isleworth (.\rt.l 123 

Lynch, Bohun. The Small Collector, Part L (Art.) 211 
Murdoch, \V. G. Blaikie. The Art of Japan : Nara 

and Kyoto, Part I. (Art.) 63 

Pape, T., B.A. Heraldic Glass of the Sulgravc 

Washingtons (Art.) 152 

Percival, ifacfver. A Book of Printed Cottons, Part 
TL — How Cottons were Printed in the 

Eighteenth Century (Art.) 13 

Pontil. The Glass Age, Part IV. (Art.l 7.^ 

Richter, Louise M. Voltaire, Painted by Latour 

(Art.) 204 

Roberts, Clifton. Salopian China, Part L (.\rl.l ... 1S7 

Roberts, W. Romney's Apprenticeship (Art.) ... S<| 
Roe, Fred, R.I. Antique Furniture bearing Dates 

(Art.) 3 

See, R. R. M. 

The Art of Alsace-Lorraine (Art.) ... ... ... 25 

Gouaches by George Chinnery (Art.) ... ... t4i 

Williamson, Dr. G. C. Tlie Battle of Naseby, and 

a Suggestion (Art.) ... ... ... ... 30 

" Babes and Fairies," by Pamela Bianco (Note) ... \\^ 

Barber's '■ Reminder " Bowl (Note) ... ... ... 166 

Bayes, Walter, Works by. " London in the '4o's,'" 

by T". S. Boys (Note) ... ... ... ... 233 

Belgium, Current Art Events in (Note) ... ... ... 240 

Berechurch, The Romance of (St. Michael's) (Note) ... 166 

Bianco, Pamela, " Babes and Fairies," by (Note) ... 117 
Blakeney, Norfolk. Water from Stones : a Neglected 

Relic (Note) 167 


Blake's Chest (Note) 223 

Books Reviewed. 

" Bristol and Brislington Potteries," Forthcoming 

Work on ... ... ... ... ... ... 1S3 

" Catalogue of Early Printed Books " 183 

" Catalogue of Rare and Valuable Books " 1S3 

" Early Staffordshire Pottery," by Major Cyril Earle 50 

" France I knew. The," by Winifred Stephens ... 58 

" Golden Days, The," by Romilly Fedden 59 

" Huisraad en Binnenhuis in Nederland in vroegere 

eeuwen," by K. Sluyterman iiS 

■■ Ivan Mestrovic : a Monograph " ... ... ... i<S2 

■■ Joseph Pennell's Liberty Loan Poster," by Joseph 

Pennell 59 

" L'Epigramme," by L, De Mauri ... 247 
" Marv Beale," by Gerv Milner-Gibson-Cullum, 

F.S.A. ..." 246 

" Masters of the Art of Modern Ital\' " 24(1 

" Modern Etchings," by Joseph Simpson 57 

'' Murray Marks and his Friends," by Dr. G. C. 

Williamson ... ... ... ... ... iSi 

•' Raemaekers' Cartoon History of the War," com- 
piled by J. Murray .\nison. TTie First Tw-elve 

Months of the War ii.S 

'* Scottish Modern Arts Association Twelfth Annual 

Report" ... ... ... ... ... ... iiS 

" .Seventh Volume of the Walpole Society," igtS-ig, 

edited by A. J. Finberg 244 

Bookshelf, The Connoisseur ... ... 57, riS, iSi, 244 

Bosham, Sussex, Church of (Note) ... ... ... 227 

Brighton Art Gallery, Spring E.xhibition at (Note) ... 178 

British Antique Dealers' Association (Note) ... ... rSo 

Burlington Fine Arts Club : Florentine Painting (Note) 172 
Butler, Lady : " Some Records of the World War," by 

(Note) T17 

Buxted, Sussex, Churches of (Note) ... ... ... 224 

Cabrioles (Note) ... ... ... ... ... ... 38 

Candlesticks, Washington's (Note) ... ... ... 224 

("anute, A Daughter of (Note) ... ... ... ... 227 

(Tiest, Blake's (Note) 

Chinese Taste, The (Note) ... 
Chinnery, George, Gouaches by, by R. R. 
Church of Bosham, Sussex (Note) 
Churches of Buxted, Sussex (Note) 
Churches of Stanway, Essex (Note) 
Clay, William, Timekeepers by ... 
Colyngton, Arthur : " Poems in Cloudland, 









' by (Nc 








( "orrcspondcnce, lleruMir ... ... ... ...60, inj, 1S4 

C'cittoiis, Printed, A Book of. Part II. IIow Cottons 
were Printed in tlie Eighteentli Century (.\rt.l, 
by Jlaciver I'ereival ... ... ... ... ij 

Current Art E\ents in Belgium (Note) ... ... ... 241 

Current Art Events in Italy ... ... ... ... 242 

Current .-Vrt }-'.vents in Paris (Note) ... ... ... 241 

Current .\rt Xiites 4,S, 106, I7l,2.i2 

Datisjliter of Canute (Xote) ... ... ... ... 227 

Drawings by Bernard Meninsky (Note) 117 

Drummond Collertion (Xo(e) 

Diner Engravings .ind Rembrandt Etiliings (Note) 

Earlom, Rieliard, Tliree Plates by (Note) 
Embroideries, Antique (Note) 

Embroideries at Chequers, Stuart, Part II. (.\rt.), 
by Eugenie Cibson 

Engraving : Rome Seliolarship (Note) 

Etchings by .Tan Poortenaar (Note) 
Etchings by Willi. on Kenison (Note) 

Elorentine Painting; Burlington Fine .\rts Club ... 
Fly-leaf Inscriptions, Old (Note) ... 

Furniture, Antique, bearing Dates, by Freil Roe, R.I. 
(Art.) " 

" Carrie k '' at the Aeolian Hall (Note) 

Garth, Miss M. F., Paintings by 

Glass : The Glass Age, Part IV. (Art.), by Pontil ... 
Ciouaclies by George Chinnery, by R. R. M. See 

Hancock, Samuel II., \Vorks by (Note) 

Hemy, C. Napier, R.A. " Life " (Note) 

Heraldic Glass Memorials of the Sulgrave Wasliini;- 

tons, by T. Pape, B.A 

Hughes-Stanton, H., .\.R.A. " Vpres to St. Ouentin " 

Identification, Problems in 

" Idylls of Japan," by Miss Margaret Kees (Note) ... 

International Society, The (Note) 

Irish Memorial Window (Note) 

Italy, Art Notes from 

.lapan. The Art of : Nara and Kyoto, Part I., by W. 

G. Biaikie Murdoch (Art.) 

.lapanese Silk, Cut ^■elvet and Kmbroiderv Pictures 

(Note) ■ 

JelTrcys, Marcel, Paintings by (Note) ... 

Kapp's C.tric;itures (Note) ... ... 

I\ees, Miss .^(ar!i■lrel. " Iilylls of .Japan '" 

I^.itnur, \oltaire i>,iiuted l)\ , bv I.i>nise M. Rii liter 

" Life," A facsimile repnidin tion in colours from the 
Puture b\- the l.ile C. Napier Hem\-, R.A. 
(Note) ',. 

M.inuscri|its and Aulngr.iphs; Romncy's .-Apprentice- 
ship (An.), h) W. Roberts 

Mary Queen of Scots, Relics of (Note) 

Meninsky, Bernard, DrLiwiugs by (Note) 

Munnings, A. J., Paintings by 

Nara and Kyoto, Part I. (The Art of T.ip.iii). bv W. 

G. Biaikie Murdoch (Art.) ' ... 

Nasebv, The Battle of, and a Suggestion (Art.i, bv Dr. 

G. C. Williamsim ' ... 

Nation. d Galler) , -\nollicr Romne\' for the (Note) ... 

1 1 7 





1 1 7 

I 72 





I So 




I So 



1 17 



National War Memorial, .\ Suggested (Current Art 

Notes) 56 

Nelson Relic, A, and some Adam Silver (Current Art 

Notes) ... ... ... ... ... ... 56 

Norris, Miss E. LI., I'astels by (Note) ... ■ 117 

Northumberland, Residence of His Grace the Duke of 

(Syon House), by Frederick Lilchheld ... 123 

Notes ... ... ... ... ... ... 37, 1)7, ibfi, !■!.'>, 

Notes, Current Art ... ... ... ... 48, lofi, 771,232 

Notes and Queries ... ... ... ... }y^y 94. 162, ztg 

Diners, The Romante of (Note) ... ... ... ... i)- 

Paintings by A. J. Munnings (Note) ... ... ... 116 

Paris Notes ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 241 

Pastels by Miss E. LI. Norris (Note) ... ... . . 117 

Pewter Baluster Measures, bv How.ird Ilerschel 

Cotterell, F.R.H.S. (Art.) ig? 

Pewter : Barber's " Reminder " Bowl (Note) ... ... 166 

Pewter Plates, Types of Old (Note) ... ... ... 40 

Plate (Old) in the Imperial Mtiseuin at ^'ienna, b\" E. 

Alfred Jones, M.A. ... ... ... ... 135 

Plates, Notes on our ... ... ... ... 41, ifit> 

'■ Poems in Cloudland," by Arthur Colyngton (Note) 17Q 

Poortenaar, Jan, Ivtchings by (Note) ... ... ... 240 

Problems in Identification ... ... ... ... ... 222 

(,)ueen Anne Silver, by Cecil Boyce (Art.) ... ... 158 

Racing Pictures, Old (Note) 237 

Ranelagh War Challenge Cup (Note) ... ... ... iSo 

Rembrandt Etchings and Diirer Engravings (Note) ... 17S 

Renison, William, Etchings by (Note) 117 

Restoration all round (Current Art Notes) ... ... 4S 

Rome Scholarship in Engraving (Note) ... ... ... 180 

Romney for the National Gallery (Note) i7t 

Romney's Apprenticeship (.\rt.), by W. Roberts ... 8g 

Royal Academy (Note) ... ... .-. ... ... 106 

Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours (Current 

Art Notes) ... ... ... ... ... ,io 

Royal Society of British Artists (Note) 177 

Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours (Current 

Art Notes) 48 

Sale Room, In the ... 

Sales, Forthcoming (Note) 

.Salopian China, by Clifton Roberts (Art. 

•Schmidt, C., Timekeepers by (Note) ... 

.Shakespeare, A Newly-discovered Portrait of (Note).. 

.Shakespeare Tobacco-stoiJper (Note) 

Silser, (,>ueen Anne, b\' Cciil Bo.\ t e (.\rt.) 

Small Collector, The, Part 1., b\ liolum I,.\ncli ... 211 

'■ Some Records of the World W.Lr," by Lady Butler 

(Note) 117 

.Stanway, Esse.x : The Romance of Olivers, and 

Churches of (Notes) ... ... ... ... 97 

Stuart Embroideries at Cheipiers, Part II. (Art.), by 

Eugenie Gibson ... ... ... ... ... 83 

Sidgrave Washingtons, Heraldic Glass Menu)rials of 

the, by T. Pape, B..\ 152 

Sykes, George, Water Colours by (Note) ... ... 170 

Syon House, Isleworth, by I'rederick Litcliheld ... 123 

Tabard, by Henry St. George Gray (Note) 37 

Tapestry, Designs for (Note) ... ... ... ... 23S 

Timekeepers by William Clay and C. Schmidt (Note) 30 

Toh.icco stopiier, Shakespeare (.Note) ... ,.. ... 39 

4^, og, 

iCS, 22S 

I I,i. 177 

... :87 


f (Note 

)... ^34 


... 1.^8 


UnulsniirK-d I'iiUncs. See Notes and (Jnerics. 

Viciiiin, I H.I I'lalc ill tlie Imperial Miiseiini al. Iiy !■;. 

Ailred Jones, M.A. i.i5 

\'nitaire. Painted 1)\" I.alt)ur, b>- Louise M . Kic liter 

(Art.) '. ^"4 

War .Memorials (.Note) on Land, Sea, and in tlie .\ir (Xole) 


Waring, IL F., WorUs h> (.Vote) 

Waslilngton's Candlesticks (Xotc) 

Water-colours, Early KnHlish 

Water-eolours, Ol.l English (I'nrrent .\rt .Votes) 

Winter, Tatton, Works by (.Vo(e) 

Wooden Walls (.Vole) 

I So 

I. So 

■■ \ pres to St. (.)uentin,"" h\ IL 
A.R.A. (Vote) ... ' ... 



.\RMs .4.\n Armour. 

Pistols, Two (one by Bond and one by IJonfils) ... 217 
.\rtists .4NU Encr.wers. 

Abbott, Lemuel. Portrait of Thomas Turner ... 1S6 

Asa, Prince (Korean). Prince Shotoku and his two 

sons ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 6,s 

Baudinot. Wattwiller 26 

Benner, Many. " Farniente " ... ... ... 25 

Benner. Valley of 'J'hann ... ... ... ... 2O 

Bigg, W. R. Black Monday, or the Departure for 

School, by John Jones (colour) ... ... ... Si 

Bond, W. Shepherds Reposing, after Geo. Morland 225 

Boucher, Franfois. 

Les Roses (colour) 2 

Venus aird Cupid ... ... ... ... ... loi 

Brown, Arnesby, R..\. Tlie Gathering Storm ... log 

Chinnery, George. 

Portrait of a Lady 143, 14,^. Ci'. i.=;3. ib3 

Portrait of an L'nknown Lady ... ... ■■■ 14S 

Portrait of Lady Grant 149 

Portrait of Miss Bunbury 15° 

Portrait of Miss Crawley ... ... ... ■•• I7S 

Portrait of Miss O'Xeil 122 

Portrait of Mrs. Blair 140 

Sketch of Mrs. JLicCondray 147 

Portrait of Mrs. O'Reilly i33 

Sketch of Miss Dayis ... ... ... ... ... 147 

Sketch of the Two Misses Williams t42 

Portrait of the Artist by himself ... ... ... 141 

Portrait of William Sibley Braithwaite 146 

Cotes, Francis. Pastel Portrait of a Lady ... ... 205 

Cousins, S. Lady Durham, after Sir Thomas 

Lawrence ... ... ... ... ... ••• 73 

De Loutherbourg. St. James's Park, London ... 27 

Earloni, Richard. 

A Flower Piece, after J. Van Huysum ... ... ^3 

A Fruit Piece, after J. Van Huysum 33 

The Shepherd Boy, after Thomas Gainsborough ... 11 

Gainsborough, Thomas. The Shepherd lioy, by 

Richard Earlom 11 

Geullard. Voltaire (from an engraving by! ... ... 210 

Grozer. J. 

Morning, or the Benevolent Sportsman, alter Geo. 

Morland ... ... ... ... ... .■• 21 

Evening, or the Sportsman's Return, after Geo. 

Morland (colour) ... ... ... ... ... 62 

Hemy, C. Xapier, R.A. " Life " 237 

Jones, John. Black Monday, or the Departure (or 

School, after W'. R. Biggs (colour) Si 

KrafTt. Landscape ... ... ... ... ... 26 

Artists .\ni) Enokavkrs — coutiiiued. 
Kudre, R. Village Scene 
Langlois, P. G. Portrait of Voltaire (from an 

engraving by) 
Latour. Portrait of \'oItaire ... 

Lavery, Sir John, .\.R..\. The Marquis of London- 
Lawrence, Sir Thomas. Lady Durham, by S. 

^Llrshall, Ben. '" ^L^meluke "' 
Morelli, D. Susanna of the Bath 
^lorland, Geo. 

Evening, or the Sportsman's Ivelurn. by J. Grozer 

Morning, or the lienevolent Sportsman, by J. 

.Shepherds Reposing, by W. Bond ... 
Munnings, .A. J. The Huntsman 
Palizzi. Rise of the I-'ull Moon 

Pater, J. B. The Boudoir 

Raemaekers, Louis. L".\\enir 
Rankin. Corner of a Drawing Room 
Reynolds, Sir Joshua. -Mrs. Freeman 
Roe, Fred, R.L The Return of the Victors ... 
Romney, George. The Beaumont Family ... 
Sarto, Andrea del. John the Baptist ... 
.Sartorius, J. X. Two Hunters, with Groom 
Shannon, Charles, A.R.A. The Summer Sea 
Temple, A. G. '* Life anfl*'Thought have gone awa\' 

side by side " 
Tito, Ettore. 

Little Mothers 

-Signorina \'enturini 

Uinbricht, Honore. Mile. T. U 

L'rbain, Alexandre. Interruption 

\'an de \'elde, W. A Xaval Engagement ... 

\'an Hinsum, J. 

.\ 1- lower Piece, by Richard Earlom 

.\ Fruit Piece, by Richard Earlom ... 
Velasquez. Philip \\ . of Spain 
Ward, J. The Citizens Retreat, by W. Ward 
Ward, W. The (.'itizens Retreat, after J. \\ .ird ... 
Zuber, Henri. Bucolic ... 

.\tTOGR.-iPHS. Letters, etc. 

Invitation Card to Exhibition on .April 30th, 1878, 
with portraits of Whistler and others (from 
'■ iturray Marks '") 

Romney's Indenture 

Textile Printer's Trade Card, .A. late Seventeenth 

Walker's, .Adam, Letter. Portion of ... 







1 1 1 
I 71 











Bronze Gong 

Vakuslii Nyorai with Bodhisattvas. 
Piece Ijy Tori at Horiiiji 

Clocks, ktc. 
Clock, Enamei 

Clock, Thirty-hour, by B. Downs 
Clock-Watch, by Charles Schmidt 
Watch, b\' Wni. CIa\- 

Bronze Altar- 






Ceiling of State Dining Room at S}on House ... I2g 
Chimney Piece, Statuary Marble ... ... 126, 167 

Chimney Piece, Statuary Marble, and Overmantel 

Chimney Piece, Wood ... 

Door at Syon House, showing richl\' decorated 

Inscription on Panelling in Parish Church, Cireat 

Varmouth ... ... ... ... ... ... g 

P:uiel by Angelica ... ... ... ... 130 

Panelling, Inscription on ... ... ... ... 9 



Emijroiderv, ktc. 

Black ground with cerise spots ... 

Chinoiserie Design 

Coloured Chintz 

Dress Pattern ... ... ... ... . . 

Dress Pattern, A, in i>Inm colour, bulT and while ... 
Embroidererl Bed-hangings, etc., from Lo{ k I, even 

First Stage ol a Printed Cotton 
Furniture Chintz in brilliant colours on a " i>inned 

Furniture Chintz in orange and green printed over 

buff vermiculatiuns 
I'urniture Chintz in ten brilliant colours 
Furniture Chintz in vivid colours 
Indian Cotton, showing the vermiculated ground 

copied in so many of the English prints 
Pattern without beadlike stems 

Petit-Point : Pastoral Idyll 

" Pinned " Ground, A ... 

Printed Outline partly filled in by hand 

Roses and Foliage in natural colours ... 

Sprigged Pattern, suitable for aprons and gowns ... 

Stuart Work, Petit-Point, etc. Sacrifice of Isaac b\' 


Front of Lace-box 
Lid of Lace-box 
Mirror Franie ... 

Pastoral Idyll in, and Petit-Point 

Tabard ... ... ... ... ... ... 3 

Vermiculated Ground overprinted with a Horal 


Battle of Naseby ... 

Fairfax on Horseback 

House of Commons in .Session ... 

Presented by Parliament to General Fairfax 
Engravers. See Artists and Engravers. 


Alms-box, dated rsSg, in Do\'ercourt Church, Essex 5 

Armchair, dated i6gg ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Armchair, late Sixteenth or early Seventeenth 

Century ... ... ... ... ... ... 214 





. 16 
S3, S4 
. 16 
. 18 

. 16 

. 85 

, 87 




FlR.viTfRE — continued. 
Bible-box on Stand 
Chair, Empire 
Chair, Panelled 

Chest, Blake's (Closed) 

Chest, Blake's (Open) ... 

Coffer, dated 1519, in Shanklin Church, I. of W. ... 
Coffer, dated 1639, Victoria and Albert Museum ... 
Coffer, dated 1684, in Fingringhoe Church, Essex 
Court Cupboard, dated 1610, \'ictoria and Albert 

Drawers, Queen Anne, Dotd^le Chest nf 
Dresser, Welsh, ciri-a t70o 

Garden Seat, Old Oak, 1523 

Secretaire, dated r5g4 ... 
Side-table, Chippendale ... 
Stake, Oak, said to have 

palisading in the time 

54 B-C 

Table, Carved and (lilt Console, by R 

formed part of the 
of Queen Boadicea, 

[)bert Adam 


J^eer Glasses and the opaque twist, Plate XII. 
Bowls, Variety of, from the bell-shape to the double 

ogee, Plate \'. 
Bulges and knops in the stem. Part X. 
Coloured twists in the stems, Plate X\'. 

Drawn Bowl, Plate VIII 

Enamel, by Edkins, of Bristol, Plate XIV 

Hammered Bowl, Plate VII 

Kuopped, etc., stems. Varieties of, Plate XI. 
Lapidary-cut Stem Wine Glasses, Plate X\'l. 

" Norwich Twist," Plate IX 


Heraldic Glass at P'.iwsley Church 

Memorial Window 

Shields at Fawsley Church, taken from Sulgrave 

Wakelyn and Washington Arms at Fawsley Church 
Washington Arms at Fawsley Church, taken from 

Sulgrave Manor-house 
Washington Arms imp.iling those of Kytson, at 
Weston Manor-house 
Twists, Various, single threads or plies. Plates II., 

III., and IV 

White Glass Enamel, Rare variety, Plate XIII. ... 
White opaque twist, w-ilh drawn stem and bowl. 

Plate I 

^^"^ythen Bowds, \~arious l\i)es of the, Plate VI. ... 

Leather Work. 

Letter Bag used by 'I'liomas Turner of Caughley ... 154 


Turner, Thomas, as a Voung Man 






















Baluster Measures, 22 illustrations, with details, 

marks, etc. 198-203 

" Reminder " Bowl 166 

Touch-mark of Jonas Durand ... ... ... ... 40 

Touch-marks of Staple Inn Pewter Plates 41 


Beaumont Family. By George Homney ... ... r7r 

Black Monday, or the Departure for School. By 

John Jones, after W. R. Bigg (colour) ... St 
Blair, Mrs. By George Chinnery 149 


Pictures — conlinued. pace 

Boudoir, The. By J. B. Tater i<)5 

Braithwaite, William Sibley. By George (hiniiery mCj 

" Bucolic." By Henri Zuber 27 

Bunbury, Miss. By George Cliinnery 151' 

Caughley Place ii)J 

Caugliley, The Works at 102 

Cliinnery, George. By Himself 141 

Christ in the Temple (Unidentified) 115 

Citizens Retreat, The. By W. Ward, aft r J. W.inl 

(colour) ... ... ... ... ■■• ■.• 4.! 

" Colmar School," Kifteenth Century .. .. 2S 

Corner of a llrawing Room. By W. Rankin ... 4S 

Crawley, Mrs. By George Cliinnery 17=; 

Davis, Miss. Skcl( li li> C.enrgr { liinnery 147 

Durham, I,a<ly. H> S. Cousins, after Sir 'I'liomas 

Lawrence ... ... ... ... .■■ ... 7.? 

Kvening, or the .Sportsman's Kclurii. By J. Grozer, 

after G. Morland (colour) (<i 

" Farnicnte." By Benner 25 

Karrer, Mistress, Widow of Colonel Farrer ... ... iSi) 

Flower Piece, A. By Richard F.arlom, after J. \'.m 

Huysum ... ... ... ... ... .. -.3 

Freeman, Mrs. By .Sir Joshua Reynolds ... ... iii 

Fruit Piece. By Richard Farlom, after ]. Van 

Huysum ,3.1 

Gallimore, Dorothy, first wife of Thomas Turner ... igi 
Gallimore, father of Thomas Turner's first wife, 

Dorothy (iallimore .. ... 1X7 

Gathering Storm. By Arnesby Brown, R.-\. ... loc) 

Grant, Laily. By George Chinnery ... ... ... 141) 

Hunters, with Groom. By J. N'. .Sartorius 234 

Huntsman, i'lie. B>- A. J. Munnings 40 

Interruption. By Alexandre Crbain ... ... ... 20 

John the Baptist. By Andrea del Sarto 235 

Lad\", Portrait of a. By George Cliinnery 

143. I4.S. isi. '.s3. I'm 

Lady, L'nknown. B\- Gecrge ('iiinner\' ... ... 14S 

Landscape. By G. KraITt ... ... ... ... 26 

L'Avenir. B\' Louis Raemakers ... ... ... iiQ 

Les Roses. By Franfois Boucher (colour) ... ... 2 

" Life." By C. Napier Hemy, R.A. 237 

" Life and thought have gone away side by side." 

By A. G. Temple 174 

Little Mothers. By F.ttore Tito 23g 

London \\'arehoiise of the Cauglile\" Works of 

Thomas Turner ... ... ... ... ... iy3 

Londonderr\', The Marquis of. B\- .Sir John La\er\ , 

A.R..Ji. ... ■ ...' 107 

MacCondray, Mrs. Sketch by George Chinner\- ... 147 

" Mameluke." By Ben Marshall 2i,i 

Memorial Chapel, A ... ... ... ... ... 51 

Mile. T. r. By Honore Umbriilit 20 

Morning, or the Benevolent Sportsman. B\' J. 

Grozer, after G. Morland (colour) ... ... 21 

Mural Paintings at Horiuji ... ... ... 05,(16 

National War Memorial, A View of the Suggested 55 

Naval F^ngagement. By W. \'an de Wide ... ... cii 

O'Neil, Miss. By George Chinner\' ... 

O'Reilly, Mrs. B\* George Cliinner\- 

Painting (Unidentified) ... ... gli, 165, 2i(j, 2211, 

Pastel Portrait of a Lady. By Francis Cotes 

Philip IV. of .Spain. By \'elasqiiez ... 

Portrait (Unidentified) ... ... 35, 36, Q4, 05, idj. 

Prince Shotoku and his two Sons. By The Korean 

Prince Asa 

1 22 

22 I 

I'll TIRES — CVlli lined. 

Relurn of the \"ic tors. Ry Fred Roe, R.I 

Rise of the Full Moon. B\- Palizzi ... 
.Shakespeare, Portrait of 

Shepherd Boy, The. B\' Richard Farlom, after 
Tliomas Gainsborougli Reposing. Bv W. linml, after G. 


."^t. James's Park, I.Dndini. B_\- J)e Loiillierbourg... 
.Summer Sea, 'flie. B\ Charles Shannon, .\.R..\. ... 

Susanna of the Balh. By D. Morclli 

Tamamushi -Shrine at IlOriiiji ... 

'I'lirner, Sarah, .Sister of Thomas 'furncr ... 

'I'lirner, The Rev. Richard, LI,.D., Father of Thomas 

I'lirner, 'flie Rev. Riiliard, LL.D. ( llie \'iuinger)... 
'J'lirner, Thomas, lix Lemuel .Mibnii 
Two Hunters, with Groom. By J. .\. Sartorius ... 

\'alley of Thann. By Benner 

^'an Dyck, Portrait of ... 

\'enturini, Signorina. By Ettore Tito 

\'enus and Cupid. By Francois Boucher (colour)... 

Village Scene. By R. Kudre 

Voltaire. By Latour 

N'oltaire. From an engraving by Geullard 

\'oltaire. From the engraving hv P. G. Langlois, 

17S5 ■ 

Watlwiller. By Baudinot 

Williams, The Two Misses. Skeli h by C 


Works at Caiighlec 

24 .s 

1 1 




I So 










Pi ates. 

Bl.ii k Miunlay, or the Dep.irliire fnr School. By 

John Jones, after \V. R. Bigg (colour) 
Boudoir, The. li>- J. B. Pater 

Citizens Retreat, 'I'lie. By W. War.l, after J. W.ird 

Crawley, Miss. li> (ieorge Chinnery 

Durham, Lady. By S. ( ousins, after .-^ir 

Evening, or the Sportsman's Return. By J. Grozer, 

after Geo. Morland (colour) 
Flower, Piece, A. By Ricliard Farlom, after J. Van 


Freeman, Mrs. \\y Sir Jnshu.i Reynolds 

Fruit Piece. B> Richard Farlom, after J. \'an 

John the Baptist. By Andrea del Sarto 

Lady, Portrait of ,1. By George Chinnery 143, 153, 
Les Roses. By Francois Boucher 

.Morning, or the Benevolent Sportsman. By J. 

Grozer, after Ci. Morland (colour) 

Naval Engagement. By W. Van de Velde 

O'Neil, Miss. B\* George Cliinner_\* ... 

O'Reilly, Mrs. By (ieorge Chinnery 

Pastel Portrait of a Lady. By Francis Cotes 

Philip IV. of Spain. By Velasquez ... 

Shepherd Boy. By Richard Farlom, after flionias 

Shepherds Reposing. B\' W. Bond, after C. 


'I'lirner, Tliomas. By Lemuel .Miboti 

X'eaiis and Cuidd. By Francois Boucher (colour) ... 


Bow Figures of Saiiiiiua and .Autuiim ... 


1 73 

1 1 1 


1 22 

I. Si. 




Bristtil Tea Ser\ice, Mark nn ... 
Chinese Porcelain 
Lowestoft I'lircclain 
Sevres Vase 

Shakespeare 'I'obareo-stopper ... 


Image, WodiI 

Prayer of the Dead. ]iy \intenzo \'ela 

Priest Kanjin. By Shitaku, sculpture ■ 

macho at Toshodaiji 
Prince Shotoku in C'liildhooti, scuh")ture 

By Knkai 

Puruna, Statue in dr\' hicquer ... 
Sculpture in clay ... 
Statue (Unidentified) 
Woman and Child. By Mestrovic ... 
Silver, etc. 
Benvenuto Cellini Salt-cellar 
Candlestick, Sheffield Plate, from George 

ton's Home 








wood . 





1 82 




SU.\ER. ETC. — conliniicd. PAGE 

CoiFee Pot, Octagonal ... ... ... ... ... 160 

(."up and (_*o\'cr ... ... ... ... ... ... 161 

I'liit and Covci", \'ase-shaped, by .lames N oung, 17S1 ,52 

( "u]) prcsenteil to Thomas Turner's widow, iSog ... 193 

I up. Silver Gilt ... ... ... ... ... ... 1.30 

Cup, Two-handled, with Co\'er ... ... ... ... lOci 

Dish, by Christoph jamnitzer ... ... ... ... 1,36 

Double Cup in Silver Gilt, One of a set of Plight ... ijo 

Ewer, Rose-water, by Christoph Jamnitzer ... ... 136 

Figure of a Bear, Augsburg, circa i6uo ... ... 137 

Loving-cup, Ru.ssian Gold ... ... ... ... 138 

Ostrich-egg Cup 139 

Polo Cup, Ranelagh War Challenge ... 178 

Salt-cellar of Benvenuto Cellini, Tlie Celebrated 

Golden ... ... ... ... ... ... 135 

Salts, Circular Trencher, by Nathaniel Locke ... 15S 

Salts, Oval Trencher, by Samuel Hawkes ... ... 158 

.Snuffers and Stand, by Lewis Mettayer ... ... 159 

Sugar Castors, Set of Three, by Aug. Cortauld ... 160 

Tankard, with Cover ... ... ... ... ... 161 

'I'umbler Cup, b\' Anthon\- Xelme ... ... ... 15Q 



Alice's Adventures in Wonrlerland 
Aiken, H. National Sports of Great Britain 
Berthelin, Jean. La Pratique des Vertus Chretiennes 
Biblia Sacra Latina (French, I^ourteentli Century) ... 
Boccaccio's Decameron (Isaac laggard's translation, 


Book of Hours (French, Fifteenth Century) 
Booke of the Common Praier, 1549 ... 
Books of Hours (two) (Fifteenth Century) ... 
Bretonne, Restif de la. Les Contemporaines 
Broadside Proclamations from James I. to William 

and Mary ... 
Buddha, Life of, A Burmese MS. 
Bunyan. Pilgrim's Progress 
Burney, F. Evelina 
Caelius Antiquarium (Frohenius, 1517) 
Ca.xton. liooke called Caton ... 
Chapman, G. Humerous Daycs M\rth, A ... 
Chronicle of St. Albans, 
Churchyard's Challenge 
Clyomon and Clamj'des. 

Copland, W. 

Impacient Pouertie 

Jack Jugeler 

Cowley. Loves Riddle, a Paslorall Comoedie 
Cox, R. The Merry Conceited Humours of Bottom 

the Weaver 
Cruikshank. The Humorist 
Daniell and Ayrton 
Great Britain 
Dekker and Webster 


Sketches by Boz 
Egan, P. Life in London 

The (1502) 

Historie of the two valiant 

Picturesque \'uyage roimd 
^Vestward Hoe 

















BooK.s — continued. 

Famous Victories of Henry the Fifth, The ... 
Fitz-Geffry. Sir Francis Drake, his Honourable 

Lifes Commendation, and his Tragical Deathes 


Fitzgerald. Omar 

Fraunce, Abraham. The Countesse of Pembroke's 

Vuychurch ... 
Fulwell. A Pleasant Enterlude 
Goosecappe, Sir Gyles ... 

Greene (attributed tol. George a Greene, the Pinner 

of Wakefield 

C»reene, R. The First Part of the Tragicall Raigne 

of Selimus ... 
Heywood, John, Workes of 
Hunnis, W. (attributed to). Jacob and F.sau 
Indian Miniatures (album of 15) 
Ingeland, T. The Disobedient Child 
Jonson, Ben. 


Eastward Hoe ... 

Fortunate Isles ... 
Jonson's, Ben, Works 

Lodge, T. The of Civill War 

Lucans first Booke 
Lusty Ivventus 

Famous Tragedy of the Rich Jew of Malta 

Hero and Leander 
Medwall, Henry. Godely Interlude of Fulgen's 

Cenatoure of Rome 
Missale Romanum (Antwerp, 1676) ... 
Munday, Anthony (ascribed to). Fcdele & Fortunin 
New Custom 
Nice Wanton 

Nichols, John. History and Antiquities of the 
County of Leicester 










1 00 





af the Story of Kyng 

Hooks — continued. 
Peele, G. 

Araygnemfiit i)f I'^ris 

Battle of Akazar 

Love uf King David an<I Fair Betlisabe 
Pickwick Advertisers 
Pleasant Comedie of Macedorus 
Preston, T. Cambises, King of F.gypt 
Pretie new F.nterlude . 
Daryiis, A ... 

Real Life in London 

Rowlandson. Political and HunioroiK Works 


King Lear 

Romeo and Juliet 

Yorkshire Tragedie 
Shakespeare's Works, Second folio ... 

Sir John Old-Castle 

Still, John. Gammer Gurton's Nedle 
Sunday under Three Pleads ... 

Analysis of the Hunting Field 

Jorrocks's Jaunts and Jollities 
Thiickeray. Collection of first editions 

Theterlude of Youth 
Triall of Treasure 
Tyde Taryeth no JLin, The ... 
Wager, W. Inough is as Good as a Feast ... 
Watteau. Figures de differents carac 

Paysage et d'ctudes 
Wyer, Robert. The Artycles of the . . 


Bookplates. Collection of ilr. F. B. Salom 















. Ma 
I an 



Baldrey, J. 

Attiring Yenus, after Zucchi 

Disarming (^upid, after Zucchi 
Barnard, W. 

Charles Newman, JLaster of the East Essex Fo.\- 
hounds, after F. C. Turner 

Lord Xelson, after -Abbott ... 

Countess of Spencer, 'The, after Re\nolils 

Farren, Miss, after Lawrence ... ... 45, 

Hans Holbein and his \Vife, after Hans Holbein 

I'ortrait from the" original Drawings by Hans 
Baxter, G. The Parting Look 
lientley, C. (irand Leicestershire Steeplechase, 

after H. .\lken 

Birche, H. 

Game-keepers, after G. .Stubbs 

Labourers, after G. Stubbs ... 
Blake, W. Canterbury Pilgrims, after Chaucer ... 
Bone, Muirhcad. Piccadilly Circus at night in War 


L'Amant Ecoute, after J. B. Huet 

L'F.ventail Casse, after J. B. Huet 

Boys' Original Yiews in London 

Burke, T. Saturday Morning : the favourite 
chickens going to Market, after Bigg 









Exc;ravin'c;.s ami Etchings — c<inliinird. 
Cameron, D. \'. 

Hen I^edi 


Mosque L^oorwax", 'J'he 

North l^orch, Harfleur 

Palace Doorwa\", The 
Cousins, S. Master Lambton, after I,awrence 
Daniel, J. 

Young CottLigers, after R. Livesa\' ... 

Young Foresters, after K. I^ivesa\' ... 
Delatre, J. W. 

Indiscretion, after F. ^Yheatley 

Surprise, after !•'. Wheatley ... 
Dickinson, W. 

Crosbie, Diana, Yiscountess of, after Sir J. 

Derby, Elizabeth, Countess of 

Lady Taylor, after Sir J. Reynolds 

Manners, Lord Robert 

St. Cecilia (Mrs. Sheridan) ... 
I^uterrau, B. 

Farmer's Door, The, after G. Morhind ... 

Squire's Door. The, after G. Morland ... 
Earlom, R. 

Flower Piece, after \'an Iluysum ... 

Fruit Piece, after Yan Huysum 
Gaucia, M. The Costumes. of the British .Vrmv, 

after E. Hull 


Castle in Danger, The, after Hamilton 

" How smooth, brother : feel again I " after 

Hamilton ... ... ... ... ... ... 229 

Gillbank. Rapacious Steward, The, or Cnfortunate 

Tenant, after Bigg 

Green, Y. 

Devonshire, Georgiana, Dm liess of, after Sir J. 

Harrington, Jane, Countess of, after Sir J 

To the Society of Golfers, Blackheatli, after I> 
F. Abbott 

Townshend, Anne, Yiscountess, after .Sir | 
Reynolds '. 

Waldegrave, The Ladies, after Sir J. Reynolds.. 
Cirozer, J. 

Braddyll, Master, after Sir J. Reynolds 

.Supper, The, after Sinv'leton ... 

Haden, Sir V. S. A Sunset in Ireland 


Two Lo\ers 

Woman as Daruma, .\ 
Houston, R. 

-Man Sharpening a Ouill, after Rembrandt 

Man with the Knife, The, after Rembrandt 
Hunt, C. William Long, after J. I.oder ... 
Jones, J. 

Black Monday, after Bigg 

Dulce Domum, after Bigg 

l''ox. The Rt. Hon. Charles James, alter Sir J 

Miss Kemble, after Sir J. Reynolds 

Price, Lady Caroline, after Sir J. lieyimlds .. 
Keating, J. 

Angler's Repast, The, after G. Morl.ind ... ... 230 

Party .\ngling, .\, after G. Morl.ind ... ... 2jo 























Engravings and Etchings — continued. page 

Kiyamasii. An Oiraii of tlie Kyoho Perinil ... 22q 

Kniglit, C. Industry, after O. Morlanil 230 

Le Depart du Courier, after F. Boucher 22g 

Le Retour du Beauvarlet, after F. Bourlier ... 220 

Lyncli, J. H. Militar\ Landscape, after W. A. 

Hayes 22C1 

Ogbourne, J. Mrs. Jordan as the Country Cirl, 

after Roniney ... ... ... •■• •■• 230 

(Irnie, D. 

I'.vening, or the I'ost-boy's Return, after G. 

Morland ^^'1 

Morning, or Higglers |ireparing for Market, after 

C;. Morland ^^') 

Prosperous .Sailor's Return, The, after W. R. Bigg 

Shipwrecked Sailor Hoy, Tlie, after \V. li. Bigg 
Piranesi. Rome, ^'iews iil 
Reynolds, S. W. 

Playing at Dominoes, after f".. Morlanil 

Playing with a Monke\-, after C. jMorland 

Rustic Conversation, after .1. Ward 

Say, W. Crossing the Brook, after II. Thonipsini 
Smith, J. R. 

Beaumont, Lady Margaret, after Sir .L Re\ nold 

Carnac, Mrs. 

I'itzpatriik, Lady C.ertrude 

Cower Family, The, after Romney 

Lady Hamilton as Bacchante, after Reynolds .. 

Schoolboys (Tlie Masters Oawler) 

Stanhope, The Hon. Mrs 

Syer, R. S. >;elson. Lord, after L. F. .\bl)Ott .. 
I'omkins. r'loiit, Marian and (/olin, after Mis 

Julia Conycrs 
Turner, C. Andrews, Dick, after Ben Marshall .. 

Vertue, George. Engravings and MSS 

Ward, \\. 

Contemplation, after G. Moriand 

Hard Bargain, The, after G. Morland 

Inside a Country Alediouse, after G. Jlorland .. 

Juvenile Navigators, after G. Morland 

Last Litter, The, after G. Morland ... 22q 

Morning and Evening, after R. Corbouid 

Outside a Country Alediouse, after J. Ward 

Poultry Market, A, after J. Ward 

Thomas Rounding on his favourite hunte 
" Spankaway," after A. Cooper 

Vegetable Market, A, after J. Ward 

Visit to the Child at Nurse, A, after G. Morland 

Visit to the Boarding School, A, after G. Morland 
Watson, J. 

Coventry, Barbara, Countess of, after Sir 

Letter Writer, after Metzu ... 
Watson, T. 

Jiamfylde, Lady Catherine 

Kennedy, Polly 

Balcony, The 

Little Nude, The 

Nocturne Salute 

San Giorgio 

Smithy, The 
Young, J. 

Little Volunteer, The, after K. M. Page ... 

N'ljung Sailors, The, after K. ^1. Page 










2 29 






Iai;havini;s and F.tchi\i;s — ci^nliniieil . 

]'"n (Jmiiibus 

Mona (the Artist's mother) ... 

Skeri Kulla 


Adam .Saliuwood Commode 

Show ( ahinet 


Boulle, Red, (I'omtnode of Three Drawers 



Walnut, Inlaiil, Seveulienlli Century 
Charles II. 

Armchair, \\'alnut 

Cabinet (coromandel wood) ... 

Cabinet, Lacc^uer 
( "hinese. 

Cabinet, Lacquer 

Chairs, Mahogany 

Chest, Black Lacrpier ... 

Screen, Black Lacquer 

Cabinet, Mahogany 


Carved Mahogany Oblong Table ... 

Chairs, Mahogan\-, l*air of ... 

Chairs (six) 

Chairs (three) 

Knee-hole Commodes, Mahogany, Pair 

Ladder-back Chairs, Mahogany (twehe) 



Mirrors, Pair (oblong) 

Side-table (oblong) 


Table, Mahogany 

Writing-table, Mahogany 

Clock, by Jacob Massy 

Clock (ony.v) 

Dutch Carved Ebony Cabinet 

Dutch Carved Mahogany Armoire 
Ebony (Old English) Chairs (set of seven 

F.lbow Chairs 

Bookcase, Mahogany (Old) ... 

Bracket Clock 

Cabinet, Laciiuer 

Cabinet (Old), Lacquer, f 
^L^hogany Stand ... 

T'hairs, Oueen Anne (three) ... 

Clo.k (()ld,), by Michael Shields ... 

( 'ommode 

Seiretaire, Mahogany 

Arm-chairs (four), and a .Sellee 


Cabinet, Tortoiseshell fronted 

Cabinet, Walnut (.Sixteenth Cenlurj ) 

Chaise Longue ... 

Commodes, Marqueterie, Pair 

and two 


.. 230 
.. 230 






I -231 









, 230 























I-'IRNITI'RF. — COIllhuicd. 
Georgian Maliogaiiy Secretaire Bookiase ... 

Georgian Side-tables (set of three) 

Grandfather Clock, by William Wriyht 
Grandfather Clock, Small-sized, by James Niiiill 

Arm-chairs, Mahogany (two) 

Bookcase, Mahogany 

Chairs, Carved Mahogany (eight) ... 

Chairs, Mahogany (set of eight) 

Chairs (set of twelve) ... 

Cliairs (six) 
Indo-Portuguese Cabinet 
Italian Walnut Martjiteterie W'ardrctbc 
lames II. Cli.iirs, Carved Wiilnnt ... 
Kent, Willi. im. Side-table 
Louis XI\'. lironze I'isnre of 
Louis X\'. 

Cabinet, Maniucterie 

Clock, by J. H. Haillon 


Secretaire, Mariinclrric- 

Table, Martiuelerie 
Louis XVI. 

Bureau, Kingwood M.Lnineterie 

Chair Frameworks (six) 

Fauteuils (live) 

Furniture, Suite of (settee and four fauleuils) 

\itrine of Kingwood ... 

Writing-table, Rosew-ood and Kingwooil ... 
Piano, Satinwood, by Kaps 
(.hicen .\nne. 


Bookcase, Walnut 

Cabinet ... 

Chairs (six) 

Chairs, Walnut, Set of 

Elbow-chair, W.dnut ... 

Escritoire, Walnut 

Hall Clock, by Chas. Grettan 


Tallboy, Walnut 

Winged Arm-chair 
Screen (twelve leaves) 
Secretaire, Amboj na 

Bookcase, Satinwood, Inlaid 

Cabinet, Mahogany 

Cabinet, Satinwood and Harewood 

Chairs, Mahogany, .Seven 

Commode, Mahogany 

Commode, Satinwooil 

Secretaire Bookcase 

.Side-tables, Pair 
Tapestry Furniture, Suite of Five pieces ... 
William and Mary. 

Secretaire, ilar<jueterie 



Candelabra, Old English 

Candelabra, Pair of 

Candelabra, Pair of Waterford Glass 

Glasses, Jacobite, Two ... 










, 4r. 















1 04 



Gl..\SE — continued. V \r,ic 

Goblet ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 231 

Monteith Punch Glasses ... ... ... ... ... 231 

Taper-stick ... ... ... ... ... ... 231 

Tea-bottle, Bristol ... ... ... ... ... 231 

Wine-glasses, Pair, with airtwist single-kuopped 

baluster stems ... ... ... ... ... 231 

Wine-glasses, with blue and \elIow twist stems ... 231 


Portrait of Mrs. Kigby 

Portrait of a Gentleman, by Cosway ... 

I'ortrait of a Lady, by Mrs. Mee 

Portrait of Frances, daughter of .Sir T. Rundiold, 
by G. Englehearl 

I'ortrait of Lord Rivers (the second), by Cosway ... 
Portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Peter Beckford 

PiCTLRES .\.N[) nRA\VlN(... 

\m, D. .\. C. A Piping Shepherd Bo.\ 

Baptiste. \"ases of Flowers ... 

Harenger, J. Partridge and Pheasant Shooting ... 

Beach, 'I'. Group, .\, rejiresenting Sir Joseph mid 

Lad>- Scnit with P.irson Wilder 

Beeche\ , Sir W. 

C.illies ]';arle 

Mrs. Earle 

Portrait of Anne, Countess of Newburgh ... 

Portrait of the Misses .\nn and .Vugusta Coventry 

William Earle ... 

Benson, J. The ( )lil Berkeley Hunt 

Berghem, Xidiolas. .Self Portrait ... 

Blaas, E. ile. A Tiff 


Knitting Lesson 

Lost Sabot 

Bonheur, Rosa. 

Morning in the Highlands ... 

Scottish Raid 

Boucher, F. (Jverdoors, Set of Four, representing 

Brangwyn, F. A Shij) entering Port 
Brekelenkam, O. .\n IiUerior of an .Vparlnient ... 
Burne-Jones, Sir \~.. 


David instructing Solomon about the Building of 
the Temple 

Garden of I'an, The 

Fall of Lucifer, The 


Romance of the Rose, The ... 

Venus Discordia 
C.tmeron, Hugh. 

Bathers, The 

Catalan School, Early. Set of Four Panels : Legend 
of St. Ursula, Madonna and Child Enthroned, 
St. Michael and the Dragon, The Birth of 

St. John ... 

Cole, George. 

Changing Pastures 

Felling Timber 

Highland River .Scene, :\ 
Ccmstable, J. 

Dedham Vale ... 

Lock on tlie .Stour 



















1 68 






with I'igiires and Cows 

.Mur.v Ra.lilille, wife 


Cooper, T. S. Hamblediiwn ... 

Coques, (ionzales^ First Karl of ( arinrvoii ami 
faniil}' and friends at a repast in .1 diniiiK 


Ciinit, J. V,. C. 


Cotes, F. 

Portrait of Rt. Hon. Lad 
of Francis Eyre ... 

Portraits of Ladies 
Courbet. Winter 
Cuyp. A Hilly Landscape 
Dance, N. Mrs. \'ere ... 
Daubigny, C. F. A River Scene 

Dawson, H. Dn the Ribble 

Debucourt. A Wedding Party 

Devis, A. W. Admiral Sir George Cockbarn 

De Wint, P. 

A Rainy Day near Lincoln ... 


The Hayfield 

View of Bra>' ... 
Dobson. Portrait of a (Gentleman wearing black 

dress with lawn collar ... 
Drouais, F. H. Girl holding a Kitten, A 
Dubbels, H. Mouth of a River, The, with sailin 

Diibuffe, C. iL The De Mauny Family 
Du Pont, Gainsborough. .Self Portrait 
Durer. TJie Man of .Sorrows ... 
Early English. Portrait of John Flaxman, R.A 
Fielding, Cople\-. 


Bay Scene with floats : Sunset, A ... 

Hilly River Scene, with an Angler, A 

Isle of Wight 

Loch Katrine 

Loch Lomond ... 

Near Littlehampton 

On the Beach at Folkestone ... 

On the Downs ... 

A Iripty 


Flemish School 
Foster, Birket. 


At tlie Stile 

Cottage Tea Party, A 

Feeding Ducks 

Fisherman's Return, The 

Ford, The 

Melrose ... 

On the Thames at Ctreenwirh : Smiset 

Relic of the Past, A 

Turnberry Castle, Ax'rsliire ... 

Voung Anglers ... 

Voung Gleaners at a Stile ... 
French School. 

Flora, Portrait of a Lady in a white dres 

Lad\ and three Gentlemen holding 
instruments in a forest glade ... 

Two Children with a Negro Page in tlie garden 
of a Palace 











1 68 
1 68 





PiCTlkKS .4Mi Dr\\vinc;s — ciilinurd. 
f Tainsborouf.,di, T. 

David Hume, |;m|. 

Portrait of Mrs. Marv !•;. W alsim 

Portrait of Robert .Atanners, Fourth Duke 
Rutland ... 

'I'hree l*easant Children seated on a fence ... 
Geddes, A. Sir D.ivid Wilkie, R.A. 
German School. 

Christ Triumphing over Sin and Death 

Lady as the Magdalen ... 
Goya, F. 

Don Qui-xote, in green dress ... 

Gentleman, A 
Cireuze, J. B. 

La Laitiere 

La Poupee 

Love Letter, The 

Portrait of a Girl in blue dress 
Guardi, F. 

II Bucentoro : the Marriage of the Ailriatic 

Piazza of St. Mark's, The 

Procession of Triumphal Cars in the Piazza 
St. Mark's, \'enice 
Haghe, Louis. The Interior of Nfilan Cathedral 
Hals, F. Head of a Cavalier ... 
Harpignies. Landscape 
Herring, J. F. Portrait of '' Caravan," Winner 

the Ascot Cup, i8jg 
Hervier, A. Road tii the \'illage ... 
Hoare, Prince. 

John, Third Duke of Rutland 

Portrait of T. E. Freeman, Junior ... 
Ilondecoeter, M. 

Domestic Poultry 

Peacock and Poultry ... 
Hooghe, P. lie. Tavern Interior 
Hoppner, J . 

Portrait of Charles, First Viscount of Canterbur\' 

Portrait of Mrs. Wright, of Lenton Hall ... 
Hudson, ']'. Portrait, \\"alter Edwards J'reeman ... 
Isabey, Louis. Cathedral Interior 
Jactpie, C. E. lending the Flock 
Jonghe, L. de. Tavern Interior, A ... 
Jordaens, J. Portrait of a Gentleman in grey dress 

with furJined cloak and hat ... 
Kneller. Portrait of Mary, onh daughter of Kt, 

Hon. Richard Freeman ... 
Koninck, P. Wood\" Landsc.ipe 
Lawrence, Sir T. 

Fagge, Lad\" Georgina 

Fagge, Sir John, Bart. 

Portrait of C. Wakeheld. Es(|., of Vork 

Legros, A. Cn Prcche ... 
Lewis, J. F. 

Bezestein Bazaar of ICI Kh.iu Khalil, Ciiro 

Frank Encampment in the Desert, A 

Street in Cairo ... 


Boys Bathing 

Flotsam and Jetsam ... 

Voung Bait Gatherers ... 



1 68 





1 68 


1 68 

I "5 








1 68 


Pictures and Drawings — continued. 

Maes, N. An Old Lady Asleep 

Marlow, W. View of Whiteliall at tin- Horse (".uanls 
Mauve, A. A rommoii Scene ... 
Meissoiiier. .\ Ilassar on Horseback 

I'iRiircs seated nnnid a table in a cinirlxanl 

■J'lie Prodigal feasting 

Meyer, H. de ... 

Moore, Albert. Sisters ... 
Moore, H. Summer Evening in the Channel 
Jloreelse. Portrait of a Cavalier 
Morland, G. 

Tyipsies' Camp, The 

\"iew in tlie Isle uf Wiglit, .\ 
Mytens. Cornelius Corfellis, the St.indard-bearcr... 
Nasmyth, A. 

Farm Pool, ,\ ... 

Portrait of William, Seventh l.nnl Hi-llla\cn 

View near Dorking, Surrey, A 

Woody Lane, near a Farm, A 
Xicol, F,rskine. Irish Stew 

( )clitervcldl. \ niing Man seated at a tabic, writing 
Upie, J. 

Portrait of Mrs. Thomas Kelt 

Portraits of Anna Maria and Juliana Kcll 

Orchardson, Sir W. CI. A Tender Chord 

(Jrpen, Sir William, A.K.A. The Artist 

Ostade, Isaac \"an. .An Interior of a Barn ... 

Owen, W. Mrs. lIe.itlicote 

Pater, J. B. Pair of Camp Scenes ... 
Patinir, J. St. John Preaching in the Wilderness... 
Perugino. SS. Jerome, Mark, and Gerardus Gredus 
Phillips, T. Family groujD on terrace of \"ernons, 

Edwards, and Freemans 
Pine, R. E. Portrait of a Gentleman 
Pontormo, School of. \'iew in Florence 
Pope, A. Portraits of Ladies 
Pordenone. Gentleman, his Wife, and Six (,'hildren 

presented to the Holy Family ... 
I'rout, S. 

Interior of St. P. mi's, Caen, The ... 

^'iew in an Old Town ... 
Pyne, J. B. Do\cdale, Derbyshire ... 
Kaeburn, Sir H. 

CTiildren teasing a ("at 

Cleghorn, Dr. ... 

Cleghorn, Miss 

Earl of Hyndford, The 

Portrait of Miss Charlotte Monro ... 

Thomas Miller, of Edinburgh 
Ramsa>', A. I^lizabeth and Rebecia, daughters ol 
Robert Dinwiddle, of ^'i^ginia 

Raphael. Head of the .\rtist 


Father ol Rembr.indl, The ... 

Portrait of the -\rtist 

Portrait of a Wom.m in brftwn dress 

Woman seate<l at a \\ indow ... 
Reynolds, .Sir Joshua. 

Captain George, Lord Ivlgcumbc ... 

Portrait of Mary, Wile of T. E. Freeman, Jinir. 

Portrait ol Mis. Se.ifortli and Child 

I'orir.iil of the Duke o( Albcm.uic 






















I Do 



1 (^() 

PlCTiKts AMI I)K\\VI.\'(;s — conluiiicd. 
Robinson, C. The Faithful at Pra.\er 
Komney, G. Mrs. Freeman 
Russell, J. Portraits of Two Lailies ... 

Sa<ller, Ijendy W. Corked 

Sargent, J. S. Portrait of Senora l-'.leanor Duse ... 
Sartorius, F. 

Death, The 

Returning frtnn the Hunt 
Schall, J. 

Ladies and Dancer in C.ardens 

Rural Employment 
Segher. View of a Town on ,i River ... 
Shayer, W. 

Fisher-folk on the Beach 

Harvest Time 
Snayers. Interior of a Larder with dead g.ime and 

Slark, J. 

Near 1 horpe I oniiiion 

Scene in Windsor Forest 

Woodland Scene, .\ ... 
.Steen, Jan. The Rat-cati her ... 
Stork, A. Departure of Prince William of Orange 

from Amsterdam ... 
Stott, Edward, A.R.A. Harvester's Return 
Syer, J. Near r_\ nen.oiiili 
Terburg, G. 

Interior of a Guard-room 

Interior, with a Cavalier and Lad\ b> a table ... 
Thornburn, -\. P.irtridges 
Titian. A Landscipe, with two kneeling figures 111 

lurner, J. M. W. 


Canal Scene, A 

Garden, The 

Hythe, Kent 

Langharne Castle 

Lucerne from the Walls 

Meet of the Greta and the Tees, The 

New Abbey, Dumfries 

.Shakespeare's Tomb 


St. Gothard 

\'alley of St. Gothard, The 

Views at Godesburg on the Lower Rhine ... 

Wood Walk at Farnley Hall 

\'an Aelst, \\'. Flowers and Fruit ... 

\"an de ^■elde, W. Men, Boats, and f igiires 

on the I->ntcli Coast 
\"an den Eeckhout, G, Interior ol a Guard Room, 


Van Heist, B. 

Portrait of a Cavalier 

Portrait of a Gentleman, in black dress ... 
\ .111 Dyck, Philip. 

Portrait ol John ( '.icliiossin ... 
Portrait of the Countess of Xor'tliuiubcrland 
\au Goyen, J. 

Arnheim, A L'istant \"iew of ... 

Beach, Sclieveuingen, The ... 

( omnion Scene, .\ 
\'jn Haarlem, Coinelliis. Portrait ol St. I lon.iti.uii 
of Bruges 















1 68 
2 2g 





Van Loo, Carle. 

Hunting Party at a Repast, A 

Portrait of tlie Duchess of Richmond 
\'an Mieris, W. An Arched Window, with a man 

and a basket of fish 
Van I-vuysdael, J. Landscape witli Sheep ... 
Vestier, Antoine. Portrait of a Lady in brown dress 
Veyrassat, J. Horse Fair, The 
Vries, A. de. Portrait of a Gentleman 
Walcot, J. Head of Miss Bloxham ... 
Watson, G. Portrait of Lady Keith ... 
Watteau. Queen Henrietta Maria and Child 
Weenix, J. A Stilldife subject of dead game, with 

fruit and sculptured vase in garden ... 
Weyden, Roger Win der. The Madonna and ('hill 
^Vinlperis, E. ^f. 

Changing I'astures, Mill Lane, Yorkshire ... 

Fittleworth Common ... 

^Vorsley Dale 
Wouvermans. Hawking Part>' before a Mansion.., 
Wright, J., A.R.A. 
■ Wright, Dr. Richard 

Wright, Mrs. Richard 


Aslbury Teapot and Cover 

Battersea Enamel Candlesticks (two sets of four) ... 

Blanc-de-chine seated figure, "JIaitrcya Buildha 


l-'igures, I^air of, Summer and AiUinnn ... 

Plates, Three 
Bnen l^etiro Ch(uiilate I'ot 
Celadon Circular Dish ... 

Figures : Hercules and Omphale ... 

I'igurcs : Hercules an<l the H\'flra ... 

Figures (set of ten) 

Apollo and tlie Muses, by 
Tree ... 

Figure of an <)wl < 

Groups, Pair of 

Seated Cupid 

Sweetmeat Stand, I'riple Shell 

l''igure of a Lad\- 

Pheasants on tree trunks, P.iir of ... 

Porcelain Figures of Hawks, Pair of 
Crackle l*"igure. Kwannon 
Derby Figures of Shejiherd and Shepherdess 

Figure uf a Ja>' ... 

Egg-shell Lanterns, Pair of 
f''amille-\erte Bowl 

Autumn ... 

Cat, Salt-glaze 

" John Coan, English Dw.irf 

1-^ady and Gentleman ... 

.Shepherd and Shepherdess ... 
Fulda Figure of Man dancing ... 

Beaker, Famille-verte 

Bottles, Powdered-blue 

Dish, Circular ... 





1 68 











I 70 


I'"igures of Chinese Lady and Gentleman, I'air of 105 



Kang-He — continued. 

I'igure of Kwan-Vin ... 
Figures of Men, Pair of 
Lantern, Oviform Egg-shell ... 

Vase and Cover, Oviform Cylindrical Pov 
blue ... 

Vases, Cylindrical Powdered-blue ... 

Bowl, Famille-rose 

Jars and Covers, Mandarin ... 

Service, Famille-rose, Part of 

Tea Service, with Arms of Rigb>", Essex .. 

\'ase, Famille-rose 
f^ongton Hall ^'ase and (/over ... 
Mcnecj' Cylindrical Jar ... 

Bottles, Famille-verte (two) ... 

^'ases and Covers, ITve-colour 

^^'ine-ewer, Cylintlrical 
Jfone\'-box, formed as a Dog ... 


l)inner Service ... 

l!)ishes (six) 

\"ases and Covers, Pair of 

Plate, by Billiugsley 


Plates (two) 

Sugar-tureens, Covers and Stauils ... 
Pear-shaped Bottles, Pair uf ... 
Salt-glaze Teapots (two) ... 
St. Cloud. 


Teapoy and Co\er 
Scent-case ... 
Swansea Plate 

Toby Jug and Cover, by Ralph ^^'ood 
Wedgwood Plaques 

Figure of a Girl 

Figure of a Man 




Dessert Service 


Dishes, Pair of ... 

Mugs, Shaped, Pair of 

Plates, Old, Two l^airs of ... 

Tea Service, Old 

Vase, Oviform 

Vases, Oviform (three) 


Beaker, Embossed 
Beaker, A (Norwich) 
Bowl, Miniature ... 
Bowl, by Thos. Maundy 
Bread-basket, Oval, by J. Jacobs 
Cake-basket, George II. 
Candlesticks, Early Georgian ... 
Candlesticks, Queen Anne 









I "5 











Sii-\ EK — coyttinued. 

Casket, Plain, Oval io3 

Chalice and Paten 23i 

Chalice and Paten, Plain 103 

Claret Jug, George III 231 

" Clog an Oir " Bell, Tenth Century 45 

ColTee Pot, Dublin 231 

Cream Jug, Plain io3 

Cup, Octagonal, by Ihwid King 231 

Cups, Pair of, Gilt i/o 

Dinner Service, by Eliza Godfrey, Jno. le Sage, Ben 

Godfrey 231 

Goblet 231 

Goblet, Plain 231 

Goblet, Sihcr-gilt 231 

Goblet, Small I03 

Inkstand 170 

Jug, Tiger-ware, Elizabethan 103 

Jug, Plain, with Dome Cover, b\ D. Sleaiuaker ... 103 

MntBneer, George III 231 

Muffineers, George 1 231 

Mustaru-pot, Oval Pierced 103 

Necklet 231 

Paten, Dublin 231 

Pearls, Necklace of S5 ... ... ... ... ■■• 231 

Pearls, Rope of 151 ... ... •■• ••• ■■■ 231 

I'en-tray, George III 231 

Porringer, by I'Mvvard Kicliaids ... ... ... 103 

Porringer, Cliarles II 231 

Potato-ring, Irish, by Stephen WaKli 103 

Punch-bowl, A, by Win. I-awdery 103 

Rosewater Ewer and Dish, Silvcr-gih 103 

Salt-cellar, Silver-gilt Hell 103 

Salt-cellars, Eour Circular, by John le S.ige ... 103 

Salver, Circular, by Paul Lamerie 231 

Sauce-boats, A Pair of, by I.ouis Pantiu 103 

Sauce-boats, Plain, George II 231 

Sauce-tureens, Pair of, Georgian ii>3 

Sconces, Pair of, by John Stockar 231 

Silver — continued. 

Silver Medal 231 

Spoons, Apostle (two) ... ... ... ... ... 231 

Steeple Cup and Cover ... ... ... ... ... 103 

Sweetmeat Dish, by \V. Maunday 231 

Table-candlesticks (lour), by Paul Lamerie 103 

Table-candlesticks, Pair of 103 

Table-candlesticks, Silver-gih, by Pent S\ni(inds ... 103 

Tankard, Queen Anne ... ... ... ... ... 103 

Taper-stick, George III. 231 

Tazza, A 103 

Tazze, Pair of, French, Silver-gilt 100 

Tazze, Octagonal, Pair of ... ... ... ... 231 

Tea-kettle, A, by Pczc Pilleau 103 

Tray, Two-handled ... ... ... ... ■-• 103 

Trays, Pair of 103 

Tumbler Cup, by Riclianl Richardson 103 

Tumbler Cups ... ... ... ... ... ... 103 

Waiter, A Plain Si|uare, by John Tuite 103 

Waiter, George 111 231 

Wait-Ts, A Pair of, li> P. ml Lamerie 103 

\\'ine-cistern. OvliI ... ... ... ■•• .-• 103 

Englisli, Seventeenth 


Bed-cover, Pink \"elvet. 

Century 104 

l!c<lspread. Linen ... ... ... ... ... 104 

Carpet (Eighteenth Cenlnry) ... ... . . ... 231 

I''lemisli Tapestry (Sixteenth t'enturj), P.mcl \\(i\cn 47 

Panel, Elizabethan ... ... •■■ ... •.• i<'4 

Panel, Louis XIV. ... ... ... ... ... i"4 

I'.iuel, I'lyssps on bii.inl ship ... ... ... ... 104 

Panels, Old Spanish, Pair of 104 

Persian t/arpct ... ... ... ... ... ... 231 

Persian Silk Carpets, I'hree 104 

Piiture, A Savonerie 104 

Silk Danaask, Erencli, Eighteenth Century 104 

Silk Panels, Italian, Set ot Eour, from the Durazzo 

Palace, Genoa ... ... ... ... ... 104 

\elvet, .Antique Panels, Crimsun 104 

s Roses 




May, 1919. 


Antique Furniture bearing Dates 

By Fred Roe, R.I. 

Dates on furniture are always attractive. Fre- 
quently they tend to enhance to a considerable extent the 
value of the article on which they appear. Hence many 
forgeries abound. Spurious dates are often added to 
genuine plain pieces for this very purpose with unblush- 
ing efi'rontery, and, what is worse, such spurious dates 
are also supplied to furniture which is veritably adorned 
with some distinctive style of pattern, the age of which 
is approximately certain. " Good wine needs no bush,'' 
and the last-named vandalism is peculiarly detestable in 
its wantonness. .'Vn equally baneful prank is that of the 
amateur collector who affixes a legend to some genuine 
antique for what is termed " L'amour de la fumisterie, "or 
the mere love of playing off a mischievous practical joke. 
Such senseless barbarities are not altogether unknown. 
It would be a matter of extreme difficulty to classify the 

dated furniture in this country. To enumerate -even a 
tithe of the army of examples remaining would be well- 
nigh impossible. Private collections containing accredited 
specimens are constantly changing hands, through death 
or other causes, and the stationary objects which remain 
in situ are mainly those housed in churches or museums 
— practically the only ones which can be inspected and 
compared with any certainty. 

\'eritable dates on furniture prior to the end of the six- 
teenth century are exceedingly rare. Therefore what may 
be considered as an early dated piece would hardly be a 
very early production in the generally accepted sense of 
the term. I have known an over-zealous collector who 
found himself wandering into the private recesses of a 
faker's establishment, only to discover a deaf craftsman 
putting the finishing touches to a fifteenth-century date 




Vol. LI v. — No. 213 

TJie Connoisseur 

on a Jacobean structure ! But that is another tale, and 
does not come within the scope of the present article. 

Instances are not wanting of domestic coffers and chests 
bearing two or more distinct ancient dates and sets of 
initials, the article in question presumably having been 
handed down to succeeding members of the family on 
their respective marriages, and duly inscribed. This 
custom would appear to have obtained more particularly 
in such remote parts as the wilds of Westmoreland and 
Cumberland, where interpenetration was difficult and 
continuity of home life remained unvaried. 

The method of recording dates by incising numerals on 
the surface of the wood was not the only one resorted 
to. During the seventeenth century receptacles were fre- 
quently dated by studding nails in shape of the required 
digits. A third method was by having the numerals 
wrought in hammered iron upon the lock-plate. The 
last-named mode was, however, more frequently re- 
sorted to in Germany and the Austrian Tyrol than in 
other countries. 

Yet two other ways of attaching dates to furniture may 
be noticed. Firstly, that of including the year of produc- 
tion in worked or embroidered upholstery on the seats and 
backs of chairs. For fairiy obvious reasons this method 
is less likely to be accepted as such conclusive evidence 
as to the actual period of the structure it is placed upon. 
Painted dates are more often than not unreliable wit- 
nesses, the admittedly genuine inscription, including the 
date 1588, on Thomas Eldred's overmantel at Ipswich, 
being manifestly added some little time after the panel- 
ling was set up ; while such apocryphal augmentations as 
the 1463 which appears nowadays on that splendid relic, 
the Great Bed of Ware, need not be taken seriously. 

Probably the best example of an early renaissance date 
carved on an English coffer is that in Shanklin church, 
Isle of Wight (No. i.). This beautiful specimen of the 
woodcarver's art is sculptured on its front with the initials 
T. S. , formed out of elaborate scroll-work accompanied by 
the "Tudor flower " ornament, which was so typical of our 
last two Henrys' reigns. Underneath the lock appears the 
arms of the See of Winchester, of which Thomas Silksted, 
once owner of the coffer, was Prior from 1498 till his death 
in 1524. Round the edge of the front is a band bear- 
ing the inscription, noMiNUS thomas silksted prior 
ANNO DNI 1 519. It may be mentioned that the Lady 
Chapel at Winchester Cathedral was completed by Silk- 
sted after having been commenced by Prior Hunton, his 
predecessor. This was the expiring effort of Winchester's 
architectural glories on the eve of the Reformation. It 
is seldom, indeed, that the origin of a movable piece of 
furniture is so cleariy indicated by its carved embellish- 
ment as in the case of this magnificent relic. The illus- 
tration which we gi\e is from a drawing by that faithful 
artist, Wm. Twopenny, reproduced in Shaw's Spedmens 
of Ancient Furniture. Since 1836, when this work was 
published, Silksted's coffer has suffered somewhat, but it 
remains at this day one of the most characteristic examples 
of the medieval craftsman's art to be found anywhere. 

.\ curious alms-box may be seen in Dover court 
church, Essex, which, though a rougher and more clumsy 

production than the fine Shanklin coffer, yet possesses 
considerable interest (No. ii.). Fashioned out of a pon- 
derous lump of oak, security is in this case further assured 
by a binding of plain iron straps, as well as by two strong 
locks. The alms-box is carved in bold numerals, 1589— 
the year following the dispersal of the Spanish Armada, 
when generosity towards Protestant poor was harshly 
discounted by fines and penalties imposed upon recusants 
and Papists. A number of these inscribed alms-boxes exist 
throughout the kingdom, one of the eariiest being that 
in Bramford church, Suflblk, which is dated 1591. 

Turning aside from alms-boxes, we may notice that 
the parish church of Oundle, Northants, contains a weird 
curiosity which has never yet been satisfactorily explained. 
This enigma, for it is little else, is a large oak chair, 
fashioned on rude semi-Gothic lines, and bearing the fol- 

A.D. 1576. 

It is only necessary to compare this singular anomaly 
with the accepted example, dated 1560, which remains 
in Epworth church. Lines., to be at once convinced that 
the Oundle chair is one of those comparatively^ recent 
throw-backs which were once the pride of their self- 
sufficient makers, and are now the despair of all thoughtful 
students of established styles. 

A good deal of attraction was recently centred on the 
sale of a high-backed armchair of fine proportions at 
Cote House, Bristol (No. viii.). This was a more than 
usually elaborate specimen of the type prevailing during 
the latter part of the seventeenth century, and altogether 
possessed some remarkable features. The scroll legs 
were pierced in places, demonstrating a high quality of 
workmanship, and the back was surmounted by a shield, 
while the initials W.W. were carved on a plaque in 
centre of the front stretcher. The inflected arm-rests 
were unusually fine in their lines. This ornate and choice 
piece, which was dated 1699, was brought to light by the 
energies of Mr. George Nichols, who has been at pains 
to elucidate its history. 

Chests and cupboards were perhaps more frequently 
dated than chairs, while the custom of inscribing the year 
of origin on tables seems to have been carried out even 
more frequently. Our parish churches in rural districts 
comain innumerable instances of post-Reformation tables 
bearing sixteenth and seventeenth-century incised dates, 
the numerals being mostly distributed in two halves, 
placed respectively on the upper portions of the uprights, 
and separated by the stretcher on that face of the table 
which would be turned towards the congregation. Excep- 
tions, however, occur to this rule, for a few examples 
may be found on which the date is placed upon the 
stretchers. An instance of this arrangement may be seen 
at Cressing church, Essex, where in the vestry is an oak 
table bearing on its upper stretchers a somewhat late form 
of strapwork, while the lower stretchers are carved on 
their upper surface with the following attribute :— 




AUOM 1663. 

Antique Furniture bearing Dates 

The Car- 
p e n t e ]■ s ' 
Com pany 
an octagon- 
al table, 
dated 1606, 
and inscri- 
bed with 
the initials 
of the Mas- 
t e r and 
Wardens of 
the C o m- 
year, it be- 
ing doubt- 
less pre- 
sented by 
them in 
ra t ion of 
their term 
of office. 
This relic 
is of fine 
design and 
tions, the 
groove d 
legs sup- 
semi- circu- 
lar arches, 
in the span- 
d r i 1 s of 
which t h e 
initials oc- 
curin relief. 
The old 
ters' Hall 
escaped the 
Great Fire 
of London, 
to which 
fact we 
owe the 

survival of their table with a history. The more massive 
dining-table made for the hall of Whitgift's Hospital, 
Croydon, in 1614, also bears the date of its inauguration. 
The miprudence of accepting hasty and ill-digested 
theories as to dates may be well instanced by certain 
controversies which have arisen from time to time con- 
cerning ecclesiastical and municipal coffers which bear 



D.-\TED I5S9 


their num- 
erals in the 
In the re- 
mote and 
church at 
hoe, Essex, 
is a barrel- 
lidded cof- 
fe r of the 
type (No. 
iii. ), its 
body and 
lid being 
ed out of 
eno rmous 
baulks of 
oak. This 
coffer, from 
certain in- 
dications in 
its iron fit- 
seem to be- 
long to the 
early part 
of the six- 
teenth cen- 
tury, but on 
its lid, stud- 
ded in large 
nails, ap- 
pears the 
date — 

The theory 
has been 
t h at the 
coffer is an 
early one, 
possibly of 
fifteen tl 

century date, or even earlier, and that the incongruity of 
the numerals arises from their having been added at a 
subsequent period. Although excavated coffbrs are known 
to have been made in the early part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, I have yet to learn that this custom continued till so 
late a time as the date in question. The ironwork is rude, 
five bands crossing the lid, three of which are hinged at 

The Connoisseur 

the back, while two straps with bifoliated terminations are 
attached horizontally round each end of the body. Two 
rings are also placed on front of the massive lid for lifting- 
purposes. This ponderous relic now stands on a joined 
platform of late seventeenth-century workmanship, which 
apparently was once used in place of trestles for the 
support of coffins at interments. The latter piece has 
some affinity to the supporting tray of a late cupboard or 
press. At all events the framed and bracketed way in 
which it is constructed anything but corresponds with 
the ruder and more substantial receptacle deposited upon 
it. .\ hiatus in the figure 6 might well turn it into a 
characteristic b,* but it is more probable that the studded 
date in its entirety was added when the coffer — a wait 
from some ruined priory — was presented to the church at 
a time approximately corresponding with the advent of 
the stand. On the other hand, there is no denying that 
coffers of a very similar nature occur in many parts of 
the country which exhibit the same peculiarity of quasi- 
discordant dates. The " Cyfor Eilian," at present in the 
parish church of St. Eilian, Llancilian, Isle of Anglesea, 
presents on a smaller scale many of the features of the 
Fingringhoe coffer, while the studded decoration on its 

convincing answer to the foregoing enigma has yet to be 
arrived at. 

A very beautiful example of the court cupboard of the 
time of James I. is that which was acquired within recent 
years by the authorities of the \'ictoria and Albert 
Museum, and is now numbered W. 32 in the section 
devoted to woodwork. It is of oak, carved and inlaid 
with various other woods, having on its centre panel 
underneath the canopy the initials „*„, while the small 
doors to right and left of this panel are inlaid with the 
inscription ANNO 1610. No locks are visible on the 
upper tier, but on each side of the central panel is a 
heavily moulded pilaster, the upper part of which can be 
raised, thus disclosing the keyholes to the adjacent doors. 
This device is a rare variation of the Dutch method of 
concealing the keyholes of their cabinets by shifting 
pilasters. The inlay on this valuable and interesting 
piece is in the shape of geometrical patterns, while its 
frieze is carved with elaborate jewel moulding. 

The last-mentioned piece is distinctly English in all its 
characteristics, and could not well be mistaken for a 
production of any other country : but the very splendid 
secretaire next under consideration is, apart from its 


DATED 1684 


lid embodies the indisputable date 1667. A completely 

* Note. — See date on panelling in the parish church, 
Great Yarmouth. (No. vi.) 

stand, an outcome of Italy. \'arious conjectures have 
been made as to the reasons why so many Italian secre- 
taires and nests of drawers should be provided with sub- 
structures of obviouslv English make, and of a material 

Antique Furnifiire bearing Date. 


t; . 


f ' fclS 





entirely dififerent from the receptacles themselves. The 
real solution of the problem is probably this : these pro- 
ducts of Italy were in their own country mostly placed on 
tables, a mode which, for some reason or other, may not 
have suited English taste or convenience. Anyhow, this 
recognised class of import, shipped across in quantities, 
was often on arrival in our own country fitted with a stand 
or tray constructed of English oak instead of walnut or 


camphor wood, and designed in the style of the English 
contemporary of the Italian Renaissance. During recent 
times many people possessed of a smattering knowledge 
of styles have ignorantly separated the respective pieces 
under the impression that they " do not belong," A little 
knowledge is proverbially dangerous, and in this case has 
not unfrequently ended in permanently divorcing pieces for 
which one at least was primarily intended for the other. 

The Connoisseur 

The secretaire shown in our illustration is of camphor 
or cypress wood, incised with "chip" carving, and bear- 
ing in two places the date i 594. A curious feature is the 

sumptuous object is of English oak, carved in a typically 
national manner. It was evidently made specially for 
the secretaire, and is of approximately the same date. 


DATED 1594 

inscription, which runs in a band round three sides of the 
front, no attempt being made at punctuation : — 


At first sight the legend appears to consist of a chaotic 
collection of letters, the true order of which becomes 
apparent upon careful study. 

It will be noticed that the sign of abbreviation over the 
V should have been over the ME, the T of the ET being 
omitted, and also that the craftsman was so casual in 
setting out his lettering that he found it necessary to 
enclose an I and an \ within two other letters at the 
end of the inscription. The ME at the end has been 
partly obliterated. The stand which forms part of this 

Contrast between the Italian and English workmanship 
is noticeable, yet on the whole the effect is wonderfully 

.\mong the many plain specimens of dated muniment 
chests which e.xist in parish churches throughout the 
country, that at Blundeston (famed as the original 
of Blunderstone in Dai'id Copperfield) may be singled 
out for one or two unusual features. The chest is a 
panelled box of no great artistic merit, scored with a crude 
pattern suggesting late seventeenth-century work. On 
opening the lid, however, the veritable date 1640 is dis- 
covered, accompanied by the initials of two people, pre- 
sumably those of the churchwardens at that time. The 
fact that the inscription is carved inside the lid, and that 
it apparently antedates the type of chest itself, makes the 

Antique Fiumiturc bearing Dates 


piece worthy of notice. Most authorities would '" place " 
it considerably later in the seventeenth century, while it 
hardly seems feasible _ 

that the lid has been 
reaved from some ear- 
lier box. 

A very instructive 
though rather perplex- 
ing object to study is 
the debatable cofler 
of elm in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum, 
No. W. 30—1913. 
This piece is sculp- 
tured on its front with 
a design of gryphons 
and scroll-work so 
typically Tyrolean in character that few would hesitate 
to assign it any other source, were it not discounted by 
the following confusing inscription, which runs round three 
sides at its base : — 

16 . THIS . CHEST . WAS : MAD : IN : THE : VEARE . 
OF . OUR • 39 


The initials I.C also appear in smaller characters in 
the centre of the facade. Now here is an article exhibit- 
ing distinguishing traits which admit of no doubt, the 
flat-surfaced carving, with its sunken portions coloured 
red and black, and the design, generally pointing to 
Tyrolese origin, which the lettered attribute would seem 


No. VI.- 


to deny. I do not think the riddle is a difficult one to 
solve. It is probable that James Griffin was an immi- 
grant cofferer long 
resident i n England ; 
that the box was made 
here for his own 
family use in the style 
which he had been 
familiar with in early 
years, and that the 
material used (elm) 
must have been selec- 
ted by him as being 
more akin to the con- 
sistency of Alpine fir 
than our own iron- 
grained oak. It is also 
remotely possible that the gryphons were intended as a 
rebus on his own name, though the device was admittedly 
rn ordinary one. 

The custom of inscribing dates on bedsteads in the 
days of Elizabeth and the Stuarts was general in order 
to record the advent into domestic life of these sumptuous 
canopied articles. The oriel-lighted apartments of the 
age, with their vast expanse of glass, were exposed to 
draughts and wanting in the privacy of the earlier styles. 
Hence arose those curtained and canopied bedsteads 
which were intended to serve as a room within a room, 
and which were proudly handed down as precious pos- 
sessions by our forefathers. Cradles were also frequently 
embellished, not only with the^year in which 'they were 




The Connoisseur 

constructed, but also with the complete date of the arrival 
of the little stranger for whom they were intended. Some 
good examples of the latter type may be seen in the 
museum at South Kensington. 

Strange things sometimes occur in connection with 

of the most elaborate has, indeed, been " revived " with 
so many imprudent anachronisms that its translation to 
that refuge for disputable antiques, the Bethnal Green 
Museum, was decided on some time ago. 

A word in conclusion as to spurious dates. It is a 

No. VIII. — .\kmlhaik 

ancient furniture. A cradle was offered for sale a few 
years ago which not only bore the initials W. S. , but 
was actually dated 1564, the year of the Bard of Avon's 
nativity. The strap-carving on the panels, however, was 
of a design approximating with the first half of the 
seventeenth century. This relic, with its circumstantial 
legend, which had been hailed by a certain section of the 
press as " Will's First Bed," was knocked down for the 
indicative price of ^12. 

The \'ictoria and Albert Museum possesses several 
examples of dated bedsteads, but it is feared that some 
of these have not escaped the hand of the restorer. One 

DAlLlJ 10y9 

significant hint of modern origin when antiques of a 
certain class become more plentiful instead of becoming 
scarcer, and equally so when unreasonable numbers of 
the same order crop up in or about the same locality. 
Personally, I look upon the fabrication of dates on 
genuine antiques as something akin to destruction, and, 
as Juvenal has it, "if 1 said all 1 could wish to say 
about the wanton destruction of antiques, the written 
matter would flow down the page and over the margin 

[Nos. ii., iii., and vi. are from drawings by the 




A BooR of Printed Cottons Part II.*— How Cottons were 

Printed in the Eighteenth Century By Maclver Percival 

from a Hindu word "chint" — variegated or coloured, 

Our great-great-grandmothers took the deep- 
est interest in their "caUicoes," both for gowns and 
furniture. The fineness of the fabric, the brilHancy 
and fastness of the colours, the " elegancy " of the de- 
signs, were matters that concerned them deeply. Of 
course, if the real Indian painted " chints " could be 
obtained, their highest ambitions were realised ; but, 
if not, English drapers had a large selection of home 
printed goods to offer them. 

Roughly speaking, there were three ways in which 
these were carried out — by means of rotating cylinders, 
a method which was introduced somewhere between 
1 780 and 1790 ; by printing from copperplates (usually 
rather pictorial designs in self colour), a method which 
came into use in the middle of the eighteenth century; 
and the oldest 
method of all, 
that of printing 
from wood 
blocks carved 
with the requir- 
ed pat tern in 
relief, with the 
assistance of 
hand -work for 
some of the 
fillings. These 
last often show 
several print- 
ings compris- 
ing numerous 
tints in two or 
three shades of 
each. To 
these the name 
of "chintz" is 
most properly 
applied, since 
i t is derived 


Jacoi (dico-nvc liuina atij tJi^lxnohnc Gaiuco 

nxntcr in J'iounmitck ^Prints oLlsc 
baCucocT ^(inc.hvj: oiil^cs c)(tiT&G^-o| 
ricTcorOuCcL at [A^axonabte !jlodrs 

and has nothing to do with the shininess of the surface. 
(By the way, " calendering " was, in the old days, one of 
the processes in preparation for printing, not, as now, 
a finishing touch, and in many cases no stiffening was 
applied. The smoothness was obtained by pressure 
only, and the softness of the material was scarcely 
impaired.) Cottons printed from wood blocks are 
far more interesting and decorative than those orna- 
mented by the other methods mentioned, as the slight 
irregularities in the way the colour is laid on lend to 
them much of the charm which belongs to crafts 
carried out by individual workmen. 

Block printing, as practised in the eighteenth cen- 
tury, was a very complicated matter, necessitating 

constant ad- 
justment and 
experiment in 
the matter of 
both the 
materials and 
used, because, 
though the 
m e t h o d eni- 
ployed was 
based on the 
practice of the 
old Hindu 
workers, which 
had varied little 
for centuries, 
and was indeed 
in essence the 




* P.irt I. ap- 
peared in The 
Connoisseur for 

nuary, 191S. 


The Connoisseur 


same as that described by Pliny as being in use in his 
time in Egypt, conditions in England were different, 
and the quality of the dyestuffs used were not standard- 
ised, so that a great deal was done by the "rule of 

Theactual application of the colours* by means of the 
block was in itself a simple matter, and was done in 
just the same way as it had been in the Middle Ages 
(for printing on silk and linen), and very much as it is 
carried on in England at the present day by some 
firms who specialise in this kind of work. The illus- 
tration (No. i.) of a calico printer's trade card, issued 
at the end of the seventeenth century, gives a very 
fair idea of a block printer's workshop then and now. 
The printer stands by his table, over which is spread 
the plain cloth ; with one hand he places the block, 
ready charged with colour, in position, and in the 
other he holds uplifted the "maul," or mallet, with 
which he is going to strike a blow on the back of the 
block to drive the colour into the material. He has 
already printed a portion of the pattern on the cloth, 
which hangs in folds on the floor, and the block will 
gradually be applied to all the remaining portion. Near 

*■ As explained later, as a fact it was not the actual colour 
which was applied by the printer, but a preparation for it. 


by Stands his apprentice with his sieve of colour, with 
which it is his duly to keep the printer supplied. 

The printer's main difficulties lay in placing the 
block in exactly the right spot and in giving it exactly 
the proper amount of pressure, so that all the pattern 
should come out in the same depth of colour. In 
placing his block so as to match the earlier impres- 
sions, he had to guide him "pitch pins," which were 
projections from the block which had to be fitted on to 
certain marks in the previously printed portions ; but 
while these were reliable for the first outline, they 
became less and less of a safeguard as each succeeding 
tint was added, because of the complicated programme 
of baths, rinsings, and boilings that each dipping en- 
tailed, during which the material stretched or shrank, 
often to a very considerable degree. 

The printer on cotton had many more difficulties 
to contend with than the man who worked on paper, 
because his colours were obtained by the use of dres, 
not pigments. Certain colours, especially those obtained 
from madder, were fast only when used in conjunction 
with various other ingredients. This fact formed the 
keystone of the eighteenth-century calico printer's art. 
The printer did not apply the dye direct to the fabric 
by means of his wood blocks, but printed the pattern 
with certain chemicals, which required to be " brought 


A Book of Printed Cottons 

'fj Y*- '«'• ee s o o o o o 8 o o o>;o e baee«oee9eeea o « « o a o o 9 a'e o'oo o o • o o o « »* « • * 6" * *;o:o oo •; -T " ""- ■•!!!*« 


up " by plunging in the dyer's vat, much as a photo- 
graphic image is rendered visible by development. 
By employing for successive printings different "drugs," 
as they were then called — we should say mordants — 
alum, tartar, iron, and so on, in varying strengths, he 
obtained a large palette of colours — black, reds, pinks, 
lilacs, and chocolate — by one immersion in the vat of 
madder liquid. These mordants w-ere often almost 
colourless themselves, but in combination with the 
madder or other dyestuff they took on permanent 
tints, varying in depth and colour according to the 
strengths used and the drugs employed, each having 
its special effects on the dye. The fact that the one 
dipping brings up a large range of shades appears 
almost magical to the uninitiated, who are unaware of 
the previous preparations. By washing, soaking and 
rinsing through various baths, the dye on the parts not 
printed with mordant was got rid of, as, of course, it 
was not fast, and the design appeared relieved on a 
pure white ground. Yellows were obtained in the 

same way by means of "weld," and blue was obtained 
from indigo. Indigo, however, was troublesome stuff 
for the printer to work with, and he generally left 
it severely alone. It was most usually applied to 
the cloth by the "pencillers," who added it by hand, 
being paid so much per thousand strokes. These 
pencillers were often very careless, and had to be 
watched to see that they filled in the proper .spaces 
without smudging the colour outside the outlines. Our 
English pencillers were not so skilled as the French 
workers, who were capable of shading and painting 
flowers and leaves ; but over here, all that they were 
required to do was to lay a flat tint within certain 
spaces indicated by lines or rows of dots. The blue 
was difficult to put on accurately into fine angles and 
narrow spaces, and designers and block-cutters who 
understood their work always allowed for this, arrang- 
ing that rather a blobby shape of blue would do, fine 
points of leaves and such things being left filled in 
with black in the cutting. This applied not only to 

• \^ 


Ti^L. aa>a: ^9U .^>3^&i» ■£ ** 

No. v.— A "pinned" ground 











.^-.3 ^? 







A Book of Printed Cottons 

blue alone, but also to the greens, because a fast 
green had not then been discovered, and the only 

The printer also had to be careful how he placed 
his pattern in relation to the width of the cloth, so that 




way of obtaining that colour was by laying blue pencil- 
ling over a yellow, the combination of the two form- 
ing a very pleasant, firirly permanent green. The 
yellow was not such a fast colour as the indigo 
and the colours obtained from madder. Though it 
was not considered to show good workmanship to 
allow them to appear, the little flecks of pure blue 
and yellow which are often seen round the green of 
the leaves have quite a good effect. 

there would be little waste in matching the selvedges. 
(Would that some modern printers were as considerate !) 
A wTiter at the end of the eighteenth century blames 
most severely a printer who had carelessly so arranged 
his sprigs that " either half a sprig most frequently 
appears or two or three inches of the cloth be cut to 
waste. In this case," he continues, "there wanted an 
attention to the remotest circumstance, the making 
up of the garment, and this includes the query which 


The Connoisseur 

might with propriety have been put to that printer, 
which is, if he had been printing that piece as a pre- 
sent for a favourite female, whether he would not have 

is "pique work," or "pinning." It is found on earlier 
cottons, but from about 1785 it was very much used. 
It consists of numerous small dots which were printed 


bestowed a little more consideration on the particular 
alluded to." 

Sometimes before the work on the set pattern was 
begun, the whole of the cloth was printed over with a 
vermicular ground, quite independently of the outlines 
of the flowers and leaves which were printed over it 
(Nos. ii. and iii.). This is very like the ground in some 
of the Indian hand-painted covers, but in their case 
the vermiculations are carried round the pattern. This 
kind of ground recalls the "soutache" ornament which 
was much used in silk on embroidered garments in 
the eighteenth century, and possibly its appearance 
on the Hindu cottons is due to European influ- 
ence ; but probably our designers took the idea from 
the cottons, and not direct from the silk trimming 
(No. iv.). 

Another e.xtremely popular feature in many of the 
late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century patterns 

from the tops of brass pins hammered into the surface 
of the block. These dots were used in three ways — 
either to form complete designs or backgrounds (No. v. ) ; 
introduced into the ordinary scheme of the design in 
lines, groups, or parts of flowers ; or to act as bound- 
aries to indicate to the penciller where the colour 
should be laid. In some blocks the pins were so 
numerous that room had to be left for the expansion 
of the surface of the block, which might otherwise 
have been raised and split. This pinning was a very 
favourite ornament until well into the nineteenth cen- 
tury, but when block-printing declined in favour of 
metal cylinders, it passed out of vogue. 

A " pinned " ground is shown in No. vi. This 
design appears in the book of patterns in a num- 
ber of different guises. It appears to have been 
originally intended for a dark, self-coloured ground, 
as the pattern is cut with very heavy " boundages," or 





a a: 

I s 

■ < 

O a 
Z S 


The Connoisseur 



outlines, in order to simplify the task of filling in the 
ground colour, as the black outline was absorbed in 
the orange or red filling. On a coloured background the 
design looks quite light and feathery, and very much 
better balanced than as here shown. Another instance 
of a pattern being " brought up to date," and certainly 
not improved in the process, is shown in No. vii. 
This pattern also appears in the book of designs as a 
sprigged pattern of detached sprays without the bead- 
like stems, which were probably added when all-over 
designs became more fashionable. Wood blocks 
were very liable to wear out, and a popular design 
was generally recut several times, and it was an easy 
matter to introduce modifications in accordance with 
the taste of the moment when this was being done. The 
sprig chintzes are all inspired by embroidery of the 
same type, and are, as a rule, very ingenious examples 
of balance, each little bouquet or spray being com- 
posed of different numbers and varieties of flowers, 
but they all appear of equal importance when Jooked 
at from a little distance (No. viii.). 

Two of the illustrations give different stages in the 
production of a printed cotton. In No. ix. the black 
outline only has been struck off, ready for the other 
colours to be filled in by subsequent printings or by 
hand. In No. x. a second impression has added 
green leaves to an outline, and a part of the ground 
has been filled in by hand. It is noticeable how 
much work was saved in adding the background by 
the wide outline, or " boundage,"as it was called. The 


colour could be brushed on quite roughly, the thick 
line absorbing all little smudges and slips. 

We cannot but regret that the old methods of 
producing cotton prints have all but vanished under 
the strain of competition for a large trade. The 
results were very charming, and they also had the 
advantage of being able to undergo the " ordeal by 
laundry " without flinching. 

The greater nuaiber of works where block-printing 
was carried on in the eighteenth and early nineteenth 
centuries were situated near London. Richmond is 
said to have been the site of the first, and Old Ford, 
Waltham Abbey, West Ham, and Bromley-le-Bow 
were all places where this industry flourished. Later, 
many firms established themselves further north, and 
large businesses grew up, among the earliest being 
those at Preston and Glasgow. Many of these were 
large commercial undertakings. Of one of them — 
Livesy's & Company — it is said : " This place was 
the means of giving bread to more than 20,000 per- 
sons ; cloth in whitestering has occupied ground 
1 2 miles in length ; near 300 tables have been 
employed ; and near 40 coppers at work at one time " 
(0'Y}na.r\, CaUico Friii/er's Assistant, 1790). For those 
days this represented an enormous undertaking, and 
was probably one of the largest manufacturing busi- 
nesses of the time. 

It was to combat the swiftly-growing supremacy of 
our English cotton industry that, somewhat later. 
Napoleon enlisted the services of Oberkampf, the 









< z 

Q o 

D Z 

o a 

o K 

O o 

[1 a 

z a 

6 ¥> 


The Connoisseur 

famous printer of Jouy, to help him in his trade 
war on Britain. " We shall give them a thoroua;h 

arms." However, Waterloo and Wellington were too 
much for Napoleon, and our cotton mills and printing 


beating, you and I," he is reported to have said, presses have survived, though the Toiles de /oity are 
"you in the world of industry and I by force of but a memory. 


The Art of Alsace=Lorraine 

There is nothing that so truly mirrors the 
innermost soul of a people or so faithfully reveals the 
depths of its character as does its art. For art is, as 
it were, the materialised spirit of a nation's most 
inspired sons — the key which shall reveal to the world 
that spiritual and intellectual life which animates the 
country from whence it has sprung. 

In dealing with the art of Alsace-Lorraine, it must 
be borne in mind that although these two provinces 
are commonly referred to conjointly in consequence 
of their common lot during those sad years in which 
they were wrested from their mother- country, con- 
siderable divergence e.xists between them, both from 
the ethnological and political points of view, this 
divergence manifesting itself distinctly in the works of 
art which each has produced. In the scope, however, 
of a brief article such as this, it would be impossible 

By R. R. M. See 

to enter into the subject of the individual idiosyn- 
crasies of each respective province with any degree 
of exactitude, and it is in consequence expedient to 
limit its aims, more or less, to a summary survey of 
those artists who, during the present century and 
those preceding it, have displayed the most conspi- 
cuous talent. That this artistic talent has always 
found its due meed of encouragement and been 
enabled to develop under the most favourable condi- 
tions in these provinces, has been the direct result of 
the commercial prosperity which has characterised 
them, for, situated as they are on the high-road to 
Central Europe for the commercial caravans of France 
and Spain, and acting as they do as a species of land 
docks for the merchants of Middle Europe, their 
inhabitants have enjoyed a high level of prosperity 
and comfort, with the result that the wealthier classes. 

' farniente" 


Tlie Connoisseur 

relieved from all material 
cares, have had both leisure 
and means to devote to 
the culture of the fine arts. 
Thus local talent has been 
stimulated and appreciated, 
and all that is fundament- 
ally fine in the realm of art 
been carefully fostered. 

Although in the history 
of the art of Alsace-Lor- 
raine her record of archi- 
tecture and the applied 
arts is of considerable im- 
portance, it is necessary to 
restrict ourselves on this 
occasion to the considera- 
tion of her pictorial and 
sculptural masterpieces. 
The name of her first great 


was Mathias Grunewald, 
from whose hand came the 
\%^w\\€\vi\ Retable ; while, in 
addition, there flourished 
at this time a number of 
monks who united the 
calling of artist to that of 
monastic recluse. Those, 
in addition to being 
students of the Rhenish 
school, were also direct 
pupils of the Flemish and 
Burgundian masters, being 
both in taste and aesthetic 
feeling closely akin to the 
masters of the lie de France. 
This is the period that 
proved so rich in the pro- 
duction of those marvellous 
illuminated manuscripts 




painter and engraver is that of Martin 
Schoengauer, the founder of the 
Coimar school. It is of the greatest 
interest to trace in the works of this 
early artist the Germanic influence of 
the Cologne masters operating side 
by side with the refinement cha- 
racteristic of the French school, and 
by no means untouched by the Italian 
tradition, for, even in the early period 
of their career, the painters of Alsace- 
Lorraine were wont to look both West 
and South for their inspiration. An- 
other master of note during this era 



, W .^ MM 

K''!r ■ ■' 




l.AM-o! Al v. G. KKAFFT 


and exquisitely carved statues that 
enriched so many of the churches 
throughout Alsace-Lorraine, and em- 
bellished those monasteries, cathe- 
drals, and chateaux \\hich have be- 
come so many landmarks to students 
of art. 

The sixteenth century is more re- 
markable for its arc hitecture and 
architectural sculpture than for its 
decorative art, although we find 
among the followers of Schoengauer 
such men as Greuter at Strasbourg, 
and in Lorraine Jacques Callot creates 

The Art of Alsace-Lorraine 



a Strong school of engravers, whilst Ligier Richier led 
the sculptors. 


influence of the Dues de Rohan, becoming purely 
French. In Strasbours, Hannong is making headway 

With the reunion to France in the seventeenth '» with his china, while at Niederwiller others are 
century, we find the art of the provinces, under the directing similarly successful undertakings. The iron- 




The Connoisseur 

work gates produced by 

men such as Pertois and 

Andre Jost manifest a 

taste that is purely 

French in its delicacy 

and grace. Goldsmiths 

and woodcarvers are 

carrying on equally 

flourishing ventures. In 

engraving distinguished 

work is done by Leclerc 

of Metz and Etinger of 

Colmar. The name of 

Claude Gelee, the Lor- 

rainer, is the best known 

among t h o s e o f the 

painters. The eighteenth 

century sees the rise of 

the painters De Louther- 

bourg, G. B. Leprince, 

Hussenet, Sweback of 

Metz, Martin Drolling 

Guerin, Heimlich, Boug 

d'Orschwiller, Frederic 

Meyer, Hurstault de 

Huningue, Heilman, "'olmar school" 

and Him de Mulhouse, to mention but a few of the 

better known. To English students the name of 

De Loutherbourg is of particular interest, since he 

finished his career in England, where he became a 

Royal Academician. Among the engravers, Dumor- 

tier, Gillet, Durig, and Muller of Strasbourg achieved 


whilst among 

the sculptors 

F r a m i n of 

Strasbourg is 

the predecessor 

of Friedrick.s, 

F' r a t i n , and 


With the 
early nine- 
teenth century 
the native art- 
ists derive their 
ins p i rati on 
from their own 
country. Be- 
fore coming to 
the more mod- 
ern period, we 
find a bevy of 
great men, such 




as Brion, Haffner, Jung, 
Jundt, Lix, Pabst, Schu- 
ler, Shutzemberger, and 
Weyler, while among the 
sculptors are Lavigne, 
Leonard y, and Petre. 
Among t h e engravers, 
Malardot of Metz, S. E. 
Salle, and Bein of Stras- 
bourg, proved them- 
selves t h e predecessors 
of Boetzel, Braemer, 
Achner, Kammerer, and 
Kuder. Nearer still to 
modern times come the 
great names of Zuber, 
one of the f i n e s t of 
modern artists ; of Hen- 
ner, whose reputation 
calls for no further meed 
of appreciation ; ofGus- 
tave Do re, whose re- 
ligious canvases and en- 
gravings have rendered 
him famous all the world 
over; of Bartholdi, the 
sculptor, whose Lion de Belfort in Paris and Statue 
of Liberty in New York eloquently testify to his 
remarkable genius. It would requisition the entire 
space of a month's issue of The Connoisseur to 
make even a cursory mention of the many artists who 
flourished under such happy circumstances in these 

provinces prior 
to the Teutonic 
invasion. After 
I 8 7 I, numer- 
o u s artists, 
soon e r than 
live under Ger- 
man oppres- 
sion, preferred 
to leave their 
native land and 
carry o n their 
activities in 
France, there 
becoming the 
leaders of what 
may be termed 
the Paris-Alsa- 
tian school. 

Among those 
who have 
passed away 

The Art of Ahacc-Lorraitie 

during recent times, 

mention must be made 

of The o p h i 1 e Schuler, 

I'^hrmann Bayer Mare- 

chal, Kreyder, T. Hur- 

ner, Bernier, and Her- 
mann; while among the 

ranks of the Hving there 

stands out the President, 

Alfred Roll Wencker, 

Umbricht, Zwiller, and 

Hornecker, all of whom 

hail from Alsace; 

\'ictor Prouve, Bet- 

tanier, Gruber, Rega- 

mev, and Rover being 

the foremost among the 

distinguished Lorrainers 

of the day. While these 

were spending the 

greater part of their lives 

in France, men such as 

Spindler and Schneider 

had been steadily work- 
ing in their native land, 

true to an ideal which 

forbade their leaving her 

while still in the hands 

of the oppressor. 

Nor must the Alsatian 

group of caricaturists, of 
which Hansi and Zislin 

are the chief modern ex- 
ponents, be overlooked. 
Frank Mura, Maurice 
Achener, the etcher, 
Leon Barillot, the artist 
of country life, Many 
Benner, whose portraits, 
dreamy landscapes, and 
delicate nudes have won him so much renown, Bet- 
lanier, the painter of patriotic scenes ; P. E. Colin, 
the author of many a luminous engraving, Andre 
Engel, who puts into his landscapes that wistfulness 
which seems to embody the spirit of his country, 
Emile Friant, whose drawings and engravings are so 
impressive in their strength and force ; the master, 
(iagliardini, whose scenes and landscapes are so full 
of light and sun, are already well-known here. Fit 
to be classed among the greatest of the artists in 
stained glass of our time is Jacques Gruber ; while 
Hannaux' statuettes and Paul Kauffmann's studies of 
old Alsatian costumes and customs are of special his- 
torical interest by reason of the accuracy and honesty 
which characterise them. R. Kammerer's powerful 
landscapes, Rene Kuder's admirably vital scenes ot 
country life, and Jules Raymond Koenig's works are 
all in their respective ways worthy of much more 
than passing attention ; while remarkable qualities 
are likewise to be found by cognoscenti in the flower 
pieces of Estelle Masson, the various types of Lor- 
raines depicted by Leon Nassoy, the realistic and the 
patriotic canvases of the veteran of 1870, the military 
painter Petit Gerard. 

Then, too, there are the delightful drawings of 

MLLE. T. I'. 

Regamey and of Henri 
Royer ; Rittleng's mez- 
zotints and aquafortes ; 
Paul Scheidecker's 
water-colours, so deeply 
conceived and strongly 
executed : and the flower 
and genre paintings of 
Edmond Suau. In ad- 
dition, there are the 
bleak landscapes o f 
Daniel Schoen, the statu- 
ettes of Albert Schultz 
and of Hennequin Re- 
veur, the studies of still- 
hfeby Mile. Schneegans, 
the powerful works of 
Alexandre Urbain, Gus- 
tave and George Weiss, 
all of whom are well 
worthy of note. The 
pupils and followers of 
Spindler are well repre- 
sented by AUenbach, 
August e Dubois, 
Gachot, Eugen Holz- 
mann, Mile. Steinmetz, 
Y. Schultz, Schoeen, and 

Interesting work also 
comes from the recon- 
quered provinces in the 
name of Mile. Haller, 
Krafft of Strasbourg, 
Schneider (President of 
I h e Artistes d' Alsace- 
Lorraine), already men- 
tioned, Albert Schultz, 
and Paul Welsch. From 
Mulhouse comes work 
by the two Breitweiser and by Trenckle, and last, 
but not least, that by Lucien Blumer and Baudi- 
not. •- -H ' 

It would be foolish to allow our patriotism to blind 
us to inequalities and imperfections in the work of 
the artists belonging to these long-suffering provinces. 
While some have moved forward with the times, 
others, it must be confessed, have elected to remain 
staunch to the old-fashioned traditions in painting 
encouraged by the Ecole des Beaux Arts, allowing 
that straightforward honesty of execution, which is so 
strong a characteristic of them, to take the place of 
theories of a more advanced type. But however this 
may be, there is a quality in their art which at once 
proclaims them worthy descendants of those early 
masters whom their native land is so proud to have 
produced, nor has the teaching of the schools of 
Munich and Berlin availed to obliterate aught of that 
originality both of style and of outlook which is so 
inalienably theirs. The artists of Alsace-Lorraine 
have, both in this century and in those which have 
gone before, tended to walk rather in the footsteps of 
the French than in those of the Teuton, a tendency 
which has led to their being naturally confounded 
with the artists of the mother-country. 



The Battle of Naseby, and a Suggestion 
By Dr. G. C. Williamson 

The battle of Naseby (June 14th, 1645) 
was like the battle of the Marne, a turning-ponit : it 
changed the character of a war, nay, more, of a king- 
dom, and it was an attack by a "new model" (as it 

was called), a new type of troops, and new arms, with 
new ideas behind them : upon the old arrangements 
and the old ideas. It was fought on a height and 
above the river, the Avon, and in view of another, the 



The Battle of Nascby, and a Suggestion 


WV-llaiul ; it was marked by sublime courage on the 
part of commander and troops, and it was decisive. 

It is commemorated in the present day by a wonder- 
ful and curious treasure. 

Two days after the battle had been fought, the 
House of Commons passed a resolution thus ; — 

" Resolved etc., . . . that Sir Henry Mildmay, 
Mr. Lisle, Sir Robert Harley and Mr. Jenneur do 
forthwith provide a jewel of five hundred pounds value 


Sir Robert Harley presented it to Parliament for its 
approval. The price had exceeded the sum granted 
by the House ; it came out at eight hundred pounds. 
The Commons, however, gladly approved of the object 
and its cost, and instructed a Mr. John Ashe to present 
it to Fairfax. 

The resolution reads thus :— " Resolved etc., . . . 
that the eight hundred pounds for the paying for this 
jewel shall be paid out of the fine of the first delinquent 


to be sent from this House to Sir Thomas Fairfax as not yet disposed of 

a testimony of their affection to him and of the esteem 
they have of his services." 

By October 24th, the jewel had been executed, and 

and that the said ^800 be paid 
unto Mr. Francis Allen . . . whose acquittance . . . 
shall be a sufficient discharge.' 

The jewel took the form of a watch with enamel 


The Connoisseur 

sides, richly set in diamonds, and although the stones 
have disappeared long ago, the enamels are still in 
existence, and in the possession of Lord Hastings, by 
whose courtesy we illustrate them. 

They were purchased from the executors of Fairfax, 
who were unfortunately pressed for money, although 
Fairfax received 7^5, coo (a very large sum in those 
days), with his barony, by the celebrated collector, 
Ralph Thoresby, and at his sale in 1764 by a far more 
celebrated collector, Horace Walpole. They were 
highly esteemed treasures in the famous Strawberry 
Hill collection, and then in 1S42 were sold and 
eventually came into the possession of Lord Hastings, 
a representative, by the irony of circumstances, of the 
very family that was defeated by Fairfax at the battle 
they commemorate : for it was one of Lord Hastings' 
ancestors who was in charge of the Royalist troops at 
that occasion. 

Walpole kept them in "the blue breakfast room 
upstairs." One of the enamels depicts Fairfax on 
horseback, the group being clearly derived from the 
celebrated picture by Van Dyck representing Charles L 
His breast is crossed by a ribbon, which is, however, 
not that of the Garter, as Fairfax did not possess 
that order, and, moreover, in his day the ribbon 
was worn over both shoulders and not as in the 
enamel. The signature by the hoofs of the horse is 
" P. B. fecit." 

On another enamel is depicted the House of 
Commons in session, a very interesting and instructive 
picture, and on a third is seen the battle in full 
progress, and the cry of the Puritan soldiers, " Non 
nobis," appears above the spears of the cavalry. A 
sentence on the portrait group is almost undecipher- 
able, but seems to read " Sic radiant fideles." 

The enamel has always been accredited to Pierre 
Bordier. It was probably the work of a Bordier who 
was at that time in England and working for the 
Parliament, a native of Argenville, and his Christian 
name may have been Pierre ; but he was not the well- 
known Pierre Bordier, the friend and brother-in-law of 
Petitot, one of the chief exponents in this class of work. 

Whoever he was, he was a notable craftsman of 
great skill, and the jewel has been the object of ad- 
miration by succeeding generations ever since it was 
executed, and will ever remain a thing of beauty. 

Does it not give us an idea for the present-day 
commemoration ? 

A victorv in which S,ooo muskets were taken, a 
conquest over the last field army which the Royalists 
could put in the field, may seem to modern eyes a 
small thing when compared to the warfare of the 
present day, and even 7^5,000 and a barony slight 
rewards for a successful general when compared with 
what the King and nation will gladly give to the 
victors when they return bearing peace in their hands ; 
but we would urge that, in addition to money and 
title, the artists of the day should prepare, in lasting 
form, some tribute such as that given to Fairfax in 

Why should not fine enamel-work, unfading and 
permanent in every way, commemorate this coming 
victory, be it on a watch, or a sword, or a casket, and 
in such form that 300 years hence the portrait of the 
victor, the assembled King, Lords, and Commons, the 
people, the Corporation of the City with the Lord 
Mayor, or St. Paul's or the Abbey should be clearly 
set out that all may see ? 

The modern day casket is often a monstrosity, a 
useless box to be put upon a velvet-mounted pedestal 
under a glass case ! 

Why not let the tribute be a box that can be used, 
or as we have said, a watch, a sword, or even a 
pocket companion, with enamel-work upon it, and 
then our grandchildren will be able to value and 
appreciate as highly as we do these enamels, the gift 
of a grateful people to the conqueror in the world's 
greatest war. 

AVe are glad now to see Fairfax as he was, to have 
a picture of the battle, to see the House of Com- 
mons sitting in solemn fashion. Those who come 
after us will be equally glad to see persons and things 
as we see them ; and what more fitting and permanent 
form can the representation take than in enamel ? 






\The Editor iuvites the assistance of readers of The Connoisseur who may be able to impart 
the information required by Correspondents.^ 

Unidentii'IEd Portrait (No. 146). 
Dear Sir, — I regularly take your magazine, and 
shall be glad if you will give me your opinion whether 
an oil painting (unidentified portrait) in my possession 
— lady with grey hair, oval, 17J in. by 14I- in. — as 
per enclosed photo, is a portrait of the same lady as 
illustrated on page 163 of your July, 1914, issue. In 
my picture the lady has a pink band with pink 
rosette at the side in the hair, the frilled bodice has 
a pink ribbon, two bands of pink ribbon on the sleeve, 
and a broad pink sash at the waist. It will be noticed 
that the photo shows a tight narrow black band round 
the throat, and that the hair is dressed very much in 
the same style (particularly at the side curls down the 
shoulders) as your illustration. 

Vours truly. Enquirer. 

The Astrological Man (March, 1918). 
Lady Antrobus has seen in The Connoisseur 
the inquiry re "The Astrological Man" in the Book 
of Hours. The explanation will be found (more or 
less) in the Zodiac signs. Certain signs are supposed 
to be connected with cer- 
tain parts of the human 
body, as the months of 
births and dates give certain 
mental attributes. There is 
a book called TIte Influence 
of the Zodiac on Human Life, 
really taken from ancient 
lore, but it is very easy to 
understand. One could 
(pre war) get this little book 

Masonic Bo.k 
(J.\nuary, 1918). 
Dear Sir, — In January, 
191S, you published a pho- 
tograph of the lid of a 
masonic box bearing in the 
centre a coat of arms sur- 
mounted by a crest. The (146) 

arms seem to be those of the Ponsonby family. The 
three members of this family in the peerage — viz., 
the Earl of Bessborough, Baron de Mauley, and the 
late Baron Ponsonby — bore " gules a chevron be- 
tween 3 combs argent." But the crest of this family 
is apparently not the same as that on the box. There 
it is, as far as one can judge from a photograph, an 
eagle's head with a serpent round its neck. The 
Ponsonby crest is always, as far as my experience 
goes, " 3 arrows on a ducal coronet, one in pale; 
two in saltire or, feathered and pointed argent, 
entwined by a serpent proper." The arms of the 
Earl of Bessborough appear in an advertisement on 
p. xxiv. of the March, 19 13, number of this periodi- 
cal. There seems to be branches of the Ponsonby 
family in Cumberland and Ireland. Perhaps Mr. 
Hayward, knowing where the box came from, could 
discover a connection between it and a local branch 
of the Ponsonby family. — W. F. John Timbrell. 

Unidentified Painting (No. 295). 
Dear Sir, — Can any of your readers inform us if this 
^painting is an original, and 
whether there is a replica in 
one of the Italian galleries ? 
The size of the picture is 
6 o i n . b y 4 o i n . It was 
purchased from a small shop 
in Liverpool many years 
ago by the father of the 
present owner. — Yours 
faithfully, G. Biddle & 
Sons (Brighton). 

Unidentified Portraits 
(Nos. 296 and 297). 

Dear Sir, — I shall be 
glad to obtain some infor- 
mation regarding the two 
portraits herewith, which 
have been in my family for 
many years. 

Van Dyck, ly Himself. Is 



The Coimoisscn)' 

this a copj' of any 
of the known 
originals, or can 
this be another? If 
a copy, where is the 
original ? 

Identi f i cation 
wanted of three- 
quarter-length por- 
trait of man with 
powdered hair, black 
bow, with three- 
cornered hat in 
hand, dressed in 
green velvet coat 
and yellow-brown 
waistcoat, both very 
much bet rimmed 
with gold braid. 
Evidentl)' the 
period of George II. 
or Louis XV. 
Name of artist also 



v. a. i).\niell. 



Tea Tray. 
Dear Si r, — I 

have a boldly- 
painted tray with 
this inscr i pt ion 
painted on the 
back of it : " Cap- 
tain F . . . . (let- 
ters obliterated) 
attacking Fort 
Royal, Martinique, 
Zebra S .... in 
I 794, S. Bagley 
P . . . . 1838." 

Can you tell me 
the e.xact name of 
the painter, a n d 
give me any infor- 
mation about him ? 
I do not think the 
word beginning P 
is P i n X i t — t here 
seems to be an 
"a," "t," and per- 
haps " y." 
A. Russell Baker. 







A TABARD is a short coat, the whole consisting of 
four detachable and flat pieces, namely, a pair for 
front and back and a pair of short 
sleeves or shoulder-pieces. These 
tabards are emblazoned on all sides with the arms of 
the sovereign, and worn, as their distinctive garment, 
by heralds and pursuivants. (A pursuivant was 
formerly a junior heraldic officer attendant on the 
heralds ; also one attached to a particular nobleman ; 
now, an officer of the College of Arms, ranking below 
a herald.) A similar garment, with short sleeves or 
sleeves, j 

was worn | 

in the Mid- 
dle Ages I 
by knights i 
over their 
a r m o u r, 
and was 
also em- 
with their 
arms or 
worn plain. 
The name 
was also 
given in 
times to a 
b 1 e r and 
of rough 
frieze worn 
— also by 
monks and 


foot-soldiers. The ploughman wears a " tabard " in 
the prologue to the Canterbu>y Tales. The knaves 
of our playing-cards are attired in the tabard. . At 
Queen's College, O.'iford, the scholars on the founda- 
tion were called " tabarders," from the tabard, obvi- 
ously not an emblazoned dress, which they iwore. 
The word itself appears in French, tabard, ox tabart, 
etc. ; Italian, tabarro ; German, taphart : Med. Latin, 
tabbardtis, tabardium, etc. 

The tabard here figured — which was recently found 
in private hands in the south-west of England — is in 

p r e s e r va- 
t ion ; the 
front (or 
back) mea- 
sures 36 in. 
in length 
and the 
same in 
width at 
the bot- 
tom. The 
should er- 
also illus- 
t r a t e d, 
iS^i ins. in 
both direc- 
tions. All 
the ground 
on w h i c h 
the armo- 
rials are 
worked is 
of satin, 
, except 

that sur- 


The Comioisseur 

the " Luneburg " lion, which is of corded silk. The 
lining is of red satin. The animals have red, garnet- 
coloured eyes. Charlemagne's crown is in gold, with 
the details in blue and red. 

This tabard belongs equally well to any of the first 
three Georges before iSoi, when George III. dropped 
the claim to the French crown, and with it the French 
fleur-de-lys. England impaling Scotland was granted 
to Queen Anne, and so continued by the Georges. 

The blazon of the tabard is as follows : — First 
quarter, gules, three lions passant guardant in pale 
or, ENGLAND, impaling, or, a lion rampant within a 
double tressure flory, counterflory, gu., Scotland. 
Second quarter, azure, three fleurs-de-lys, 2 and i, or, 
FR.\NCE (modern). Third quarter, az., a harp or, 
stringed arg., Ireland. Fourth guartej; gu. 2 lions 
passant guardant in pale or (Brunswick) ; impaling, 
or, semee of hearts gu. a lion ramp. az. (luneburg) ; 
on a point in point a horse courant arg. (saxony) ; 
on the centre of the fourth quarter an escutcheon gu. 
charged with the crown of Charlemagne, or, as Arch- 
Treasurer of the Holy Roman Empire. 

H. St. George Gray. 

What the Sea Holds 

Quite recently, an interesting suggestion that air- 
cralt might be employed profitably in locating sunken 
treasure-ships ap- 
peared in the 
press. Only an 
accom plished 
aeronaut can 
judge of thefeasi- 
the endless in- 
terest displayed 
in such relics as 
the galleon off 
To be rm ory 
might induce 
search for valu- 
able wrecks in 
other localities. 
The idea is liable 
of extension in 
a somewhat dif- 
ferent direction. 
Only a month or 
two back airmen 
reported the pre- 
sence beneath 
t h e w a V e s, o IT 
Abukir, of an shoulder-piece of taeard 

ancient town, which must have been given over to 
Poseidon some ages ago. We are all aware that the 
goods of man which the sea has yielded up are as a 
drop in the ocean compared with those still held by 
her. Plato and other early writers would have us 
believe in the e.xistence of the great island of Atlantis, 
whose cities were sucked into the depths by a dirn 
catastrophe which may have some affinity with the 
universal Flood legend. Even if there is any truth in 
the story, as the comparative shallowness of parts of 
the Atlantic bed would seem to suggest, there is little 
hope that any relics of a lost civilisation are recover- 
able in the same way as amphors have been raised 
from sunken islands in the Grecian archipelago. The 
proposed draining of the Zuyder Zee might possibly 
result in discoveries, whilst kindred instances of coast 
erosion need not be referred to here. Curious cases 
of articles recovered from the sea occur constantly, 
as with the scallop which was found to contain an old 
wedding-ring, at Weymouth, in 1917. Roman pottery 
has been brought up by fishermen off Whitstable, we 
believe, whilst a Samian dish, the glaze of which had 
been destroyed by the salt water, was netted off 
Brightlingsea, and is now in Colchester Museum. 
These are solitary specimens from a list which might 
be prolonged indefinitely. 

Consideration of the loss of art treasures due to 

storm or sub- 
marine warfare 
may also be con- 
sidered, as, even 
if we commence 
with so recent a 
misfortune as the 
loss off Leghorn, 
during the late 
thirties, of the 
sarcophagus of 
M en-ka u- Ra, 
builder of the 
third pyramid, we 
have a formid- 
able list to con- 
t e n d with. — 


As this is not 
the first occasion 
on which we have 
quoted from our 
century forebear, 
we request the 



indulgence of readers in presenting a further 
selection, remarkable for its intimate glimpse 
into the vain life of the period. The paper 
in question appeared in The Connoisseur, 
No. cxii. (Thursday, March i8th, 1756), and 
deals with the extravagant coiffures then 
fashionable with the fair sex. " It has for 
a long time been observable," says the 
writer, " that the ladies' heads have run 
much upon wheels ; but of late there has 
appeared a strange kind of inversion, for 
the wheels now run upon the ladies' heads. 
As this assertion may probably puzzle many 
readers, who pay no attention to the rapid 
and whimsical revolutions of modern taste, 
it will be necessary to inform them that, 
instead of a cap, the present mode is for 
every female of fashion to load her head 
with some kind of carriage ; whether they 
are made with broad wheels or not I cannot deter- 
mine. However, as they are undoubtedly excluded 
the Turnpike Act, it is by no means material. . . ." 

" The curiosity I had of knowing the 
purport of this invention, and the general 
name of these machines, led me to make 
enquiry about them of a fashionable mil- 
liner at the court end of the town. She 
obliged me with a sight of one of these 
equipages, designed for the head of a lady 
of quality, which I surveyed with much 
admiration, and, placing it on the palm of 
my hand, could not help fancying myself 
like (Julliver taking up the Empress of 
Lilliput in her state coach. The vehicle 
itself was constructed of gold threads, and 
was drawn by six dapple greys of blown glass, 
with a coachman, postilion, and gentleman w-ithin of 
the same brittle manufacture. Uponfurther enquiry, the 
milliner told me, with a smile, that it was difficult to 
give a reason for inventions so full of whim, but that 
the name of this ornament (if it may 
be called such) was a Capriole or 
Cabriole, which we may trace from 
the same original with our English 
word(ri2/r/«,both being derived from 
the French word cahrer, which signi- 
fies to prante like a horsed 

Shakespeare Tobacco-stopper 

The handle-end of this interesting 
tobacco-stopper, length 3^^ in., is 
carved to represent a bust of Shake- 
speare. It was made from the 
Shakespeare mulberry-tree, and is 


No. I. — WATCH BY 







shod with silver at the " business end." 
It was given in 1802 by John Lucy 
(1790-1874), of Charlecote Park, Warwick- 
shire (afterwards rector of Hampton-Lucy 
and vicar of Charlecote), to the Rev. James 
Hurly, the great-great-grandfather of the 
Rev. Daniel Pring, vicar of North Curry 
To Charlecote, Shakespeare's early history 
has imparted an undying celebrity. 

" The old Elizabethan house remains the 
same as in the days of good Queen Bess, 
and the gentle Avon flows as brightly as of 
old beneath its sunny lawns ; here are still 
the venerable oaks, under whose shade the 
poet at times sat, and the richly-wooded 
park through which he loved to roam." 
{Illus. Land. Netvs, 1S4S.) 

Mr. Thomas Sharp, watchmaker, died at 
Stratford-on-Avon in 1799, in the seventy-sixth year 
of his age. " The day before he expired he took his 
oath upon the Holy Evangelists that he never in his 
life bought, made up, worked, sold, or 
substituted any other mulberry wood than 
what was part of the tree which he pur- 
chased of the Rev. J. Gastrell, who cut it 
down in 1756, and which, he had heard 
Sir Hugh Clopton . . . positively declare 
was planted by the hand of Shakespeare." 
{Gentleman'' s Mag., 1799, pp. 909, 910). 

Amongst other things, tea-caddies, said 
to have been made from the mulberry- 
tree planted by Shakespeare, are some- 
times met with. There is one in the 
Taunton Castle Museum, which bears 
the following written inscription : — 

" This casket, though humble, was made from the tree 
Which, oh ! my dear .Shakespeare, was planted by thee." 

Timekeepers, by William Clay and C. Schmidt. 

The small oval watch of silver here figured (No. i.) 
is only \\ inches in length, and is 
inscribed "William Clay, fecit." It 
was given by Oliver Cromwell to 
Colonel Bagwell at the siege of Clon- 
inel, 1650. No. ii. gives the back 
view of an early example of a clock- 
w^atch, liy Carll Schmidt. It was 
made circa 1600, when the manu- 
facture of timekeepers was in the 
hands of blacksmiths and " ham- 
mermen." This specimen was made 
before the introduction of the cir- 
cular balance, and before the chain 
came into use for connecting the 


The Connoisseur 

The Chines 

train of wheels to the mainspring. The wheel and 
pinion teeth appear to have been cut by a very crude 
method. There was an example of Schmidt's work 
in the collection of the late Mr. F. G. Hilton Price, 
F.S.A. — an oval clock-watch, which strikes i to 6. 

The fashion for furniture and other accessories 
designed in the Chinese style, which attained such 
vogue during the eighteenth cen- 
tury, has been the subject of many 
references in these pages. In conse- 
quence, readers may be interested to learn what the 
contemporary Connoisseur had to say about the 
matter. After finding how a typical London citizen 
starts to renovate his house and garden in the most 
approved taste, we are told — 

" Now bricklayers, carpenters, and joiners, 
Witli Cliinese artists and designers, 
Produce their schemes of alteration, 
To work tiiis wond'rous reformation. 
The useful dome, which secret stood 
Embosom'd in the yew tree's wood. 
The trav'ler with amazement sees 
A temple, Gothic or Chinese, 
With many a hell and tawdry rag on, 
And crested with a sprawling dragon. 
A wooden arch is bent astride 
A ditch of water four feet wide ; 
With angles, curves and zig-zag lines, 
From Halfpenny's e.xact designs." 

After a contemplation of such wonders, the Cowperian 
muse may well exclaim — 

" Blest age ! when all men may procure 
The title of a Connoisseur." 

(No. cxxxv., Thursdav, August 26th, 1756.) 

A RE.MINISCENCE of the Civil War is preserved in 
a copy of The Whole Booke of Psabns (London, 

1621), owned by Mr. L. Meyrick- 
Old Fly-leaf - " , .,.,, ''„.,, „, ^ . 

, . .. Tones, of Mill Hill. The maior 

Inscriptions • ' 

portion of the fly-leaf is taken up 

with inscriptions in a crabbed seventeenth-century 
hand, forming the memorial of two captive Royalists. 

" / / Robert Standen prisenor for / searvinge King 
Charels in / Camardon 1648 / / " reads the first, being 
succeeded by a line in a more flowing screed : — 
"Tyhir tu patula recuban.s, etc." Beneath, in writing 
more similar to the first, is "/ / Christopher Herrys : 
prisiier ,' to the independent armey / for saruing my 
lord and / mr : Charles : by ye grase of / god King of 
England : — / Carmathen ; the 28th of August / 1648 ; 
Remember my louen / to my uery good frend / mrs. 
Marey : C.H. //". 

It would be interesting to ascertain the whereabouts 
in private possession of like mementos. 

De.\r Sir, — I was interested to read Mr. Howard 
H. Cotterell's article in the February number of The 

Connoisseur on "Rim-Types of 
Types of Old Qi^ Pewter Plates." He puts the 
Pewter Plates ^ 

date of Type No. vi. as about 1735 

and after, and says that the only exception to this that 
he knows is two plates bearing Queen Anne's royal 
cypher. He may be interested to hear that I have a 
pair of plates with rims of Type No. vi. which bear the 
touch-mark of Jonas Durand, and the date 1699. ^ 
enclose a rubbina; of same. 

Yours faithfully, Edg.\r M. Burnett. 

De.\r Sir, — Replying to your correspondent Mr. 
Edgar M. Burnett. The rubbing which Mr. Burnett 
sends is that of Jonas Durand, and is dated 1699, as 
he states, but it is fio/ another exception to Type vi. 
in my article in the February Connoisseur. 

The date 1699 refers to ^he date the touch was struck 
on the touch-plate at Pewterers' Hall. The firm of Jonas 
Durand was in existence from before 1699 until at 
least 1763, when Jonas Durand, the son, was Renter 
Warden to the Company, and all along that period 
of time the firm would use this same dated touch, for 
pewterers were not allowed to alter their touches when 
once struck upon the Hall plates except under special 
permission, not easily obtained, from the Company. 
The idea of an annual alteration of the date would not 
have been tolerated. When dates were altered, and 
there are several instances in Mr. Welch's History of 
the Company, it was by a general order of the Court 
such as the following : — 

On II Dec, 1661-2, it was "ordered by the Court 
that all laymen do alter their touches within 
fourteen days with the date of 1663." 

Once a date was incorporated in a pewterer's touch, 
it appeared throughout his whole business career, and 
is, therefore, no guide as to what year any particular 
piece was made by him. In the case in point, pieces 
made in 1700, 1715, or 1740 would each bear this 
same date, 1699. 

As a well-known instance of a date in a touch 
being perpetual during a maker's life-time, one may 



mention the famous Staple Inn pewter plates in Mv. 
Walter Churcher's collection, and a specimen of which, 
through his kindness, is in my own. The touch on 
these plates bears the date 1733, whereas they are 
engraved Staple Inn, rjj/, in which year, of course, 
they were made. 

I think this would add the lOi/p de grace to the 
theory that the date in a touch is the date when the 
piece left its maker's hands. 

I enclose my "widener." The date, 1733, though 
quite distinct on the piece itself, is so worn down as 
to make it impossible to get a more distinct rubbing. 

Tliree Plales by 
Richard Earlom 

\'()urs truly, Howarii H. Cotterell. 

RicH.\RL> Earlom was among the greatest e.xploiters 
of the possibilities of mezzotint, and he left few phases 
of it une.xplored. Before his ti]iie 
it had been used almost exclu- 
sively for figure subjects ; generally 
porlraits and etching had been employetl but little in 
conjunction with it. Earlom systematically introduced 
etching in his work, and with its aid applictl mezzo- 
tint extensively to the reproduction of landscapes and 
still-life and genre pictures as well as to portraits. 
How largely he paved the way for future mezzotinters 
is hardly realised, but J. R. Smith, the brothers Ward, 
S. W. Reynolds, and, later on, J. M. W. Turner and 
David Lucas, all followed in the path he first essayed, 
and in some respects failed to advance further. Earlom 

is rather dwarfed by the comparative failure of his 
most important though by no means his principal 
work — the two hundred plates after Claude's Lil>er 
Veritatis, executed from the originals belonging to the 
Duke of Devonshire. It is almost impossible to 
think of these without mentally comparing them with 
the far more interesting plates after Turner's Liber 
Studiorum, to the great advantage of the latter ; but 
the difference in the attractions of the plates lies not 
so much in the quality of the engraving as in the 
superiority of Turner's originals. The latter were 
specially executed with a view to their reproduction, 
whereas Claude's originals were memoranda, merely 
intended to record the subjects of some of his works. 
With a subject worthy of his powers Earlom is very 
hard to surpass. His Fruit Pieee and Flo'iver Piece, 
after Jan Van Huysum, are probably the finest repro- 
ductions in mezzotint of still-life pieces that have ever 
been executed. The originals formed part of the 
Houghton collection, sold by Lord Orford, the son of 
Sir Robert Walpole, to the Empress Catherine of 
Russia, and hang — or hung before the revolution — in 
the Hermitage. The Shepherd Boy in a Storm, after 
Gainsborough, engraved from the picture exhibited at 
the Royal Academy in 1781, shows him equally suc- 
cessful in another metier, the technique and feeling of 
the original being finely rendered. The three illus- 
trations of these plates are made by kind permis- 
sion from proofs in the collection of the Earl of 
Durham, K.Cr. 

As the treasures of Mrs. John Mango's collection of 
engravings have been dealt with at some length in 
these pages, readers will be the more 
interested in the further selection from 
her portfolios which appears in this issue. jU^>rni//g, 
or the Benevolent Sportsman, is, of course, one of a 
pair by ^. Grozer, after (reorge Morland. The com- 
panion plate, Evening, nr Tlie Sportsman's Return, 
IS reserved for reproduction in our next number. The 
remaining engravings belonging to Mrs. Mango are 
Tlie Citizen's Retreat, by W. \\'ard, after J.Ward, and 
Les Roses, one of the many dainty subjects after 
Boucher which ha\ e been justified by modern taste. 

Our Plates 


The picture sales held during the declining days of 
February were marked by few outstanding lots. This 
fact was especially noticeable at the 
Pictures and ^^j^^^ Street rooms on the 2Sth, where 

Drawings ^^^^ ^^^^ canvas to realise a price worthy 

of record was T/ie Departure of Prince William of 
Orange from Amslerdam, by A. Storck, 24 in. by 31 in., 
which netted ^309 15s. ; a pair of portraits of Mrs. 
Richard Wright and Rev. Dr. Richard Wright, by J. 
Wright, A.R.A., 29 in. by 24 in., went for £84 ; whilst, 
of the c;erman school, Lady as the Magdalen, panel, 
arched top, 13 in. by 8 J in., made £()X los.; by J. Patinir, 
St. John Preaching in the Wilderness, panel, 14^ in. by 
20 in., ^105 ; and by Ochterveldt, A Young Man seated 
at a Table, writing, panel, 16J in. by 13 in., ^89 js., were 
amongst the few other items to catch the eye. A similarh- 
undistinguished collection came up on March 7th, when 
the modern British school was mainly responsible for 
recordable prices. The Har-dester's Return, by Edward 
Stott, A. R..^., 2ii in. by 2* in., made the most with its 
;^535 ; amongst other amounts being ^231 for The Artist, 
by Sir William Orpen, .\.R..\., 35i in. by 27* in.; and, 
in the drawings section, ^152 5s. for Hope, a. pastel, by 
Sir E. Burne-Jones, 81 in. by 31 in.; ^84 for A Rainy 
Day near Lincoln, by P. de Wint, loi in. by 12I in.; 
and £<)<) 15s. for Dovedale, Derbyshire, by J. B. Pyne, 
1845, 34 in. by 47J in. Even less interesting was the 
session of March loth, when no individual lot realised 
more than ^63, brought in by H. Dawson's On the 
Ribble, 1866, 20 in. by 30 in. .A slight appreciation was 
noticeable on the 14th, when the collections were com- 
prised mainly of "school" pictures. A Portrait of a 
Cavalier, in yellow tunic with light sleeves and red sash, 
holding his sword, by Moreelse, 37 in. by 30 in., made 
;r204 15s.; The Standard-bearer : Portrait of Cornelius 
Corfellis, with troops in background, by Mytens, 79 in. 
by 48I in., ^iio 5s.; A Gentleman, his Wife, and six- 
Children, presented to the Holy Family, by Pordenone, 
60 in. by 78 in., /i 15 loi. ; Flora: Portrait of a Lady in 
a white dress with red scarf, holding flowers, French 
school, 50I in. by 37^ in., ^157 los.; The Mouth of a 
lUver, with sailing ships, by H. Dubbels, 15 in. by 
18} in., /gg 153.; Portraits of Sir John Fagge, Bart., oj 
Mvstole Park, and Georgina, Lady Fagge, a pair, by 
Lawrence, 30 in. by 25 in., ^141 15s.; and A Distant 

View of Arnheim, by J. \'an C'.oyen, 26^ in. by 46* in., 
^157 los., were amongst the more noteworthy lots. 

For interest and monetary value, however, none of the 
sales just mentioned could compare with the dispersal of 
the late Mr. Robert H. Brechin's collection by Messrs. 
J. & D. Edmiston, Glasgow. The first portion came 
under the hammer on the 13th, when the bidding was led 
by the 3,600 gns. paid for Blommers' Knitting Lesson, 
whilst 2,600 gns. was given for the same artist's L^ost 
Sabot. Other examples from the same hand went for 
sums varying from 1,700 gns. down to 100 gns. A Tender 
Chord, by Sir W. Q. Orchardson, 34^ in. by 28^ in., 
awakened competition, being knocked down for 2,45ogns., 
thus registering a striking advance on the £,i,lo los. paid 
for it in the Humphrey Roberts sale in 1908. Another 
high amount for a work by W. McTaggart was secured 
in i.Soo gns. for Bathers, other canvases by this artist 
securing 1,700 gns. and downwards. Without entering 
upon a detailed description of all the outstanding items, 
which were many, we have space to record a few as being 
of special interest in themselves, including Tending the 
Flock, by C. E. Jacque, 1,050 gns.; The Bathers, by 
Hugh Cameron, 1,000 gns. ; Landscape, with Figure and 
Cows, byCorot, 625 gns.; Hambledown, byT. S. Cooper, 
410 gns.; Cathedral Interior, by Louis Isabey, 420 gns. ; 
Miss Cleghorn, 260 gns., and Dr. Cleghorn, 210 gns., 
both by Raeburn : and Dedham Vale, by Constable, 
220 gns. 

A number of drawings from Major the Hon. E. M. 
Pakenham's collection were put up at Sotheby's on 
March 6th. The principal feature was nine volumes 
containing numerous sporting subjects from the brushes 
of H. .-Ylken, H. Aiken, jun., Sam Aiken, R. R. Scanlan, 
C. B. Newhouse, Pollard, Howitt, Cooper Henderson, 
and Ibbetson. The total sum secured by the set was 
^949. At the same sale a set of four water-colours of 
Shooting, by S. Howitt, realised £,z\o. 

M.\NV interesting plates maintained the standard of 

bidding at Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge's on 

February loth, when an impression 
Engravings and ^^ ^y^^ j^j^^ ^^^^,j^ ,j^^ j^-„jj-^^ ^^. j^ 

Etchings Houston, after Rembrandt, made 

y;45 ; whilst on the 26th, ^24 los. was given for Chaucer's 

Canterbury Pilgrims, by W. Blake. Messrs. Puttick 


/// ///(• Str/r I\oo/ii 

also presented some choice engravings on Marcli 5tli. 
when a proof of Man Sharpening a Quill, by Houston, 
after Rembrandt, secured £2-, 4s.; Marian and Colin 
Clout, by Tomkins, after Miss Julia Conyers, in colours, 
£2,^ 14s.; and L'Evenlail Casse and L'Aniant Ecoulc, 
by Bonnet, after J. B. Huet, in colours, £--j-j 155. A 
few prints were included in the Schiff collection dis- 
persed by Messrs. Robinson, Fisher & Harding on 
February 12th, but only one plate attained an amount 
worthy of mention. This was a mezzotint, Dick Andreies, 
by C. Turner, after Ben Marshall, which went for 
^52 los. 

The property of the Marquess of .-^ilesbury was not en- 
tirely confined to books, so that Messrs. Sotheby's sale ot 
March 6th exhibited another facet of its beauty. .\ series 
of the Portraits from the Original Drawings by Hans 
Holbein, by Bartolozzi, also Hans Holbein and his Wife, 
by and after the same, all in colours and in the original 
wrappers e.xcept one number, made £\o. A collection 
of about 750 engravings by George Vertue, with a 
written index in \'ertue's autograph, only netted ^64. 
The MS. portion is interesting on account of the state- 
ment " began to work for myself under the year 1709. 
A series of 79 Views of Rome, by Piranesi, with uncut 
margins, realised £lo. 

From another source were a proof before title of Tlie 
Letter Writer, h\ J. Watson, after Metzu, £},\ ; and 
Indiscretioti and The Surprise, by J. W. Delatre, after 
F. Wheatley, a pair of ovals printed in colours, ^53. 
The late Wilson Crewdson's collection had many charm- 
ing items, including a number of plates after Sir Joshua 
Reynolds. .-\ second state of Georgiana, Duchess of 
Devonshire, by \'. Green, realised most with its ^195, 
and a first state with large margins of Lady Caroline 
Price, by J. Jones, occupied second place with ^145. 
Other prices were ^69 for a first state of Lord Robert 
Manners, by W. Dickinson ; ^60 for a second state of 
Diana, Viscountess Crosbie, by the same : /50 for a 
second state of Jane, Countess of Harrington, by V. 
(ireen ; ^41 for a first state of Lady Gertrude Fitzpatrick, 
by J. R. Smith ; £11 for a first state of Polly Kennedy, 
by T. Watson ; £'i,z apiece for Hon. Mrs. Stanhope 
(publication line cut oft'; and Afrs. Carnac linlaid), both 
by J. R. Smith; £l\ for Catherine, Lady Bamfylde, by 
T. Watson /cut slightly all round); ^19 for Elizabeth, 
Countess of Derby, by W. Dickinson ; ^iS for a second 
state of Schoolboys ■.The Masters G aider , h\ J. R. 
Smith : and ^17 for a second state of St. Cecilia (Afrs. 
Sheridan), by W. Dickinson. A pair of proofs of The 
Fruit Piece and The Flower Piece, b\- R. Earlom, after 
\'an Huysum, made j(?4j. 

.\ few further plates, after Reynolds, were noticeable 
in the property of an officer in the army. These included 
Anne, Viscountess Townshend, by \'. Green, first state, 
^94 : Master Braddyll, by J. Grozer, first state, ^38 ; 
Margaret, Lady Beaumont, by J. R. Smith, first state, 
^30; and Barbara, Countess of Coventry, by J. Watson, 
first state, £\-. .\ proof of Lord Nelson, by R. S. 
Syer, after L. F. .\bbott, secured ^29 ; and Miss Farren, 
by Bartolozzi, after Lawrence, in brown, title cut oft'. 

£20. .\ series of collections of prints figured in the 
property of a nobleman, when a set of eight aquatints 
in colours, by C. Bentley, after H. Aiken, The Grand 
Leicestershire Steeplechase, ran up \.<:> £210. In the col- 
lection of Major the Hon. E. M. Pakenham were the 
following open-letter proofs: — Game-keepers and Laboiir- 
ei's, a pair, by H. Birche, after G. Stubbs, ^54 ; Thomas 
Rounditig on his favourite hunter " Spankaway," by 
W.Ward, after A. Cooper, second fifty, ^36 ; and Charles 
Newman, Master of the East Esse.x Fo.xhounds. by W. 
Barnard, after F. C. Turner, £20. 

Objets d'Art 

.■\ ijU-ANTlTV Ot choice objets d'art from the late Sir 
Ernest F. Schift"'s collection were oflfered by Messrs. 
Robinson, Fisher & Harding on 
February 1 3th, a noteworthy item being 
a carved ivor\- figure of a girl, " Jeune Chanteuse, " by 
Alph. van Beurden, which realised £\\i 12s. .A. number 
of gold and enamelled boxes varied between ^52 los. 
and ;{Ji02 1S5. each. A few Persian carpets came up at 
Christie's on the 27th, most favour being shown to one 
measuring 15 ft. 4 in. by 9 ft. 6 in., which went for 
^141 15s.; whilst of a selection of jewels which came under 
the hammer on the preceding day, the limit was reached 
by ;{^4, 800 bid for a necklace of 65 graduated pearls of 
fine orient, with diamond hooks. A really interesting 
glass sale was held by .Messrs. Sotheby on February 
20th and 2 1 St, when a taperstick with dome foot, 7 in. 
high, made /55, and a pair of candlesticks, on moulded 
baluster stems and domed feet, circa 1730, /39, and a 
large Irish bowl, circa 1770, iS in. diam., /30. 

Exceptional interest attached to the King Street sale 
of March 6th, when the historic "Clog an Oir," a bell 
associated traditionally with St. Senan of Iniscatha, 
Scattery Island, ran up to ^1,312 los. The bell, which 
belongs to the loth century, with later additions, was said 
to have descended from heaven, and was preserved b\- 
the comharbs of St. Senan, the last recognised comharb 
being Siacus O'Cahan (d. 1581), in whose direct line it 
descended until 1730, when it passed by marriage to 
Robert Cahan, of Ballyvoe, from whom it came down to 
Marcus Keane, Esq., J. P., the late owner. Constructed 
of bronze-gilt enriched witji silver, the measurements are 
5 in. high, 2i in. wide at base. The purchaser, Mr. 
Panton, has since presented the bell to the Royal Irish 
.\cademy, Dublin. 

.\ KEW Toby jugs from Staft'ordshire factories were 
included by Messrs. Puttick & Simpson in their sale of 

Februarv 28th. Prominent amongst 
Pottery and , ' . , 1 r> 1 1 

.„ ,' these was a lug and cover bv Ralph 

Porcelain 1 • , ■ u i • 1 .' 1 1 <- 

\\ ood, 93 in. high, which tell for 

^89 5s.; whilst another, same height, went for ^25 4s.; 
and a small Staft'ordshire specimen, 7 in. high, ^26 5s. 
.A. Whieldon jug, in the form of a sailor, 1 1^ in. high, made 
^22 IS. Several Nantgarw plates realised anything from 
£\ 4S. to /;i5 15s. apiece. 

The ceramic section of Mr. Dowell's session on 
March ist was led by ^136 los. paid for a pair of Ming 
five-colour vases and covers, 15A in. high; other prices 


The Connoisseur 

including ^43 is. for an old Celadon circular dish, fluted 
and scalloped border, 18 in. diam.; and ^27 6s. for a 
blanc-de-chine seated figure, " Maitreya Buddha." 

Exclusive of the famous Clog an Oir, which is referred 
to in another place, the King Street sale of March 6th was 
noticeable for some fine specimens of porcelain. Several 
frames of Wedgwood plaques averaged between £^(i and 
^"86 each, paving the way for Mr. Montague G. Thorold's 
property, which showed early signs of becoming interest- 
ing. A certain amount of armorial porcelain was led by 
a Kien-Lung tea-service, with the arms of Rigby, Essex, 
which fetched ^73 los. for some fifty pieces. Animated 
bidding was provoked for a pair of Kang-He cylindrical 
powdered-blue vases, 17^^ in. high, ;£i,995 ; whilst other 
lots were a Kien-Lung famille-rose bowl, 15 in. diam., 
^157 IDS.; and a Kang-He oviform cylindrical powdered- 
blue vase and cover, 18 in. high, ^220 loi. From an- 
other source came a pair of Kien-Lung mandarin jars 
and covers, 4 ft. 3 in. high, ^609. A pair of Nantgarw 
sugar-tureens, covers and stands, painted with bouquets, 
impressed mark, made an early appearance on the 13th, 
realising ^102 i8s. ; whilst the fourth lot to follow was 
an old Worcester tea-service, painted with flowers in 
the Oriental taste, consisting of some twenty odd pieces, 
for which £\o--, was taken. A Dresden figure of a jay, 
perched on the stem of an oak tree, i6| in. high, 
fetched ^65 2s.; a Chinese figure of a lady, her robe 
enamelled with flowers and butterflies on a green ground, 
5 in. high, made £,b-^ 2=.; six Xankin dishes, painted 
with tiger-lily ornament in spirally fluted borders, lo^ in. 
diam., ^105; a Kang-He oviform egg-shell lantern, 
enamelled with an audience, etc., 8i in. high, 6 in. 
diam., ^147; a pair of Kang-He figures of men, their 
robes enamelled green, and decorated with medallions 
of flowers, etc., seated on oblong plinths, 7 in. high, 
£2i)\ ; and a Kang-He figure of Kwan-Yin, her robe 
enamelled with formal flowers in famille-verte on stippled- 
green ground, 10 in. high, £32 103. A Kang-He circular 
dish, enamelled with a kylin, phcenix, trees and rocks, 
famille-verte, 134 in. diam., netted i;35 14s. at Puttick's 
on the 14th. 

A GR.\NDF.\THER CLOCK, by William Wright, London, 
in Chippendale mahogany case, 7 ft. high, was an interest- 
ing item in Messrs. Robinson, Fisher 
Furniture ^^^ Harding's sale on February 5th. 

The highest bid was oneof/6i. A Louis XVI. rose- 
wood and kingwood writing-table, mounted in ormolu and 
fitted with a clock by Crosnier, Paris, made ^70. 

Amongst the property of Mr. Lewis Wright, which 
was sold at Sotheby's on March 14th, was a French 
tortoiseshell-fronted cabinet, decorated in mother-of-pearl, 
etc., 5 ft. 10 in. high, 3 ft. 6 in. wide, i ft. 9 in. deep, which 
fetched ^310. From another source, a suite of four 
French armchairs and a settee, upholstered in Aubusson 
tapestry, made ^loS. The total netted by the sale was 
close upon ^^3,200. 

On the 27th, a pair of Chippendale mirrors in large 
gilt frames, 6 ft. 9 in. high, 4 ft. wide, made ;{J99 i 5s. at 
King Street ; whilst a single Chippendale mirror, the glass 

overlaid with scroll-work, and with a pagoda-shaped 
canopy, 8 ft. high, 6 ft. wide, secured ^52 los. ; a Queen 
Anne winged armchair, on walnut cabriole legs, £65 25. : 
a Louis XV. small writing-table, 44 in. wide, /81 i8s. ; 
an old English mahogany bookcase, the centre form- 
ing a bureau, surmounted by an eagle, 8 ft. 2 in. high, 
4 ft. 3 in. wide, ^89 5s. ; a Chippendale mahogany 
table, carved wMth a shell, on cabriole legs, 45 in. wide, 
^75 I2S. ; an Indo-Portuguese cabinet, entirely overlaid 
wqth ivory, engraved with classical ruins, 40 in. high, 
24 in. wide, ^94 los. ; and a set ot three Georgian side- 
tables, painted black and partly gilt, the supports carved 
as dolphins, 7 ft. 4 in. and 4 ft. 9 in., ^147- 

Several interesting pieces appeared in Mr. Dowell's 
(Edinburgh) sale of February 28th and March ist. 
Reserving our report to a few of the highest prices 
realised, mention must be made of ;£i26 for a small- 
sized grandfather clock, chased brass dial, by James 
Nicoll, Canongate, Edinburgh, in elm - root case : 
^141 15s. for a red Boulle commode of three drawers; 
and i^i47 for a Dutch carved ebony cabinet, 5 ft. 9 in. 
by 7 ft. 

The most important items at Messrs. Robinson, Fisher 
and Harding's on March 5th were a set of eight mahogany 
Hepplewhite chairs, ^232 ; and a 3-ft. oyster-shell and 
inlaid Queen Anne cabinet, fitted drawers, on stand, 
/J 1 00 1 6s. 

We cannot do more than refer to a few of the pieces 
which came under the hammer at Christie's on the 
following day. Of Chippendale (carved mahogany) we 
noticed 3 chairs, £i)S, los. ; oblong side-table, 6 ft. 6 ni. 
wide, ^99 15s. ; card-table, on cabriole legs, 35 in. wide, 
y;ii5 103. ; and 6 chairs, in the style of walnut chairs of 
Queen Anne, on cabriole legs and ball -and -claw feet, 
with brass claws, ;£493 los. A Queen Anne long window- 
seat, on cabriole legs, 8 ft. 6 in. long, 21 in. wide, 
realised /241 los. ; an Adam satinwood commode, 
inlaid in various woods, and painted, 4 ft. wide, ^378 ; 
an old English lacquer cabinet, on Chippendale carved 
mahogany stand, 3 ft. 5 in. wide, ^120 15s.; a Charles 11. 
lacquer cabinet, on carved gilt-wood stand, 3 ft. 6 in. wide, 
£\\i ; a William and Mary marqueterie secretaire, 3 ft. 
wide, illustrated in yi2iCa^\xo\A'z Age of Walnut, Fig. 117, 
^199 IDS. ; a Louis X\". marqueterie table, 27 in. wide, 
stamped "P.Roussel IViE,"/357; another, similar, y;294 ; 
a Louis X\'. marqueterie secretaire, in the manner of 
David de Luneville, 25 in. wide, /75C' : ^ Sheraton 
mahogany commode, 53 in. wide, ;^i62 15s. ; and two 
sets of Louis X\T. (five fauteuils and (six j chair frame- 
works, ^^152 5s. apiece. 

At Messrs. Puttick ct Simpson's session of March "th. 
^189 was bid for a kingwood marqueterie bureau ot 
Louis XVI. design, on cabriole legs, 40 in. wide, whilst 
a Dutch carved mahogany armoire, i8th century, 77 in. 
wide, made ^75 12s.; a Chippendale carved mahogan>- 
oblong centre table, on cabriole legs with ball-and-claw 
feet, 47 in. wide, ^89 5s.; an Italian walnut marqueterie 
wardrobe, inlaid with figures of Flora and Pomona under 
ivory canopies, late 17th century, 74 in. wide, ^52 los. ; 
and a Georgian mahogany secretaire bookcase, 45 in. 


/// the Sale Room 

wide, £^o IQS. Asetof se\en and twn elbow old English 
carved ebon\- chairs of Stuart design, from Lord Monta- 
gue's collection, was knocked down for ^94 los. 

Seven Sheraton carved mahogany chairs, inlaid in 
sntinwood, realised ^^126 at King Street on the 13th, 
whereas eight Hepplewhite carved mahogany chairs and 
two armchairs went for /86 23. An old English mahogany 
secretaire, cylinder front, mounted with bronze lion's mask 
and ring handles, 4 ft. 6 in. wide, secured ^96 12s. : an 
old English clock by Michael Shields, London, in tall 
case of Queen .^nne mart|ueterie, 7 ft. 6 in. high, ^86 2s. ; 
a Queen Anne walnut tallboy of nine drawers, 4oin.wide, 
/42 ; a Sheraton satinwood commode, inlaid in mar- 
queterie, 38 in. wide, £^A 12s. ; a suite of furniture of 
Louis X\'l. design, consisting of a settee and four 
fauteuils, covered in Aubusson tapestry, ^252 ; a pair of 
French marqueterie commodes, 37 in. wide, ^^178 los. ; 
and a BouUe show-cabinet, 8 ft. 6 in. high, 6 ft. wide, 
/S4. The property of Mr. Christopher Tonge, a i6th 
century Flemish tapestry panel woven w^ith a camp scene, 
S ft. 6 in. by 14 ft. 6 in., secured ^^254 at Puttick's 
on March 7th. 

.A. rRO.MINENT item at Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson 
and Hodge's rooms on February 17th was three folio 
volumes, containing several hundred 
caricatures, portraits, views, tradesmen's 
cards, etc., in every conceivable state of issue, all pos- 
sessing some connection with William Hogarth. The 
top bid was one of /J400. -\ richly illuminated Bool; of 
Hours (French, 15th centuryj was amongst the suc- 
ceeding lots of importance, realising ^80, whilst T!ie 
Hooke of the Common Prater (London: R. ("irafton, 
1549) brought in ^30. This was a specimen of the first 
prayer-book of Edward VL On the following day an 
album of fifteen Indian miniatures, in native leather 
binding, made ^42, and a Burmese MS. Life of Buddha, 
/2i. The late Mr. F. B. Saloman's collection of some 
2,500 bookplates went for ^70. The total realised by 
the sale w-as over ^(3, 145. 

The valuable library belonging to the Marquess of 
Ailesbury was the subject of a three days' sale, commenc- 
ing March 3rd, for which a total of ^9,071 7s. was 
secured. Starting with the first day, the first outstand- 
ing lot was a finely illuminated Biblia Sacra Laiina, on 
vellum (French, 14th century}, in a German i6th cen- 
tury binding, stamped with coats of arms and the name 
Jacobus Thysius. This volume dm. 4to) netted ^250, 
and was followed by several e.xamples ot fine bind- 
ing, of which ma\- be recorded a Caclius Antiquarium 


I Frobenius, 15 17), in contemporary Lyonese binding, in- 
scribed "Grolierii et Amicorum," ^252 (this is not 
recorded in the Grolier Club edition of Le Roux de 
Lincy's fean Grolier, 1907) ; and Missalc Romatium 
(Antwerp, 1676), in contemporary red mor. gilt in the 
so-called " Mearne " style (MS. inscription on fly-leaf; 
"out of Bishop Burnett's library"}, ;{;2oo. A copy of 
the first English translation of Boccaccio's DecameroJi 
(Isaac laggard, 1620) fetched ^185: G. Chapman, Ben 
Jonson, and J. Marston's Eastward Hoe (for William 
Aspley, 1605), ;/^i6o; and a somewhat imperfect copy 
of The Chronicle of St. Albans, bearing Caxton's large 
device (Wynkyn de Worde, Fleet Street, 1502), ^91. 
The gem of the day was, howexer, Caxton's Booke called 
Caton, translated by " Mayster Benet Burgh, late Arche- 
deken of Colchestre and lye chanon of saint Stephens at 
Westmestre " (1483), which aroused a contest only to be 
silenced by the fall of the hammer on a bid of ^950. 

March 4th showed immediate signs of promise as to the 
interest of the day's dispersal. Fitz-Geffry's Sir Francis 
Drake, his Honourable Lifes Commendation, and his 
Tragical Deathcs Lamentation, an original issue, appar- 
ently earlier than that in the British Museum (Oxford, 
Joseph Barnes, 1596), was amongst the first lots to be 
sold, and secured /315. Shortly afterwards ^160 was 
given for Abraham Fraunce's The Countessc of Pem- 
broke's Yuychurch 11591-2;; and John Heywood's 
Workes 1 Thos. Powell, 1562), /150. An excessively 
rare edition of Marlowe's Hero and Leander, with Lucans 
First Booke (Part I., for John Flashet, 1600; Part II., 
by P. Short, and are to be sold by Walter ISurre, 160O', 
realised £boo. Bound in the same volume were a first 
edition o{ Churchyard's Challenge (John Wolfe, 1593 
and a Relation of such things as n'cre observed to happen 
in the fourney of Charles Earle of Nottingham 1 M. Brad- 
wood for G. Seaton, 1605). A large icopy of the first 
edition of Marlowe's Famous Tragedy of the Rich lew of 
Malta (I. B. for Nicholas \'avasour, 1633) went for 
^130. On the concluding day, two collections of broad- 
side proclamations, covering the reigns of James I. to 
William and Mary, were offered. The first part realised 
^102 for some 130 specimens, whilst the second went up 
to ^135 for 380. .\ copy of the second folio of Shake- 
speare's works, with the 'Droeshout portrait (1632), was 
sold for 7^155 ; whilst the proceedings terminated with the 
^400 bid for an extremely rare and interesting, though 
slightly defective. Year Booke, jy Henry VL 1 folio, Wil- 
liam de Machlinia, n.d.). The two other recorded copies 
of this book are preserved in the Cambridge University 
Library (imperfect) and at Exeter College, Oxford. 



all round 

The example of Italy, who firmly insisted on the armis- 
tice terms on the return to her of the works of art taken 
away by the Austrians when the inde- 
pendence of Italy was recognised, has 
inspired other nations with similar 
hopes. M. van Werveke, conservator of the Museum of 
Architology and Historic Monuments in Ghent, has 
addressed a petition to his Government, begging them to 
claim from Austria the works of art which she took from 
Belgium at the end of the eighteenth century. 

"In doing so," writes M. van Werveke, "you will only 
be acting as the Germans did at the beginning of the 
occupation. The Archa-ological Museum of Ghent pos- 
sessed an embroidered standard taken from the Prussian 
cavalry by the Austrian 
army in the battle of 
Maxen (1759). This 
trophy was given by 
Count de Saint-lgnon, 
the Austrian general, 
to the Confederation 
of Saint G eorge in 
Ghent, which con- 
federation resigned it 
to the museum. At 
t h e e n d o f I 9 I 4 the 
Germans took the stan- 
dard away from the 
museum, justifying 
their act by the argu- 
ment that, entering 
Ghent as victors, they 
took by force what had 
been taken from them 
by force in 1759. 

" On this principle 
we ought to claim from 
Austria the numerous 
pictures, etc. , of which 
she despoiled us at the 
end of the eighteenth 

"Austria refused to 
found museums in 

lielgium to house corner ok a drawino- 

the works of art found by rankin at 

in the suppressed convents, and took away the most 
precious of them to enrich the \'ienna Museum. Before 
sending them away, she" forced Belgium (at that time 
under her suzerainty) to pay their value into the religious 
funds or to the convents themselves, and she even 
charged the Belgian budget with the cost of packing and 

" These are well-known facts of Belgian history. 

"The time has now come to claim these artistic trea- 
sures of which we were despoiled when we were under 
the yoke of Austria. " 

M. van Werveke gives a list of the pictures claimed, 
amongst which are nine Rubens, two Van Dycks, five 
Seghers, three De Crayers, some Breughels, and also a 

series of wonderful 

The Royal Society 
of Painters in 

The 176th e.\hibi- 
bition of the Royal 
Society of Painters in 
Water -Colours is a 
good average display, 
destitute of any works 
of special moment, but 
containing a large pro- 
portion of examples 
worthy of a place in 
any representative col- 
lection of modern Eng- 
lish water-colours. 
Pleasant colour and 
harmonious tranquil- 
lity of tone are the pre- 
vailing notes. One 
finds these characteris- 
tics exemplified in Mr. 
|. C. DoUman's A7o///- 
iitgaie, an evening gar- 
den scene permeated 
by a tender roseate 
glow. High finish is 
a characteristic of 
this work, and also of 



Ciirrent Art Notes 



Floivcr Beds, by 

the President, 

Mr. Alfred Par- 
sons, another 

.garden scene, 

but one more 


formal in its ar- 
rangement. Mr. 

Parsons' work is 

always true to 


tifuUy executed, 

but one would 

enjoy it the more 

if it were a little 

less formal and 

precise. Mr. 

Harry Watson, 

in his Sussex 

L a n lis i ape, 

achieved deco- 
rative effect at 

the cost of some 

sacrifice of at - 

mospheric truth, 

the sky being 

treated as a flat surface without any recession towards the 

horizon. Mr. W. Eyre Walker shows tender and dulcet 

colour in half a dozen landscapes ; and Mrs. .A.llinghanis 
rural scenes are similarly characterised, the more impor- 
tant of them, an Old Wiltshire Cottage, showing her 
refined and delicate technique to great advantage. The 
pleasant, sunny outlook of these painters is similar to 
that of Sir Ernest A. Waterlow and Mr. R. Thorne- 
Waite, though each embodies his vision in a different 
manner. Sir Ernest's Farmlands, Westmeston, Sussex, 
is thoroughly characteristic. Mr. Thome- Waite shows 
greater breadth and more vivid colour than usual in his 
Cornfield and Windmill, a transcript of a harvest scene 
against a bright blue sky. In his Return of the Welsh 
Fusiliers, iSig, the artist challenged comparisons with 
similar scenes painted by Cox and MuUer. The soldiers 
were shown in a wide-spreading landscape shadowed 
over by clouds, their red uniforms telling out strongly 
against the surrounding greens ; but the eftect was a little 
patchy, owing to the reds being all concentrated in one 
portion of the work. The earlier masters avoided this by 
repeating the colour elsewhere. Mr. Robert W. Allan's 
Venetian Fishmongej^s Shop recalled Fred Walker's 
famous drawing. It was more broadly handled, and 
revealed the outlook of a landscape artist rather than a 
figure painter. The figures and the gleaming piles of 
fish, which were the main theme of Walker's, become 
mere incidents in this ; it is less concentrated, and on that 
account less interesting. Mr. Allan is at his best in 
San Francesco, Assist, a vi\id impression of white-robed 
figures moving about in glaring semi-tropical sunshine. 
Mr. Sargent is as adequate as usual in his two drawings 
of The Dolmonites and Generalite, but they possess little 


interest but what 
is derived from 
their swift, sen- 
tient brushwork. 
The former is a 
view of moun- 
tains and clouds 
as purely topo- 
graphical in its 
outlook as an 
illustration to a 
The Generalite. 
a d r a w i n g o f 
formal garden 
walks bordered 
by green hedges 
and centred by 
a foun tai n, is 
both the more 
strongly painted 
and the more 
arresting. Its 
com position — 
as symmetrical 
and e \' e n 1 y 
balanced as a 
geometrical freehand drawing — is an offence against the 
elementary rules of art ; but artists like Mr. Sargent are 
able to make their own rules, and the strength and 
spontaneity of the brushw'ork do away with all that ap- 
pearance of artificiality which such a regular arrangement 
might be supposed to have caused. The work is both 
convincing and attractive. Mr. Charles Sims, when he 
is not in a romantic mood, is also an exponent of vigorous 
technique. His Bourlon Wood, Fontaines, and Cambrai, 
shows an expanse of open country deceptively peaceful 
in its superficial aspect, and it is only on a second glance 
that one sees that what appears to be some mole-heaps 
in the foreground are really debris cast up by bursting 
shells, and the golden clouds in the sky are of smoke 
illuminated by flame. The drawing is a truthful record, 
impressive because of the .^ncerityand force of its expres- 
sion. Mr. R. Anning Bell is among the few exponents 
of romance in the exhibition, but his Found gives one the 
impression of an incident invented merely as a peg for a 
preconceived arrangement of form and colour. The two 
shepherdesses bending over a little covert are well drawn 
and painted, but the third figure advancing towards them 
appears to have been added as an afterthought, and the 
whole composition appears a little artificial. Mr. Albert 
Goodwin's Sunset from a City Wall — a rich Eastern 
effect full of glowing colour — is perhaps the most striking 
of his several examples ; and Mr. H. Hughes-Stanton's 
Cader Idris is the best of his. It recalls in theme and 
treatment his large oil painting exhibited at the Royal 
Academy, and is as strong as if painted in the more 
powerful medium. One regrets this heightening up of 
water-colours to the force of oils, as, if persisted in, 
artists showing in public exhibitions will have to largely 


Tlie Connoisseur 

discard the delicacy and refinement which so character- 
ised the work of the older masters in order to enable 
their drawings to hold their own against the more 
strongly painted exhibits. Mr. William T. Wood is 
somewhat of an offender in this respect, as his three 
drawings, A Poor Old Woman, Star at Eve, and A Nude 
Study, show a vehemence in their tonal effects almost 
approaching to violence. This is attained by the use of 
black or deep blue backgrounds. Clever as the works 
undoubtedly are, they are too obtrusive to be entirely 
pleasing. Miss Alice Macallan Swan is another artist 
who exhausts the resources of her palette in attaining 
strength of tone. Her Jade Lotus Ship, painted in 
strident greens, reds, blues, and blacks, compels atten- 
tion, and her dexterity in combining the colours together 
into a harmonious and homogeneous composition is com- 
mendable, but the effect is not restful. Among the figure 
subjects, Mr. F. Cadogan Cowper's Scheherazada, an 
elaborate and highly wrought representation of an East- 
ern beauty, attracts attention for its sustained sumptuous- 
ness of coloration. It would be more convincing had the 
artist painted the lighting of the figure consistently with 
the outdoor evening background. As it is, it is wanting 
ui vitality, and only ranks as a pretty piece of picture- 
making. In complete contrast to this is Mrs. Laura 
Knight's Ballet School, in which all bright colours had 
been discarded in favour of whites and greys. It is 
distinguished by perfect sincerity and beautiful tonal 
quality, and, though owing something to the influence ot 
Uegas and Whistler, is not in the least degree imitative. 
Mr. Reginald Smith is another artist whose work is 
characterised by great colour restraint. His Eholton 
shows a broad expanse of snow-covered fields backed by 
high hills under a leaden sky, heavy with another load of 
unfallen snow. It is perfectly true to nature, and impres- 
sive by reason of its bigness of feeling and uncompro- 
n-.ising sincerity. In Mr. Smith's Bend of the River he 
has substituted blue for grey as a complement to the 
white snow, and attained some beautiful colour cjuality ; 
but one feels that such bright tones would be only visible 
during unclouded sunshine, and if so, the snow would be 
sparkling with reflections instead of an unbroken sheet of 
dull white. Mr. Arthur Rackham contributes some of 
his quaint and attractive illustrations to nursery rhymes, 
Mr. H. S. Tuke several delicately coloured and atmos- 
pheric figure pieces, and Mr. S. J. Lamorna Birch, Mr. 
Harry Watson, Mr. Moffat Lindner, and Mr. Claude A. 
Shepperson are all represented by good work. 

The Royal Insti- 
tute of Painters in 

The I loth exhibition of the Royal Institute of I'ainters 
in Water-Colours aftbrded few evidences of novelty or 
progress. Most of the members 
were content to traverse well-worn 
paths, and though the result was a 
display of work maintaining a fair 
general level of ability, there was little in it either par- 
ticularly interesting or exhilarating. The principal centre 
in the large gallery was occupied with a large upright. 
In the Bay at Stornoway. by the President. This was a 
picturesque view of a little land-locked inlet bounded to 

the right and left with high rocky banks, patched with 
heather and crowned with trees ; while in the distance 
be\ond lay a stretch of open water, blued with the re- 
flection of the sky, and dotted here and there with 
camouflaged ships, their dazzle-painted sides, grimly 
suggestive of war and its perils, forming a piquant con- 
trast to the sylvan solitude near at hand. Sir David had 
l^ermitted himself to use brighter coloration than he has 
lately employed, and the effect was sunny and exhilarat- 
ing, and formed a pleasant piece of decoration. In two 
drawings almost as large as that of the President, Mr. 
Fred Taylor represented shipyard scenes, one showing 
A Launch at Thornya-offs, and the other, A Shipyard 
in War-time. They were both vigorously set down, and 
effectively suggested the bustling activities of the scenes 
and the huge sizes of the leviathans in course of con- 
struction. Neither of the works owed much to their 
colour, and in his two other examples the artist relied 
chiefly on strong chiaroscuro contrasts. An Italian Noc- 
turne showing a large villa by a lakeside under a dark 
night sky, with a few patches of lamp-light breaking up 
the prevailing gloom ; and the other, Rio Harbour by 
night. The former was distinguished by its romantic 
feeling, yet might have gained in decorative effect if 
executed on a smaller scale, the dark tones which pre- 
dominated in it making the huge drawing look rather 
like a hole in the wall. The Rio was less subtle— a strong 
eftect of artificial lights shining out against dark houses 
and headlands, with their beams reflected on the placid 
waters of a land-locked bay. It was, perhaps, more 
suggestive of the beauty of the scene depicted than 
beautiful in itself. Mr. Dudley Hardy was less strongly 
represented than usual, though his several drawings were 
interesting for their fine suggestion of colour, conveyed 
with wonderful economy of means. The drawings were 
painted practically in varied shades of grey, lit up with 
just a single note of colour. In Una Paciente, a con- 
tinental seaport scene, show-ing an almost deserted quay 
on a wet day, this was afforded by a green umbrella 
harmonised by some tiny suggestions of red and blue 
peeping out from the prevailing grey. Even more 
monochromatic was Tlie Germans have left Belgium, an 
impressive allegory, which would bear repetition on a 
larger scale. A bowed figure of an old peasant carrying 
a basket was shown on a barren, treeless plain, marked 
here and there with white crosses. The sense of complete 
ruin and desolation was finely conveyed, and the drawing 
formed an impressive reminder of Belgium's wrongs and 
sufferings. Mr. Wynne Apperley's two works were 
marked by many fine passages, yet neither was wholly 
con\incing. The Song of Albacin, showing a seated 
Spanish damsel listening to the serenade of a young male 
companion standing behind her strumming a guitar, was 
interesting as an elaborate and highl\- finished costume 
picture, completely realised : and a similar criticism 
applied to The Mirror, which show-ed a brunette in 
Spanish dress assisting in the toilette of a nude golden- 
haired companion. Had the picture been painted with 
feeling equal to its technical execution, it would have been 
one of the finest works in the exhibition. 


Current Art Notes 

was too large to 
Ijermit an ex- 
tended exami- 
nation o f t h e 
numerous well- 
painted works in 
which the artists 
went no farther 
than their ven- 
turesof previous 
years. Mr. 
Cieorge Cock- 
ram showed 
truthful colour, 
feeling and well- 
sustained tone 
in his g^loomy 
Idival S /ream, 
Nant Fj-ancon, 
his autumnal 
Reedy Margin 
oftlie Lake, and 
sunnier Veniee. 
Mr. Barry Pittar 
contributed a 
drawing of the 
Main Entrance, 
Chartres Cathe- 
dral, large in 
feeling and 
vigorously han- 
dled ; and Mr. 
(".. Hillyard- 
.S w i n s t e a d a 
\'\^\\ o{ The Har- 
bour, Polperro, 
a little forced in 
its tones of blue, 
but attractive 
and exhilarat- 
ing. One should 
also note M r. 
Arthur Burring- 
ton's quaint and 

Van Anrooy's quiet-toned Lock, Maestrieht, and Mr, F. 
Stuart Richardson's fresh and spontaneous View of Slurs. 
Mr. William B. Y.. Rankin's five interiors were all in- 
teresting ; the Board Room at the Admiralty was the 
most highly wrought, A Coriier of the Ballroom at Baron 
d'Erlanger's House the most impressionistic. The differ- 
ence in their effect resolved itself into merely one of view- 
point. The former could be viewed appreciatively at any 
distance ; the latter, if seen near to, appeared chaotic, 
space was required to focus it and resolve its elements 
into a homogeneous whole. The^ Dra-cvinn-room in Baron 
d' Erlanger's House came midway between the luo in its 
treatment. .\11 three were distinguished bv that feelini;' 


for good if quiet 
coloration and 
sincerity and 
soundness ot 
technique which 
characterises so 
m any o f t h e 
older mast ers 
of the Dutch 
school. M r. 
R a n k i n ' s 
Grans, e, Rot- 
tingdean, the 
\iew o f t h e fa- 
cade of an old 
Georgian house, 
painted in warm 
and delicate 
shades of grey 
with a note ot 
more positive 
c o 1 o 11 r i n t h e 
:4 r e e n s of the 
wood-work, was 
e quail y good. 
His Girl in 
While, a senti- 
ent a n d wel 1- 
observed study 
of a figure in the 
open a i r, w a s 
something o f a 
departure fro m 
his usual style, 
being lessdulce 
and more reson- 
a n t i n colour. 
Mr. John Reid's 
H a m p s t e ad 
Heath and Be- 
tween Hamp- 
steadan d S t- 
Albans were re- 
miniscent of De 
W i n t in t h e i r 
strong yet se- 
date colour and 
breadth ot'outlook. Mr. Charles Dixon was more varied 
than usual, his maritime subjects, painted with his usual 
deft handling, including a distant view of The Roeh, show- 
ing (.Gibraltar rising up above a blue, sunlit sea ; Many 
Cargoes, one of his familiar and attractive transcripts of 
the Thames, and DoTun Channel, a grey seascape, full of 
movement. The Brook, a Corotesque landscape by Mr. 
(Haham Petrie, was pleasing in tone and sentiment, it 
somewhat wanting in definition. Captain Ed. Handley 
Read gave a vivid glimpse of the war in On Vimy Ridge 
—a Bosch Telephone Station; and Mr. Frank Spenlove- 
Spenlove showed poetical feeling in his Little Grey Home 
in the West. Sir Frank Short's Pegwell Bay was a free 



The Coiuioissciir 

and buoyant expres- 
sion of nature ; and 
Mr. Martin Hardie's 
Doorzvay at Arqicatii ^ 
with its intimate 
revelations of mili- 
tary washing, was 
quaint and amusing. 
One of the strongest 
works in the exhibi- 
tion was Captain Lee 
Hankeys ll'ai/:n<; 
for the Boats, show- 
ing three French 
fisher-girls seated 
against some old 
palings, a bright blue 
door in which pro- 
vided a telling note 
of colour against 
the white caps and 
chemisettes of the 
trio. The grouping, 
however, was a little 
formal and photo- 
graphic. Mr. Fred- 
erick \\' h i t i n y 
escaped this in his 
hunting and fishing 
groups, which pre- 
sented an appear- 
ance of unstudied 
ease, but were rather 
superficially treated. 
Mr. James S. Hill's 
Loiv Tide, Mr. R. 
Talbot Kelly's Ni/e 
Village, Mr. J. W. 
Schofield's Lone 
'neath the Moon, and Mr. Lewis T. Gibb's Old Ferry-way, 
were all meritorious and attractive landscapes. Among the 
figure pieces, Mr. Fred Roe's Garden of Eden presented 
the attraction of a problem picture, the spectator having it 
m his power to accept it as a literal rendering of a scene in 
an Eastern cafe, where a young officer, having entertained 
a frivolous though fascinating damsel to champagne, is 
ruefully regarding the bill presented by a stolid-looking 
Chinaman for settlement ; or he may invest it with an 
allegorical significance, the ofiScer personifying Youth, 
the girl Pleasure, and the Chinaman Fate demanding the 
reckoning for misspent hours. Mr. Roe gave the parable 
in lively colour and invested it with dramatic force, while 
the arrangement of figures was well managed and their 
attitudes easy and natural. Two highly finished draw- 
ings by Mr. W. H. Margetson, A Dropped Stitch and a 
portrait oi Mrs. IV. H. Margetson, were both good. 

Old Eaglish Water-colours 

1 HE exhibition of early English water-colour drawings 
at .Messrs. Thomas .Agnew and Sons' galleries (43, Old 


Bond Street;, if chief- 
ly remarkable for the 
wonderful display of 
Turners, was also rich 
in fine examples of 
many of his famous 
contemporaries and 
predecessors, and in- 
cluded a number of 
works b)' minor mas- 
ters rarely seen in 
current exhibitions, 
whose work deserves 
tO; be better known 
and appreciated. 
Two of the pioneers 
in English water- 
colour art were Paul 
Sandby and John 
Robert Cozens. The 
former was chiefiy 
solicitous in render- 
ingTocal and topo- 
graphical truths, 
while the latter, 
possessed of a more 
poetical and subtle 
vision, sacrificed 
these to the realisa- 
tion of tone and 
atmosphere. These 
two masters exer- 
cised adual influence 
in water-colour paint- 
in g w h i c h ma y be 
traced for many 
years in the work of 
their successors. 
Paul Sandby's fluent 
and picturesque style was finely exemplified in the well- 
composed Swan Inn, Edmonton. The topography of the 
place was realised with faithful verisimilitude, but the 
drawing was also endowed with an artistic interest de- 
rived from its firm and easy handling, pleasant and sunny 
coloration, and the introduction of some well-drawn and 
picturesque figures. Yet it must be classed as topographi- 
cal art, though of a high order. J. T. Richards's view of 
Richmond Hill belonged to the same genus, as did the 
West Front, Toivn Hall, Bath, i/yy, of T. Malton, and 
IVie Village Inn of George Pyne, the latter being an 
especially good example of the artist, and contradicting 
by its strong and efiective colour and well-thought-out 
composition Roget's description of his work as being 
"pale drawings of the topographic kind which might 
have been done with the camera lucida." Julius C;tsar 
Ibbetson, in his Welsh Village and Llan-a'rst Bridge, 
showed greater depth of tone, and invested the groups of 
figures that he introduced with as much interest as their 
topographical environment, yet in these two works he 
must be classed as treading in Sandby's footsteps. 

nv JAMES YOUNG, 1 78 1 
RSMlTilS company's EXHIBITION 



Cnyyent Art Notes 


J. R. Cozens, Sandby's antithesis in art, was stronyly 
represented, ten fine and characteristic drawings giving 
evidence of his genius. In these one discerned that topo- 
graphical interest was subordinated to the deeper truths 
of nature, picturesque detail giving way to largeness of 
feeling, verisimilitude of local colour to atmospheric tone, 
and bustling animation to serenity. It was the poetry 
of art contrasted to the prose. Cozens was a painter's 
painter, greatly admired by Turner and Girtin, and he was 
acclaimed by Constable as "the greatest genius who 
ever touched landscape." He fails to make adequate 
appeal to the general public because of his limitations in 
colour. His art belongs to the period of tinted drawings, 
and even for that period he used a singularly restrained 
palette. In his ten examples shown at Messrs. Agnew's 
he had practically confined himself to greys and blues, 
sparingly warmed with pale chrome. This limitation 
assisted him in gaining that subtle mastery of tone re- 
vealed in all the works. Not even Turner displayed an 
acuter perception of values or realised a subject with a 
greater appreciation of the entire unison of all its parts. 
This tonalic mastery was equally exemplified in the tran- 
quil serenity of Lake Albano, the stormy grandeur of 
A Swiss Va//iy, or the arboreal luxuriance of the 
Convent at Vietri. 

The influence of Cozens permeates much of the work 
of Girtin and Turner. It was suggested in the fine 
Lincoln of the former, which, in its breadth of outlook 
andserenity of tone, carried on the tradition of the earlier 
artist. Girtin was the greater colourist, however, and 
his works rise from the category of tinted drawings to 
fully developed water-colours. Turner went far beyond 
Girtin in his colour range, and tried to combine all that 
Cozens, Sandby, and many other artists had done in his 
achievements. The drawing by him most in the Cozens 
spirit was the beautiful Rigi at Sicnrise — Lake of Lucerne 
I'The Blue Rigi). In this he had attained the same 
beautiful serenity of tone as his prototype, and combined 
it with glorious colour. This work, perhaps, marked his 
high-water-mark in the exhibition, though scarcely less 

impressi\-e in its way was the Longships LigIil/ioust\ 
rising ghost-like above a wild waste of foam-churned 
water, with the cruel iron-bound cliffs towering at the 
side, and a huge mass of wreckage being broken into 
fragments in the foreground. This attained a homogeneity 
of colour and feeling sometimes absent from Turner's 
work, and finely suggested the terrors of an angry sea on 
a lee-shore. More sumptuous colour could hardly be 
shown than in the resplendent Lake Nemi. But of this 
the composition was hardly sufficiently brought together ; 
the deep hollow of the lake, and the high bank crowned 
with houses to the right of it, are hardly connected, and 
look like halves of two distinct pictures. In this, as in 
many other of his works. Turner was endeavouring to 
combine in the same picture qualities hitherto considered 
conflicting. Some of his water-colours contain more 
topographical details than Sandby's, a fuller exemplifica- 
tion of atmospheric truths than Cozens's, combined with 
a splendour of colour that was all his own. As a rule, 
these works were less perfectly successful than examples 
less complicated in their outlook, and yet the worst ot 
them contained beauties matched in no other artist's pro- 
ductions. The bustling Activities oi Saltash seem all 
exemplified or suggested in the drawing of the town made 
for the England and Wales series, and the result is a 
scene full of animated and vibrating colour, but too un- 
restful to make a perfect appeal. In the Richmond 
Bridge : Pia_y, the figures of the romping picnickers had 
been over-emphasised, and in a measure vulgarised the 
scene, though the general conception could hardly be 
surpassed, the white gowns of the groups of dancing 
figures repeating and emphasising the form and move- 
ment of the clouds in the breezy sky. In Coventry the 
artist had contented himself with being less explicit but 
more suggestive. The mundane details have been sub- 
ordinated and masked with glorious colour so as to 
accord with the exalted poetrcal feeling of the scene. 
There were many other Turners on which one would like 
to linger — the sedate but impressive Valley of the W'ash- 
Inirnc, near Farnley, the Worcester, some of the early 


The Connoisseur 

architectural drawings, and the broad impressions of his 
later period — but so many other important works were to 
be seen that one must pass on to some of them. In his 
brilliant Rouen J. S. Cotman was emulating Turner, but 
in less transparent and atmospheric colour ; half a dozen 
sedate Peter de Wints exemplified that artist's fine 
mastery of tone ; while David Cox was represented in 
practically every phase of his art. Among the best of 
these were The Empty Harvest Waggon, broad in treat- 
ment and pleasing in coloration ; while the large Welsh 
Funeral, Bettws-y-cocd one of the artist's several ver- 
sions of this subject, if confused in arrangement, was 
interesting as an example of free brushwork. A large 
Copley Fielding, Seaford. from Newhaveii Pier, was 
bright and sunny, but scenic and unconvincing. Among 
other artists well represented were J. Varley, \V. Hunt, 
Samuel Prout, G. Robson. Tom Collier, and H. G. Hine. 

The most permanent war memorials are those which 
are the most useful ; the statue erected to the Duke of 

Wellington at Hyde Park Corner has 
A Suggested alreadv undergone several vicissi- 

National War . ' , , . a „ ■ 

„, . , tudes and transformations, and it is 

Memorial , , , , , ,. 

on the cards that some future public 

improvement might sweep it away altogether, but the 
Waterloo Bridge which perpetuates the name of his most 
famous victory will in all probability remain in being while 
London survives. For even if in the course of time the 
present structure is replaced by another, it will inevitably 
retain the same name. This being so, one must decidedly 
welcome Major Pawley's idea for combining a national 
war memorial with a great and much-needed improve- 
ment of London. Brietiy put, his suggestion is that a 
memorial chapel adjoining Westminster Abbey should 
be erected to the soldiers and sailors who have fallen in 
the war ; and, with this as a beginning, to transform the 
major portion of Pimlico lying between the Houses of 
Parliament, the Tate Gallery and \'ictoria into a new 
district, threaded with fine broad thoroughfares contain- 
ing important national and other buildings. The Major's 
designs tentatively suggest the removal to here of the 
London University, the National Gallery, and the erec- 
tion on one of the principal sites of the Imperial War 

Considerations of expense would probably prevent this 
portion of the scheme from being carried out in its en- 
tirety, but to its general conception few objections can be 
raised. The district which it is proposed to transform, 
if not exactly a slum area, is at present chiefly covered 
with mean streets quite unworthy of their position within 
a few yards of the Imperial Parliament buildings, the 
political centre of the British Empire. .\ large portion 
of the river frontage, one of the finest sites in the world, 
is practically wasted. It is inevitable that in the course 
of a few years much of the poor property now occupying 
this central site in the ordinary course of events would be 
replaced by better property. But this would be done in 
piecemeal fashion, without any comprehensive plan of 
improvement ; the old narrow streets, leading to nowhere 
in particular, would still be retained, and the district 

would not be materially benefited. Should Major Paw- 
ley's well-thought-out scheme be carried into effect, the 
greater portion of its cost could be raised out of the 
improvement in the value of the property affected. The 
new thoroughfares, lined with important buildings and 
named, as is suggested, after the Allies and Dominions 
taking part in the war, would provide a worthy and 
imperishable memorial of the conflict and worthily per- 
petuate it in the minds of generations still unborn. 

At the Goldsmiths and Silversmiths Company, Regent 

Street, there is being shown a highly interesting relic of 

Nelson. This is the Wine Flagon 

A Nelson Relic, ^^^^ ^j^^ Barratt collection, which, 

and some .. ^i_ • • »■ -^ 

according to the inscription on it, 

Adam Silver , , . i. , . . n 

once belonged to "Admiral Brueys, 

the bravest and best of sailors, four times wounded, the 
fourth shot in twain, on board his ship L'Orient, dying 
just before the explosion." It was given by " Nelson to 
Emma i Lady Hamilton In Commemoration of the vic- 
tory of the Nile.'' The inscription is dated from the 
"Vanguard, Sept. 29th, 1798, my fortieth birthday." 
The Flagon is a handsome piece in the Empire style, 
and yet, if it be taken as a representative example of the 
French silver of the period, the latter cannot be said to 
be equal to contemporary English work. Its design is a 
little flamboyant, the silversmith who made it having 
been more intent on loading it with ornament than in 
seeing its main lines w^ere sightly and well-proportioned. 
In this respect the influence of the Adam brothers, though 
exercised primarily only on architecture and furniture, 
had a great and beneficial eftect on English silver. 
What is known as Adam silver will hold its own for 
beauty of design and workmanship with that of the 
Queen Anne and earlier Georgian periods, and collec- 
tors would be well advised to turn their attention to it 
while it can still be secured at relatively low prices. At 
the Goldsmiths and Silversmiths Company some typical 
examples are included in the collection now on view. 
There is a large vase-shaped Cup and Cover, made by 
that well-known silversmith. James Young, in 1781, 
which evidently owed much to the inspiration of the 
Adams, or rather to the great classical revival of which 
they were the principal exponents. It exemplifies in its 
perfect proportions, its chaste elegance of form, and re- 
fined ornament the highest traditions of the period. 
There are numerous other specimens in the same style, 
including a charming pierced and chased basket, made 
by Burrage Davenport in 1780, which is closely reminis- 
cent in its style of some of the contemporary Wedgwood 
ware, and a wonderful epergne elaborately decorated. 
The collector should bear in mind that Adam silver 
belongs to a great period of art— practically the last great 
period in which art exercised a profound influence on the 
silversmith's craft, and that good specimens should be 
valued accordingly. 

Paintings by A. J. Mannings 

The notice of this e.xhibition at Messrs. Connell's gallery 
is unavoidably held over until our next number. 


" Modern Etch- 
ings," by Joseph 
Simpson. (John 
Lane, £3 3s. net ; 
special edition, 
£7 7s. net) 

Mr. John Lane has produced Mr. Simpson's book on 
Modern Elchinos in w manner consistent with the highest 
traditions of his firm. The work is 
entirely printed on hand-made paper, 
and the illustrations, comprising 
twenty-five excellent photogravure 
productions of etchings by Meryon, 
Legros, Lalaune, Short, Cameron, 
Bauer, Whistler, and Zorn, are fully 
worth the price charged for the volume. Yet it must be 
confessed that the letterpress is hardly worthy of its 
sumptuous enshrinement. Mr. Simpson is a collector 
possessing good taste, as is shown by his choice of sub- 
jects for illustration — nearly all selected from his own 
collection — but his strictures on modern critics, however 
well founded they may be, are not justified by the very 
slender evidence he brings forward in support of them. 
The work is prefaced by an introductory chapter written 
in excellent taste by a friend of the author, and then Mr. 
Simpson propounds his own views. He explains that it 
was never intended that his notes, " in an unexpurgated 
form at all events, should receive the light of publicity." 
Mr. Simpson's friends, however, urged him to publish 
them, and he eventually consented, though he knew, or 
thought he knew, " that they were much too outspoken 
to please anybody." Jiere the author cites as a handicap 
a quality which is popularly esteemed as a merit. Most 
people like outspokenness when it takes the form of well- 
considered criticism. To do this, however, it must be 
supported by facts and arguments. It is not sufiicieat to 
say that a work is bad ; its particular weaknesses must be 
pointed out, weighed against its merits — if it possess any 
— and an accurate balance struck between the two. Mr. 
Simpson does not go to this trouble in dealing with the 
critics, fie tells us that when he commenced collecting 
he determined that he "would read everything that had 
been written on the subject of modern and contemporary 
etchings," and he sums up his impressions in the sen- 
tence : "I am not personally accjuainted with any of the 
so-called art critics ; 1 am, however, very well acquainted 
with their criticism, and all I can say is that if in fact they 
believe what they write, heaven help them." This is 

severe. It is probably the outcome of .Mr. Simpson's well- 
considered judgment ; but, unfortunately, he does not 
■ inform the reader as to the facts on which he bases this 
judgment. The nearest approach to a revelation is the 
statement that " Wedmore, in a laudable effort to find 
something of value in almost every modern etcher, has 
failed to be really instructive owing to his inclination to 
be too kind." From this and other hints that Mr. 
Simpson gives us, one gathers that his grievance against 
critics is that their judgments are too lenient, and that 
they show too great a disposition "to tread new paths," 
or one presumes, to put it in other words, to recognise 
budding talent and experimental work. The author goes 
on to say: " No critic that I have yet come across has 
boldly come out into the open for the purpose of sifting the 
wheat from the tares. 1 propose to attempt this difficult 
task, and the method 1 shall adopt is to refer only to the 
wheat and to alloiv the tares to look after themselves." 
This task would have been even more difficult had it not 
been for Mr. Simpson's fastidious taste, which only per- 
mitted him to sift out the work of fifteen etchers who 
have practised during the last ninety years as being 
worthy ot mention. This is a very small proportion, pro- 
bably less than three per cent., of the etchers who have 
flourished during this period. Now, Mr. Simpson, as a 
collector, has a perfect right to set the standard for bis 
collection as high as he pleases, but as a critic of con- 
temporary art he would have to be less exacting, other- 
wise he would be compelled to pass over nearly all the 
work show n in contemporary exhibitions. With a lower 
standard of selection there must also be a less exacting 
standard 01 criticism, for it is obviously impossible to 
apply exactly the same criterions of merit to a two-guinea 
etching by an artist beginning his career and a two- 
thousand-guinea proof by Rembrandt. Inevitably there 
must be several standards, not only for critics but col- 
lectors, and if the latter follow Mr. Simpson's theory 
"that the best and only the best is good enough to have 
or to hold," then they should either possess long purses 
or be prepared to confine their collections to a very small 

Mr. Simpson's predilections are for pure line etching, 


The Coiiiioisscur 

dry-point, or a combination of the two — a preference 
endorsed by many critics, though few will go so far as to 
designate all effects obtained with the aid of the roulette 
or by retroussage under the contemptuous epithet of 
" smudge." After all, a successful effect largely justifies 
the means used to attain it, and as Mr. Simpson con- 
fesses that certain dry-points aided by retroussage have 
resulted in magnificent wall decorations, and adds, from 
an artistic point of view nothing in black-and-white could 
be more impressive, he largely neutralises his own con- 
tentions. His advice to collectors to purchase direct 
from the auction-room rather than through the interme- 
diary of the dealer should be read in close conjunction 
with his warning, "only if you are a thorough master of 
the subject is it advisable to bid yourself at auction 
sales." E.\-pert knowledge is required, and few amateurs 
can afford the time or take the trouble necessary to 
acquire it. There are no substitutes for it, and an 
attempt to regulate one's bids by those of the dealers pre- 
sent at the sale would probably result in disaster. Mr. 
Simpson points out that unless the amateur has previous- 
prices and latest values in his mind, he probably will be 
run up too high. He adds, " If none of the principal 
dealers are bidding, you may assume that in all probabiUty 
the print being offered is not a very desirable one to 
possess:" but it is unsafe to assume anything in this 
wicked world. Some of the leading dealers, knowing 
that their less well-informed competitors guide their own 
bidding by that of the greater experts, frequently compete 
for specially desirable lots through the agency of minor 
commission agents, and appear in the sale in the guise 
of uninterested spectators. The short critical reviews of 
the fifteen etchers whom Mr. Simpson singles out as 
worthy of being collected are only to be distinguished 
from the work of the ordinary professional writer by 
being somewhat more dogmatic in their utterance and 
severe in their judgment. A useful but not very full 
appendix of sale prices is given ; but the chief attraction 
of the book lies in its illustrations. 

(_)NE welcomes every book that increases our knowledge 

of France and the French people, for since the Norman 

Conquest the peace of the world 

1 he r ranee 1 has largely hinged on the relations 

Know, by existing between England and her 

Winifred Stephens .11 t-i „i 

, nearest neighbour. Then- quarrels 

(Chapman & Hall, , h ■ 1 j .1 1 1 

have generally mvolved the whole 
12s. 6d. net) r ■,■ ■ 1 1 u .u 

of civilisation, while whenever they 

have united their arms they have been inevitably success- 
ful. Their rivalries and jealousies permitted the founda- 
tion of the Austrian Empire, the division of Poland, the 
rise of Prussia, and the disintegration of Schleswig from 
Denmark. Had the entente coydiale come into force fifty 
years earlier and remained in being, the great war which 
has nearly overwhelmed civilisation would never have 
occurred, and, so far as one can see, the most stable guar- 
antee of future peace lies in the continuance of the Anglo- 
French .-Mliance. This can be only firmly established 
by a thorough understanding, not merely between the 
governments of the two nations, but between the peoples 

themselves; and a book by a writer like Miss Winifred 
Stephens, who knows France and French opinions inti- 
mately, and is not afraid to frankly state her views, is a 
useful help to educating English readers regarding the 
aspirations and susceptibilities of their French neighbours. 
Miss Stephens has had the advantage of having resided 
in provincial France, as well as in Paris, and living on 
terms of intimacy with the people, and so she is able to 
realise those deeper traits of French character rarely 
revealed to strangers. The English mistake in the past 
has been in judging France from a superficial knowledge 
of Paris. The French capital, or at least the aspect of it 
known to transient visitors, is largely cosmopolitan. Its 
gaieties and frivolities are not the spontaneous outcome 
of French character, but have been called into being for 
the amusement of its visitors. The impressions of French 
decadence gained from a casual view of life in their 
metropolis have been heightened by self-depreciation, a 
weakness to which the French are more given than even 
the English. With them, because of their terrible logic, it 
was far more pernicious than with us. The Anglo-Saxon 
may lament his weaknesses, real or imaginary, but he 
contents himself with generalities, and shirks making too 
intimate revelations. The Frenchman, on the other hand, 
has a passion for the undiluted, and his great writers like 
Zola turned a microscopical examination on the cesspools 
of Parisian life — cesspools similar to those which exist in 
all great cities — and foreigners accepted their accounts 
as describing typical French life, and even the French 
themselves partly believed in their decadence. The war 
destroyed this illusion ; the patriotism which people thought 
had ceased to exist flowered into vigorous life, and the 
country rallied to the flag as one man. Not until after 
the battle ot the Marne did the French recover confi- 
dence in themselves, and realise that they were still a 
great and united people. Miss Stephens describes the 
early days of the war as seen from the midst of France, 
and tells of the magnificent patriotism shown. She gives 
chapters on the current literature of France, its political 
parties and religious opinions, all written with keen and 
appreciative insight. But Miss Stephens writes not only 
of the present, but also of the future, and the picture she 
gives of the new France which is coming into being is 
intensely interesting. It will be far less centralised — 
already all parties are united in demanding the reform of 
the bureaucratic machine, which directs even the smallest 
provincial matters from Paris ; tuberculosis and alcoholism 
are to be attacked ; while the movement for the political 
emancipation of woman is proceeding apace. One can- 
not rise up from the book without feeling a desire for the 
closer moral and political alliance of the two great demo- 
cratic powers of Europe. For centuries they have existed 
side by side, the twin beacons of modern civilisation ; their 
rivalries and jealousies in the past have been more often 
caused through a lack of knowledge of each other than 
by conflicting tendencies in their aims and ideals. This 
want of knowledge must be remedied in the near future 
if all further friction is to be avoided, and books like that 
of Miss Stephens' are among the best means of attaining 
such a desirable end. 


The Connoisseur Bookshelf 


(A. & C. Black, 

Ltd. 7s. 6d. net) 

The Golden Days may appeal to the reader in the same 
uay as the writing of it appealed to its author, as a relief 
and contrast to the thoughts and 
" The Golden turmoil of war and its after effects ; 

°*I!'.''''^^°'"'"^ and yet it was the war which in- 
spired it. Mr. Romilly Fedden, 
while serving with the B.E.F., 
enjoyed the happiness of an hour's 
fishing on a mill-stream far enough away from the then 
front to be out of reach of the enemy's gun-fire. There in 
the peaceful water meadows, only a few stone-throws 
away from a wrecked village and the traffic-thronged 
main road, he found oblivion from the stress and turmoil 
round about in fishing the shaded stretch of water and 
recalling the golden days of his fishing excursions in 
Brittany before the war. It is these latter that Mr. Fedden 
describes in his book, a delightful work for a votary of 
Isaac Walton, informed with the knowledge of an experi- 
enced angler, and bearing evidence on every page that it 
is written by a landscape painter, and one, moreover, who 
can use his pen as readily as his brush, so that his des- 
criptions of the rural scenes, observed with artistic insight 
and perception, bring them almost as vividly before the 
reader as if they had been painted. The introduction, 
with its graphic glimpse of the war — nerve-wracking, 
ugly, and terrible — forms a telling foil to the oasis of peace 
that lies beyond. It is as though one plunged out of the 
turmoil of a crowded thoroughfare into an old-world 
garden — a haven of rest, where there was bright sunlight 
and pleasant shade, and the bustling world was shut out. 
It is the most ancient part of France to which Mr. Fedden 
takes us, a land of superstitions, far older than Christian- 
ity, though now hallowed by Christian associations, and 
where the devout peasant keeps in mind the teaching of 
the Church, with rites borrowed from far-back pagan 
ancestors, of whose existence he has no knowledge. Mr. 
Fedden writes of fishing-streams and flies, and all matters 
pertaining to the local requirements of an angler in Brit- 
tany, with expert knowledge ; but the book will make less 
appeal for the technical information it contains than for its 
\ivid and attractive pictures of Breton life and scenery. 

M R.Joseph Pennell's" text-book" on his Z;7w/rZf>a;; 

Poster, intended for the guidance of "artists, amateurs, 

governments and teachers andprin- 

"Joseph Pennell's ters,^' would have served its purpose 

Liberty Loan better had it been written in a more 

T ' ^f*^' T-> ^ practical manner. The author's in- 

Joseph Pennell . j »■ ■ u- i i , 

,T -a ■, ■ ■ troduction, m which he states that 

(). B. Lippincott , J ■ c ^ , ,, 

r- i J s the drawings of the cave-dwellers, 

Co. 4s. od. net) , ^ . ° 

the frieze of the Parthenon, Michael 

.\ngelos Last Jiiiigment, altarpieces, windows, carving 
and shrines, were all forms of posters, is obviously written 
without a clear idea of the functions of a poster. Its essen- 
tial purpose is to attract the eye. To do this it is generally 
necessary that, instead of being in artistic harmonv with 
its surroundings, it should thrust itself forward and force 
itself on the spectator's attention by its obtrusiveness. 

Now, it can scarcely be said that any one of the forms of 
art mentioned by Mr. Pennell was used with this inten- 
tion. The cave-men's mural pictures were apparently 
executed for their artist's own enjoyment, not placed in 
specially prominent positions, but drawn wherever the 
surface of the rock allowed the best facilities. The frieze 
of the Parthenon was designed w-holly as an ornament to 
that building, and formed an integral portion of it not to 
be arbitrarily separated from the remainder. In the same 
way Michael Angelo's Last Judgment, and most of the 
old altarpieces, carvings, windows and shrines, were pri- 
marily intended as decorations to accord with their sur- 
roundings. To carry Mr. Pennell's hypothesis to its 
logical conclusion would be to call the Parthenon a 
hoarding, designed merely as a setting to its frieze. As 
regards the practical side of poster-designing, the author 
gives little information that would be useful to a novice. 
He does not even mention the size of the completed 
poster, which is surely a point of essential importance, for 
a large poster, meant to catch the eye from a distance, 
should be treated in a much broader and bolder manner 
than a small one intended to be viewed from near at hand. 
Possibly, however, Mr. Pennell, when he described his 
work as a text-book, meant it less to be a manual of 
instruction for the poster artist than as a diatribe of warn- 
ing of some of the pitfalls that await everyone who essays 
poster-work without possessing a thoroughly practical 
knowledge of the elements of lithography and colour- 
printing. Even Mr. Pennell appears to have experienced 
great difficulties in having his work carried out as he 
wanted it, and alterations, not important indeed, but 
highly vexatious, were imposed on his design by American 
printers and Government officials which had neither tech- 
nical nor artistic justification. One gathers from Mr. 
Pennell's statements that Government direction of artistic 
matters in the United States is a shade worse than that 
in our own country. The poster itself, a highly effective 
one, is well illustrated, no less than nine plates, showing 
its different stages of design and printing, being given. 

Ax interesting sidelight on the condition of the art 
market is afforded by the fact that the insistent demand 
fur works on kindred subjects has 
" Early Stafford- necessitated an advance of price in 

certain cases. The ever-present 
interest evinced in productions of 
the Staffordshire factories has re- 
sulted in a logical extension of the 
request for authoritative books on 
this branch of collecting. The results of Major Cyril 
Earles researches are familiar to connoisseurs, who will 
not grudge the increased rate at which his Early Staf- 
fordshire Pottery is now offered. Published originally at 
25s., it has been judged necessary to raise it to 42s., and 
it is to be anticipated that the present demand will be the 
speedy cause of yet another advance. A tastefully pro- 
duced and well-ilkistrated volume, it should be the vade 
vieciniiofM collectors in theirvarying stages of prescience. 

shire Pottery," by 
Major Cyril Earle. 
(A. Brown & Sons 
andB.T. Batsford. 
£2 2s. net) 


The Connoisseur 

Enquiries should be made on tlu Enquiry Coupon. 
See Advertising Pages. 


In offering a few words of counsel to the small collector, we 
should like to remind him of an inscription which, to the best 
of our belief, appears on a brass at Hayes, near Bromley. The 
commencement of the ancient epitaph avers that " who fain 
would lyve he must not feare to dye." Making the few necessary 
alterations, this can be rendered as "The man who never mokes 
a mistake never makes anything," an ailage particularly applic- 
able to the collector. The average amateur is prone to slips, Imt 
need not be disconcerted by them, as each stumble carries him 
further along the road to knowledge. 

Although it is impossible for everyone to be an expert, the 
novice may consolidate his position to an appreciable extent by 
the recognition of a simple fact, which is in itself one of the 
great by-laws of collecting : "Never purchase rubbish." It is 
always worth while to buy the better piece, even if it costs a 
trifle more. 

A common pitfall besetting the path of the inexperienced 
collector is covered by the heading of technicalities. Take, for 
example, two terms whose correct usage appears to be unknown 
to a number of people who should be acquainted with them. 
One of these is Coffer. Now a coffer is tiot the same as a chest. 
Considered from an architectural standpoint, a coffer is a large 
receptacle, the ornament on the face of which is carved out ol 
the piece of wood forming the front. A chest possesses panels 
inset in the framework of the front. The other term, which even 
experienced men shy at, is LlVEHY CupBO.iKD, which, in spite of 
its name, was not a cupboard at all, but a shelved sideboard 
without sides or doors, somewhat corresponding to the modern 
dinner wagon. 

Clockriiakers. — B2,377 (Southsea). Kingsnorth. — 
John Kinginorth, who was apprenticed in i6SS to Thos. Stubbs. 
C.C, is recorded by Britten, but we do not find any mention nl 
T. Kingsnorth of Tenterden in the usual channels of informa- 
tion. Forster. — There are several men of this name specified 
by Britten as practising between the year 1680 and 1810, but 
we are unable to say whether your clock is by one of them from 
the data to hand. 

Water ford Butter-dish.— 62,394 (Curio). —So- far as can 
be judged from ihe photograph, your butter-dish is a good and 
rather early specimen, uhich we should appraise approximately 
at Ijetween ^^15 and ^20. 

Book. — 62,39; (Tenterden). — The value of A Tour in 
Hafod, by James Edward Smith, President of the Linna;an 
Society (London, 1 8 to), depends on whether the plates are in 
colour or plain. If the former, a copy in good condition should be 
worth some £i, or ;^5 ; but if the latter, its value would be small. 
Prints. — B2,4I2 (Bradford, VorUs). — We fear, from the 
descriptions, that the three engravings are all of small value, 
probably not exceeding one pound apiece under normal con- 
ditions. As regards the first two, Boydell was possibly the most 
prolific publisher of his time, issuing some thousands of plates. 
A large proportion of these are only of limited monetary worth 
to-day. as his editions were large, and his choice too often merely 
coincided with the fashionable taste of his time, which has not 
been always justified by posterity. 

Assignat. — 62,416 (Waldo, British Columbia). — Old 
French Republican assignats are of verv small value, in most 
cases not more than a few pence each. The fact that the speci- 
men in question was found by your father in a book taken from 
the Empress Josephine's library during the occupation of Paris, 
in 1814, would renderitof most interest to members of his family, 
one of whom might feel inclined to pay a f.xncy price for it. 

Readers of The Connoisseur who desire to take 
advantage of the opportunities offered herein should 
address all letters on the subject to the manager of 
the Heraldic Department, i, Duke Street, St. James's, 
London, S.W. i. 

Only repUes that may be considered to be of general 
interest will be published in these columns. Those 
of a directly personal character, or in cases where the 
applicant may prefer a private answer, will be dealt 
with by post. 

Readers who desire to have pedigrees traced, the 
accuracy of armorial bearings enquired into, or other- 
wise to make use of the department, will be charged 
fees according to the amount of work involved. 
Particulars will be supplied on application. 

When asking information respecting genealogy or 
heraldry, it is desirable that the fullest details, so 
far as they may be already known to the applicant, 
should be set forth. 

.•\CTioNi; IN THE KING'S Bencii. — It is proposeil to make a 
search through the Docket Rolls 10 the Coram Rege (King's 
Bench) Rolls, from the reign of Henry VIII. to the Common- 
wealth. The Docket Rolls comprise a list of the actions in this 
Court, but are merely given in chronological order, therefore 
each Roll has to be searched throughout, so that a complete list 
of all plaintiffs and defendants may be obtained. 

The actions to which these indexes relate are of various kinds, 
but are chiefly cases of Trespass and Debt, although often inter- 
esting entries such as Libels, Assaults, etc.— in fact, cases of 
eveiy description — may be found, even Breach of Promise. 

Correspondents wishing to take advantage of this search will 
receive full particulars on application to the Genealogical Editor 
of The Connoisseur. 

FoLDES. — A grant of arms was made to Martin F'oldes of 
Cray's Inn, "Counselor at Law," II March, 16S5. The grant 
was made by Henry St. George, Clnrencieux. The arms given 
in the Stowe MSS. in the British Museum are as follows : Per 
pale vert, and gu. a fieur-de-lys erm. Crest: A cubit aim 
vested per pale vert, and gu., cuff erm., the hand ppr. holding 
a javelin ppr. 

West of Cumingstown, Irelami. — Francis Marias West 
was son of Thomas West, of Cumingstown, Ireland, esquire. 
He matriculated at Oriel College. Oxford, 3 December, 174S, 
then being aged 17. B.C.L. and D.C.L. from St. Mary Hall, 
1779. He was Rector of Dauntsey and Drayton-Cerne, co. 
Wills., and died 4 April, 1800. A younger brother matriculated 
at Merlon College, 2 May, 1759, aged 25. 

Registered for transmission to Canada and Newfoundland at Magazine Post Rates. Printed by Bemrose & Sons Ltd., '33. Hig 
Holborn, London, W.C.l, and Derby, and published by the Proprietor, W. Claude Johnson, at 1, DUKE STREET, ST. JAMtij a. 
LONDON, S.W.I, England. Subscriptions-Inland 30 -, Foreign 31— to Canada 26,— per annum. Published the 1st of each month. 
Published by Gordon & Gotch, in Australia and New Zealand; by The Central News Agency, in South Africa; by Higginbotham & 00.. 
in Bombay and Calcutta; and by The International Nev^s Co., in U.S.A. 

Junk, 1919. 

What power- 
ful masters the 
o 1 d Japanese 
h o w St r o n g 
especially in 
portraits the 
si/e of life, 
how vast their 
output of 
works as big 
as that, or 
h i g g e r — 
these are 
things which 
the West has 
perhaps scar- 
cely recog- 
nised as yet. 
Their tense 
interest in 
J apanese art 
ing. Occiden- 
tal connois- 
seurs are still 
rather i n - 
seem, to regard 
that art as 
a b 1 e for a 
such as cha- 
I'rench work 
of the time 
of Boucher 
and Clodion. 
Vol.. LIV. — No. 214. 


By W. G. BlaiKie Murdoch 



But much old 
sculpture is 
just what Rae- 
burn, or Hals, 
or Kibera may 
be imagined 
making, h a d 
these chosen 
to model or 
hew instead of 
paint, and it is 
this which is 
the main reve- 
lation offered 
by Nara and 
Kyoto. Their 
wealth in early 
them the Mec- 
ca of the Wes- 
tern artist, 
living in the 
Celestial E m- 
p i r e , both 
being rich be- 
sides in his- 
torical associa- 
t i o n. An d, 
wandering in 
and around the 
two towns, re- 
ceiving often 
kindly hospi- 
tality from the 
priests, listen- 
ing to their talk 


The Connoisseur 



about their pictures or statuary, the toil of learning 
Japanese does at last seem to have been excellently 

In remote days Japan changed her seat of govern- 
ment whenever a new monarch ascended the throne. 
But it was decided, in 709 .\.L)., that a permanent 
dwelling for the royal house would be an institution, 
adding to the prestige of the realm. And Nara being 
chosen, it remained the capital till near the close 
of the eighth century, when the imperial court was 
transferred to Kyoto. There it abode until, with 
the Revolution of 1868, it was established at Tokio, 
Japan having a law, however, that in Kyoto must 
ever be enacted the coronation ceremony. Nara's 
royal palace is no longer standing, but in the public 
park, which is in fact a richly wooded mountain, 
there is a cluster of old temples, adumbrating the 
bygone splendour of the town. Finest of these tem- 
ples are Kofukuji and Todaiji, while the park also 
enshrines the Museum, opened in 1894. And only 
seven miles away is Horiuji, the oldest Buddhist 
place of worship in the Land of Sunrise, and thus 
virtually the foundation-stone of the country's art. 

When, in 552.\.d., the King of Kudara, in Korea, 
sent to the Japanese court a copy of the Buddhist 
scriptures, along with some ecclesiastical sculptures, 
the Emperor Kimmei soon grew interested ; while later 
his son Yomei espoused the beautiful Indian creed, as 
did Yomei's sister, Suiko. But none of these people, 
it appears, knew a religious zeal quite like that of 
Yomei's eldest son, Shotoku (573-621), whose vali- 
ant services to Buddhism have resulted in numerous 
legends. It is told that, shortly before the Prince's 
birth, an angel visited his mother, telling her that the 
child was destined to teach the whole world. It is 
told also that, when the child was born, the mother suf- 
fered no pain. And it is recorded that once Shotoku, 
in a wild, lonely place, was permitted to look upon a 
deity, the mortal and immortal thereupon writing 
poems about each other. Poet or not, the Prince 
certainly was something of an author. He started a 
History of Japan, the manuscript having vanished un- 
fortunately ; he compiled what Japanese historians call 
the first written laws of their country, being, however, 
really a series of markedly shrewd maxims on law in 
general ; and he wrote several treatises on Buddhism, 


Nara and Kyoto 


some of which may be read in his biography. His 
energies being unbounded, he fought against the con- 
servative party, seeking to uphold with the sword the 
pristine Japanese faith of Shinto, which party being 
worsted, Shotoku commenced to rule Japan as regent, 
dying without actually acquiring the throne. During 
this time of his regency, he came to desire, above all 
else, that his land should have a temple, truly worthy 
of the Light of Asia. And, in eagerness that his 
opinions concerning the construction of the building 
should be of practical value, he now served brief 
apprenticeships in various handicrafts. Later the 
personal supervision of decorations at his temple, 
which he called Horiuji, became to him an absorb- 
ing task. For he was himself a sculptor, and in the 
convent of Chuguji, close to Horiuji, there is a work 
which his compatriots firmly believe his. It is a life- 
sized statue in dark brown wood of Kwannon, the 
iouf ensemble far from masterly, the chiselling of the 
slim, attenuated legs showing clearly, nevertheless, 
that the artist was a man of singularly refined tastes. 

The suffix Ji signifies a large temple, with rectories 
and the like quite near it, if not adjoining. And at 
Horiuji, as at numerous kindred places, a square is 
formed by the juncture by a covered way of certain 
of the buildings ; while in the middle of this enclosure 
is the kondo, or main place -of worship, with a pagoda 
beside it. The square has but one entrance-gate, 
adorned on its outer side by two big statues of fierce- 
looking warriors, their purport to guard the ecclesias- 
tical precincts ; and all the buildings have black-tiled 
roofs, sides of white plaster and wood painted bright 
red, the height of the kondo being some sixty feet, of 
the gate about forty. Among the works actually 
dating from the time of the temple's founding there 
are two series (a lower and a higher) of frescoes on 
the inner walls of the kondo, the predominating colours 
red, black, and white, the subject naturally Buddhist 
deities. And, in a manuscript by Shotoku which 
the priests conserve, it is noted that a part of the 
lower paintings, called The Paradise of Amida, is by a 
Korean named Cho, the neighbouring parts suggesting 


The Connoisseur 


by their style that they are by this same artist, the 
higher set obviously by someone else. A aiass of 
diverse objects having been gathered into the centre 
of the kondo, it is impossible to get a position, giving 
a chance of forming a verdict on the decorative value 
of the frescoes as a whole, but certainly numerous 
passages are infinitely lovely. The difficulty of judging 
the sequence as a unit is the greater, because the 
light is very dim, which, however, is no doubt partly 
the reason why the paintings have a finely fresh look 

still, time having likewise dealt gently with the beauti- 
ful little shrine known as Tamamushi (butterfly), which 
belonged to Suiko. The artist of the pictures on its 
black lacquered sides is also supposed to have been 
Korean, still another work of such provenance being 
the Portrait of Shotoku unth his two C/iildren, painted 
by Prince Asa. Descendant of that king who had sent 
the sculptures from Korea to the Mikado Kimniei, Asa 
came to Japan to help in the preaching of Buddhism, 
and became one of Shotoku's closest friends. 


Nam ami Kyoto 


There is at Horiuji a bronze group, slightly over 
two feet high, Yakiishi Nyorai ivith Bodhisattoas, 
an inscription on which states that the group was 
presented to the temple by the Emperor Yomei, in 
fulfilment of a vow he made during an illness. The 
inscription adds that the sculptor was Tori, whose 
grandfather is known to have been a Chinese artisan, 
settling in Japan. But, with the reasonable assump- 
tion that this immigrant and his sun married wives of 

the land of their adoption, the Japanese claim Tori 
as their compatriot. Represented likewise by a small 
carving in wood of a phcenix, he is credited, too, 
with some of a large series of very clever Buddhist 
statuettes, clay, with traces still of polychrome, mostly 
about the size of a large Tanagra. And it was a 
lapanese painter fr(jm whom came the kakemono 
Portrait of Shotokii, a Japanese sculptor who chiselled 
the diminutive wooden statue of the Prince. Other 


The Connoisseur 

native works of 
his time which 
Horiuji posses- 
ses are Mo?ijii 
B o s a t s u , a 
sculpture in 
w 00 d ; three 
studies vn that 
medium of 
Kwannon ; and 
a figure model- 
led from dry 
lacquer, Te>i- 
nin, or angel, 
all these being 
from two to 
three feet in 
height. Japan's 
glyptic activity, 
in the sixth cen- 
tury, is further 
attested by a 
big collection 
of tiny bronze 
images of gods 
or goddesses ; 
while among 
later Japanese 
things, three of fame are the bronze Buddha and 
BodJiisattvas (seventh century) ; the Memorial Por- 
trait of Shotoku, by the grand ninth-century painter, 
Kose no Kanaoka ; and a polychromatic wooden 
sculpture, Shotoku in Childhood. This last, say three 
feet high, was acquired by the temple in 1069 ; and 
in a document, found not long ago inside the sculp- 
ture, an anonymous priest has written that " we, who 
are under the spiritual care of Horiuji, wishing to do 
a deed by virtue of which we may be admitted to 
Nirvana, cause with deep reverence the making of 
this image," the writer adding that the sculptor was a 
prelate, Enkai. 

People often speak with wonder of the speed with 
which Japan has absorbed Western ideas and methods, 
since suddenly renouncing her policy of excluding 
Occidentals. But, granting the wonder of that speed, 
it does not express a new phase in Japan's temper : 
she has always had a genius for learning things 
quickly, and a striking example consists in her sculp- 
ture. Her works in the art, on the eve of Buddhism's 
coming, had been quite crude, the output of men 
merely groping towards simulation of the human 
form, whereas a sound technical excellence marks 
most of those Horiuji images of the close of the sixth 
century, Japan having mastered chiselling, modelling, 



and casting 
within a few 
decades. As 
yet, however, 
she knew little 
self-reliance as 
regards man- 
ner, depending 
instead chiefly 
on India, the 
coarse look of 
whose idols was 
too often what 
she mainly 
copied, nor has 
she ever wholly 
shaken off that 
u nf ortunate 
tendency. But, 
so early as the 
beginning of 
the eighth cen- 
tury, Japanese 
sculpture flared 
into a splen- 
dour, a wealth 
of really idio- 
syncratic or 
national masterpieces being produced, one notable 
stimulus to which production was the building at this 
time of Todaiji, of Kofukuji, and of Toshodaiji. 

It is about two miles from Nara that Toshodaiji 
stands, and on its founding there was wrought for it, with 
the unassuming medium oi papier mache, a superb life- 
sized portrait of the celebrated Chinese prelate, Kanjin, 
the sculptor being Shitaku. Almost simultaneously 
there was modelled in dry lacquer, for Kofukuji, 
a grand series of statues, nearly life-sized, Ten great 
Disciples of Buddha, near these being ranged shortly 
a set akin with them in dimensions and medium, 
Six Warrior Deities. Then, in the ninth century, that 
love of fun and the grotesque, so prominent a trait 
with Japan in later times, found memorable utterance 
at the temple in Kobo Daishi's twelve wooden panels 
a jour, each about three feet high, the subject again 
Warrior Deities. And, early in the ten-hundreds, the 
Kofukuji collection was augmented anew by a huge 
Shaka Xyorai, in wood, by Jocho : while the twelve- 
hundreds saw the addition of numerous things by 
Koben and Jokei, both men using wood exclusively. 
Best by Koben are his two Demon Lantern-Bearers, in 
height slightly less than three feet ; best by Jokei his 
Six Fathers of the Hosso Sect, life-sized seated figures, 
which in themselves are enough to constitute the 


Nara and Kyoto 

artist one of the world's strongest virtuosi in portrait- 

The Japanese temple generally has a wooden tablet, 

the achievement of that quality. Other lovely eighth- 
century sculptures at Todaiji are those on the massive 
bronze lantern which stands in the garden, opposite 




carved with its name, affixed to the main gate. And 
the artist charged to undertake this task at Todaiji, 
when it was built, conceived the idea of surrounding 
the carved name with eight sculptures, each, say, 
fifteen inches long. Two which are angels are among 
the most exquisitely graceful things in the whole of 
Japanese art, which grace is the more wonderful 
since wood is a medium anything but conducive to 

the door of the hall containing that seated figure in 
bronze of Buddha, which, over fifty feet high, was 
fashioned in 748 by Kimimaro, being a gift to the 
temple from the Emperor Shomu. He was a poet of 
considerable talent, and it is also interesting to recall 
that, in a play called Aiaka, by Nobumitsu {circa 1485), 
a particularly striking scene is created by reference to 
the great image. This play is concerned with the 


The Connoisseur 

twelfth- century 
soldier Voshit- 
s u n e , who, 
ted of having 
turned against 
his brother, 
\"oritom(), the 
first Shogun, 
has found it 
essen t ial to 
make his way 
himself and his 
small band of 
disguised as 
pilgrims. Their 
move being 
k n o w n, h o w- 
ever, an edict 
has been issued 
to detain and 
examine all pil- 
grims on the 
north w a r d 
march. And 
the fugitives 
being in due 
course stopped 
a c c (_! r d i n g 1 y, 
they say they 
are marching 
to raise funds 
for the repair- 
ing of Todaiji, 
which has recently suffered from a fire : they talk of 
the sacred character of their exploit ; they speak enthu- 
siastically of Shomu's piety, crowning their appeal with 
reference to the vast image of Buddha. "Then pass 
on your way speedily ! " cry the assailants of a sudden, 
so talismanic has been the mention of the far-famed 
work, subsecjuently hailed by numerous Occidental 
travellers as the chi-f d'auvre of Eastern sculpture. 
But have not these travellers been impressed by it, 
largely because of its phenomenal size ? Have they 
not failed to ponder, frankly, as to what would have 
been the verdict of great masters in the glyptic art ? 
Phidias would surely have asked why Kimimaro had 
the temerity to use positive mountains of bronze, 
when he had not the ability to give them shape : 
Michelangelo and Donatello would probably have called 
the Buddha vulgar ; and the whole trio would in like- 
lihood have much preferred two thirteenth-century 


statues at To- 
daiji, big Tem- 
ple Defenders^ 
in wood, by 
Unkei. Never- 
theless, it is 
essential t o 
note that tlio 
colossus has a 
little, if only a 
little, of ni ys- 
tery, the lack of 
which element 
is usually con- 
spicuous in 
Japanese hier- 
atic art. To its 
makers, so it 
cannot but be 
felt, the tem- 
p 1 e s were 
merely a mar- 
ket, not an in- 
spiration : in 
sharp contrast 
to the Chinese 
artists, they 
appear to liavc 
taken slight 
thought for 
the unseen, 
their urge to 
creation lying 
simply in love 
of decorative 
beauty, or in interest in the panorama of mankind. And, 
indeed, not just in Japan's sacerdotal, but in all her 
sculpture, it is the paucity of a sense of aloofness 
which is the main limitation : this art inclines to be 
loo like life itself, those brilliant statues by Unkei 
being herein typical of the Japanese school. 

The Celestial Empire developed her native skill 
with the brush nearly as quickly as her ability for 
sculpture, the Nara Museum attesting this by several 
Buddhist kakemono, considered of about the ninth 
century, the finest of which are Ze/nai Dozi, Kwaiimi/i, 
and Hokka Mandara. Water - colour, always the 
medium of the kakemono artists, is widely thought 
in the \Vest to yield specially perishable things, 
and assumed, in spite of Turner's flights, to be vir- 
tually inimical, by its nature, to the achievement of 
the grand. Vet those three very old pictures are as 
bright as if they had left the studio yesterday ; while 




A'ara and Kvofo 

again, in three 
nameless kake- 
mono of the 
eleventh cen- 
tury, the sub- 
ject of each a 
priest engaged 
in prayer, there 
is a deep, glow- 
ing richness 
which reminds 
of \' a n d e r 
(ioes and De- 
lacroix, these 
pictures having 
b e > i d e s a 
stately gran- 
deur, ridiculing 
that other Occi- 
dental assump- 
t i on about 
They would 
astound any- 
one h a V i n g 
studied Japan- 
ese painting 
purely in Eu- 
rope or Ame- 
rica, hardly less 
beautiful being 
two other ele- 
Mii?ijit Jiosa/sK 
a n d F n g e n 
Bosatsu : while 
among various 
long rolls the 
best is one 
figuring the life 
the artist being 
Tosa Mitsu- 
n o b u . The 
furtherm o re 
includes two 
landscapes by 
Kano Moto- 
nob u, charac- 
teristic of him at 
his ablest, and thus in turn grandly illustrative of the 
temper of Japanese landscape painting as a whole, 



head of lacquer, the 
sisfnifies the Cioddess 

rest of 
of Art. 

the genius of 
the masters in 
this realm hav- 
ing been to 
attain just that 
air of enchant- 
ment which the 
sculptors gene- 
rally missed. 

The N a r a 
Museum is not 
Japanese, a 
Chinese paint- 
ing being a 
Portrait of 
Kobo Dai sit i, 
and a notable 
Korean sculp- 
ture a bronze 
K'lVannon, cast 
for Horiuji on 
its founding. 
For the gallery 
is gradua 1 1 y 
acquiring a 
good many of 
the treasures in 
the temples 
near it, and re- 
verting to Japa- 
nese things, a 
masterpiece of 
the eleven- 
hundreds is the 
sculpture in 
wood, Monju 
Bosatsu 0)1 a 
Lion, passing 
from which a 
deep longing is 
felt to know 
about the artist 
of Gigei Tcnjo. 
This is a statue 
of the close of 
the twelfth 
century, rather 
more t h a n 
life-sized, the 
wood, and the name 
The face, it must be 

The Connoisseur 

owned, has a hint of the Indian coarseness. But the 
figure is grace incarnate, holds a rhythm lovely as ever 
Botticelli uttered, which qualities make the statue one 
of the very gems of all creations of the Land of Sunrise, 
whatever their medium, and evoke the firm conviction 
that, some day, Gigei Tenia will be among the world's 
most famous sculptures, a rival to the finest art of 
Praxiteles and his school. Nevertheless, at exactly 
the time this work was made, sculptors in Japan 
were beginning to shed preoccupation with the grace- 
ful and the rhythmic. For feudalism having lately 
been established in the land, it was now that satuumi 

commenced to manifest often that blind, heroically 
sacrificial loyalty to their chiefs — the sentiment usually 
spoken of as Bushi-do, which means simply "the way 
of the warrior," having been, in fact, a definite, written 
series of laws relating to the deportment of the soldier- 

And just as, in France, the Revolution and Napo- 
leonic wars caused artists to think Louis XV. work 
effeminate, and impregnated them with deification of 
the severe, so in Japan the growth of a stern temper, 
in the opening twelve-hundreds, incited sculptors to 
worship verve above everything else. 








The Glass Age Part IV. 

In the latter half of the eighteenth century 
the glass-maker began to make the opaque or cotton 
twist, and in this type we have the most varied. 
The craftsmen vied with each other to get all sorts of 
varieties of white stem, some roped, some ballooned, 
some single-ply round a rope; in fact, the designs were 
innumerable, and it culminated in the vulgarising of 
the twist into a coloured stem. One can hardly wonder 
at the scarcity of the coloured stem, as the type was 
hardly the one to please the patron of these types of 
glasses. The variety spread to the bowls. In these 
days there were wrythen, waisted, hammered, engraved, 
and enamelled 
bowls ; in fact, as 
soon as one variety 
was conceived, so 
another was made, 
and at the latter 
end of the century 
this Venetian in- 
fluence began to 
wane, and lapidary 
cut stems and 
bowls took the 
popular fancy. ! 

Plate I. shows a 
pa ir of white 
opaque twist with 
drawn stem and 
bowl. Probably 
these were the first 
efforts in getting 
this opaque twist. 
Plates II., III., 
and IV. show the 
various twists 
with their roping, 

Plate I. 

By Pontil 

twisting, and single threads or plies. In these latter 
one can get glasses with one to twelve plies or threads 
outside a roping. This will be a pleasure for the 
indef;itigable collector to get the whole of the set. 
Plate V. shows a variety of bowls, from the bell-shape 
to the double ogee. Plate VI. shows various types 
of the wrythen bowls ; No. 2 from the left is a parti- 
cularly good type of wrythen. Plate VII. shows the 
hammered bowl, to my mind the best type of these 
varieties ; the first glass on the left is a particularly 
handsome and artistic glass. Plate VIII. is the long 
drawn bowl, used as strong ale or cider glass, which 

was consumed by 
the better classes 
at the period. 
These drinks are 
not to be con- 
founded with the 
" small beer " of 
humbler folks, but 
as bearing the 
same relation to it 
as the vintage wine 
bears to the vin 

Plate IX. is a 
rare type, styled 
the " Norwich 
twist," as these 
glasses were made 
at King's Lynn or 
in the neighbour- 
hood ; it has a pe- 
culiar type of rings 
of moulded glass 
in the bowl. 
Plate X. shows the 


Plate III. 

Plate I\. 


Plate V. 

Plate \1. 

Plate VII. 


Plate VI II. 

Plate IX. 

Plate X. 

Plate XI. 


The Glass 


Plate XII. 
bulges and knops in the stem. These graduated 
sweUings or bulges give a curious effect, and accen- 
tuate and magnify the opaque twist. Plate XL are 
varieties again of the knopped, etc., stems. 

Plate XII. shows the beer glasses and the opaque 
twist. These glasses were from 7 to 8 inches high and 
the bowls 3^ to 4^ inches in diameter. 

Plates XIII. and XIV. show a particularly rare variety 
with white glass enamel, and the bowl in Plate XIII. 
shows enamelled flowers on the first glass and grapes 
and vine-leaves on the other. In Plate XIV. these 
five glasses are undoubtedly enamelled by the cele- 
brated Edkins, of Bristol ; the enamelling is most 

beautifully and carefully executed, and they are quite 

Plate XV. shows five glasses with coloured twists in 
the stems— blue, red and white, and green, etc. They 
remind one of the days of our youth with the solitaire 
marble, or, as they were commonly called, the " 
alley marble." ' 

Plate XVI. These lapidary-cut stem glasses were 
the last of the good type of wine-glasses used at the 
end of the eighteenth century, and were gradually 
supplanted by the " machine-made " glass, which has 
remained in full possession until the present day. 

[All these glasses are from the " Leslie" collection. 

Plate XIII. 


Plate XIV. 

Plate X\. 

Plate XVI. 


LACE . , . AND 

Stuart Embroideries at Chequers. Part II. By Eugenie Gibson 

Besides the chairs covered in needlework, 
mentioned in the previous article, and other examples 
(if Stuart work found at Chequers, there are some 
exceedingly interesting specimens of petit-point (tent- 
stitch) and stump-work. These, Lord and Lady Lee 
of Fareham have gathered together themselves with 
the ardent lover's keen and artistic feeling for art 
treasures, adding them to this already fine collection. 
Petit-point was already much practised in Queen 
Elizabeth's time, and she, being an excellent needle- 
woman, favoured it herself, as also did her ladies at 
court. It has survived through all the periods of 
English needlework up to the present time. In former 
days this work, too, was started on coarse linen or 

canvas from a mere outline, and worked in wool and 
silk in well-chosen colours to suit the subject in hand. 
Having to be closely covered, it gives proof of the 
perseverance and patience of the ladies who achieved 
the results, which are almost invisible to the naked 

There are two pieces of this description at Chequers, 
both pastoral idylls. The first one, here reproduced, 
shows a shepherd and shepherdess, dressed in the 
fashion of the period. She, according to the custom 
of ornamenting needlework of that kind with gems, is 
shown with a pearl necklace. He plays the pipe, and 
she listens with rapt attention, the whole forming a 
prettv imaginative pastoral. In the distance is seen 



The Connoisseur 


a castle, its windows being made of glittering mica, 
evidently used to make believe that the sun was 
shining brightly. The smoke rising from the chimneys 
gives a comic effect of stiffness, but the whole is 
worked in the finest and most even stitch. The two 
figures, whose faces, hands, collars, cuffs, and the lace 
upon them are a marvellous achievement of needle- 
work, considering the linen canvas, of a natural colour, 
on which this picture has been worked, a strip of 
which can be seen in the right-hand top corner, add 
to the interest. This strip also shows how the canvas 
was fastened to the embroiderer's frame during the 
time it was being worked. The rest of the composition 
consists of the usual pastoral emblems. The tree- 
trunks and some of the leaves of the cacti are worked 
in stem-stitch, and the rest of them in bullion, or 
French knots in floss silk, which has probably been 
wound round the needle five or six times to make 
them stand out, and give them the heavv and fat 

appearance of nature. The blossoms of the cacti, 
worked in rope-stitch over a thick underlay of silk, 
are likewise meant to imitate nature. The whole is 
carried out in silk. 

The next illustration, also a pastoral, is an equally 
fine specimen of needlework. The medallion, encircled 
by a frame-like border, is worked in gold bullion. 
Outside this are tabs alternating with rosettes in dull 
gold purl. The working in bullion and purl belongs 
to the most difficult and delicate means of ornament- 
ing objects of needlecraft, and needs not only a very 
light and experienced touch to handle it, but also a 
straight eye, because for each stitch little pieces of 
bullion have to be cut with the scissors, threaded by 
fine needles on thin silk, and then laid down carefully 
on the material over string or an underlay of silk. 
As it stretches so easily that the slightest lengthening 
spoils the bullion, it needs the experienced worker 
to get the results seen on these Stuart embroideries. 


Stuat't Embroiiievics at Chequers 



In the medallion just mentioned appears a piece of 
the finest petit-point, a landscape motive obviously 
suggested by Buckinghamshire scenery, and it speaks 
worlds for the skill of its creator, in being able to 
introduce such an amount of detail into so small a 
space. The garden scene in the foreground shows 
that the artisan must have had a sense of humour, for 
the spectator can clearly see what is going on. The 
gardener stands in the middle, carrying tool-bag and 
stick, deprecating with the gesture of his hand the 
chiding, the mistress who sits opposite him, delivers. 
Her shrewish face is capitally portrayed. As a con- 
trast to this excited scene are introduced, looking on 
quite unconcernedly, the shepherd-boy and dog. The 
expression of the faces, trees, bushes, houses, pigeon 
loft, and castle are carried out in a naive and realistic 
fashion. The square round it is worked on white 
silk, which time has turned into a delightful shade of 
cream colour. Hound the medallion are carried out 

in stamp (or stump) work some of the symbolisms 
coramonlv in vogue then, such as the pomegranate 
placed in the four corners, worked in Inittonhole-stitch 
over bars of silk ; one of these, in full flower, mean- 
ing "hope," the "owl" wisdom, the "lion" strength, 
the "griffin" power, and so on. The griffin itself, 
the pedestal, and the three leaves of the pear-tree at 
the top are unfinished, showing the method and pro- 
gress of the work, which enhances its interest. 

The subject of the next illustration, The Sacrifice of 
Isaac by Abraham, and the meaning of the various 
Biblical symbols embodied in it, are so well known 
that it is unnecessary to describe them. But the 
embroidery is of such variety that it is of greater in- 
terest for the purpose of this article to analyse it. 
The sky is worked closely, in brick-stitch, direct on to 
the canvas to keep it straight. The sun, the clouds 
on top and round the angel, his head, arms, and 
wings, Abraham's face, arms, hands, legs, feet, and 


The Cminoisseur 

cloak, Isaac's body and the pile of wood on the altar, 
as well as the shepherd's hands, are worked in the 

the fish-pond, is an incongruity which is often met 
with in these embroideries, yet does not detract from 


finest petit-point. The tree, bushes, landscape, and 
castle are all worked in the same stitch. Here mica 
is also employed for the windows of the castle, 
evidently, as in the other idyll, to add brightness to 
the composition. The altar is done in bricking in 
two colours horizontally, and over - sewn vertically 
with black silk in hemming - stitch, which imitates 
brickwork most effectually. For the angel's robe, 
Abraham's tunic, Isaac's loin-cloth, and the shep- 
herd's coat and cap a stitch has been used which 
is similar to one often seen in old Italian reticella 
lace, and has its raison d'etre here. But to use 
the same stitch for the flower on the left, the top of 
the acorns, and, of all things, for the rocks surrounding 

their value. This licence, however, is counterbalanced 
by the extremely clever way the panel is shaded 
and outlined throughout, giving it an almost plastic 

In the bow-window of the great parlour at Chequers 
hangs one of those interesting looking-glasses, sur- 
rounded by a frame worked in stump-work on white 
satin, a class of needlework which appeared during 
James I.'s reign, and remained in favour during the 
reigns of Charles I. and his spouse Henrietta Maria, 
the Commonwealth, and until nearly the end of 
Charles II. 's reign. The ornaments of this frame 
are carried out in stump (or stamp) work, and some 
small ornamentations in various other methods, such 


Stuart Embroideries at Chequers 


as fiat-Stitch, split-stitch, etc., and the open space be- 
tween these is, to enrich the background, filled in with 
a sprinkle of large seed pearls. Gold or silver spangles 
were often substituted for pearls. As this mirror and 
the box, described later on, are important specimens 
of this needlecraft, it may, perhaps, be as well, for 
the sake of the collector, to give a short description of 

how this stump-work (embosted work, as it was some- 
times called in James I.'s time) was created. The 
figures and other ornaments — the former mostly being 
of a scriptural nature — were worked in a rounded 
shape to suit these various objects and then stuffed 
with hair, cotton-wool, or even, to obtain the relief 
that was desired, with wood, shaped to suit the figure. 



The Connoisseur 

Those which were intended to be of lesser relief were 
worked flat, pressed out from the back with a hot 
iron, and filled in with bits of silk pasted in with 

A great many lovers and collectors of art needle- 
work call this type ungainly and lacking in grace. 
There may be some truth in this, and pieces made 
by inexperienced workers certainly deserve to be so 
considered ; but those that were executed by the really 
skilful craftspeople can surely be appreciated as works 
of art of their kind. To this category belong both 
the box and frame in question. The design of the 
frame consists of four figures placed one in each 
corner. Taken at the top, from left to right, one is 
worked in darning-stitch, with raised flowers in petit- 
point, the other to the right in transparent lace-stitch ; 
at the bottom the left one in closest brick-stitch and 
the right one again in darning-stitch, with raised 
flowers. Between these figures the four medallions 
are surrounded by a delightful band of chenille, 
raised skilfully like a real frame. The pictures in- 
side these, like most of the objects between them, 
are worked in stitches already described, only the 
hare, flowers, and foliage are carried out in split and 
flat-stitch. The mirror itself is surrounded by a silver 
braid, to carry the idea of embroidery appropriately 
to the frame. 

The most elaborate achievements in stump-work 
are the lace -boxes, work-boxes, and jewel -caskets 
fitted up with toilet and writing requisites, and even 
with secret drawers. One of the best of this kind is 
to be found at Chequers, and, judging from the fit- 
tings, was evidently used as a lace box. The subjects 
,of these miniature cabinets are mostly Biblical, and 
owing to the long period during which this work 
flourished, the workers, perhaps taking a former 
specimen as an example, were not always correct in 
the costumes of the period. The main composition, 
always placed in or against a landscape, is surrounded 
by animals, birds, flowers, insects, and reptiles, which 
former three, and the moon and sun shinina; at the 

same time, were supposed to have a symbolical mean- 
ing, and the latter presumably only used to fill in 
the spaces between the former to complete the pic- 
ture. The lid of the box at Chequers, which is also 
worked on white satin and here reproduced, has for 
its subject the visit of the Queen of Sheba to King 
Solomon, and round it are depicted her journey, 
with all its incidents, and her retinue, bearing the 
treasures to be presented by her to the king. King 
Solomon is surrounded by his court, and Queen Sheba 
by her attendants, all in full attire. The king's and 
queen's costumes are most elaborately carried out in 
many of the stitches already described, the only differ- 
ence being that their folds are indicated by gold cord, 
and the shading is worked in flat-stitch in a dark 
colour over the lighter one, in the same stitch. The 
king's and queen's balderkins are both executed in 
gold bullion, purl, and gold cord, being of such high 
relief that they seem supported by wooden frames. 
The Lamb of God suspended from a golden chain 
on the king's breast is a remarkable achievement in 
gold purl. On the queen's figure may be noted, 
specially, the two fans — oddly enough she seems to 
be using two at a time — which are the finest achieve- 
ments in stitchery of split-stitch. The curtains of the 
king's balderkin and the queen's puffed sleeves bear 
witness that the artisans who worked this and other 
elaborate pictures like it, have studied the French, 
Flemish, Italian, and English lace of a former and 
contemporary period. The border of the medallion is 
passementerie (passe!?ie>if), worked in the finest floss 
silk over cardboard, shaded from dark to light in a 
most delightful blue, forming an appropriate contrast 
to the surrounding ornaments in gold. This, and other 
subjects of petit-point and stump-work, have been 
gone into as far as space will allow, and it only 
remains to say that one and all are in splendid 
preservation regarding work and colour, and that, 
judging from their exquisite execution, it might be 
surmised that they are the handiwork of the Royalists 
of this period. 


Romney's Apprenticeship 

By W. Roberts 

famous Romney 
a " lot " which 
included the 
original In- 
denture by 
which George 
R u m n e y (as 
the name was 
then spelt, and 
as it always has 
been p r o - 
nounced) was 
bound appren- 
tice to Chris- 
topher Steele 
for the term of 
four years. 
The lot was 
purchased by 
Mr. Algernon 
Graves, in 
whose posses- 
s i o n it r e- 
mained almost 
forgotten all 
these years, 
and who r e- 
cently parted 
with it to Mr. 
J.R. Cookson, 
the art dealer, 
of Highgate, 
Kendal, from 
whom it has 
now passed 

the many interesting things in the 
sale at Christie's in May, 1894, was 



»„.<.., -t.. 

■^n^^i,.fr ii.~—yi... «-..•. 

l... .I).,l uiL.~...t;....i, A.„:.,>^y„ -"L.J.//,..,/;. 4/i.,„. .,./< Xtt-^t^'/j.i'- -■'-^ '^'- ■ 

-ssii; Bit. 

. //,„ 


into the possession of the Kendal Corporation as a 
permanent memento of Kendal's most distinguished 
- ~ - - resident. Rom- 

ney was born 
at Dalton-le- 
Furness, but 
he was appren- 
ticed at Ken- 
dal. He mar- 
ried there, and 
lived there for 
five years, so 
that K e ndal 
has every rea- 
son to claim 
him asatowns- 
111a n. 

The Inden- 
ture is dated 
March 2c, 
I 755, the con- 
tracting par- 
ties being the 
fat her, John 
R u m n e y, a 
maker, the son 
George, and 
Steele. Rom- 
ney was to be 
instructed in 
" the art and 
science of a 
painter," and 
covenanted to 

' .ir.-jrj;i/r^7tSErrr/,- 





The Connoisseur 

obey his master's lawful commands, whilst, on the 
other hand, his father agreed to provide his son with 

had to pick up his knowledge in the best way he 
could. Richard Cumberland described Steele as "an 

'//^^,r/r,y,.r /^'^Mr/'y^.-'A 







i^w^y r^.i/^jy <-'/ 


9?/^ jnt^i /^^f ^%-^?*^ ,'$.t^/^x»^;»^/^//' '^>^'*->^j«^""'>«. -^^^ 




n /fct^ <Vi?</,<' a^/T yjn 



/■/^j/^uyMff'&^y ;^/^y''' /^/''■> /uaAf. /i' /aXf a- 'i-rW^ aa^-^ Jy^e^^^. 

/?€f^fj^^/ a >^' If/ ■'//<• ^r*-^/"^ 


"suitable and necessary cloaths, both linen and wool- 
len." The material consideration which accrued to 
Steele was the sum of " twenty-one pounds in hand 
paid or secured to be paid " by the said John Rum- 
ney. As in so many cases, the premium being paid, 
the apprentice got very little actual instruction, and 

itinerant dawber," who, vulgarly called Count Steele, 
" passed his time in travelling from town to town with 
the tools of his art," and as one who, " when he failed 
of extorting praise from others, he was extremely liberal 
in bestowing it on himself." 

It may be that Cumberland's verdict was too severe. 




Rouineys Apprenticeship 

but none of his picturt-s — and they must have been 
many — have come down to us. We know, indeed, 
very little of Steele, except that he was born at 
Egremont, Cumberland, about 1730, and that he 
resided in Paris for about a year, receiving instruction 
under Carle Van Loo. He was probably a very good 
portrait painter of the time, and but for his foolish 
extravagance in the matter of dress and his loose 
morals, he might have made a considerable success 
as an artist. What we do know, however, is that, 
according to Cumberland, and in accordance with 
time-honoured tradition, the master got jealous of his 
pupil's abilities, and after a year or two the Indentures 
were cancelled. Ronmey had married during his 
apprenticeship, and remained at Kendal until 1762, 
when he realised his ambition of going to London. 
In the meantime "Count" Steele had carried on his 
itinerant portrait painting, living in the hopes of 
finding a rich woman to marry. One of his visiting 
towns appears to have been Manchester, and from 
here, or from one of the other places in which he 
practised portrait painting, he eloped with "a young 
lady of fortune," whose name is not recorded. The 
"Count" disappeared suddenly from his usual haunts, 
leaving many others besides creditors to mourn his 
absence. It is generally stated that he went to Ire- 
land in 1757, where he is supposed to have died. 
But the very interesting letter, partly reproduced here, 
places the date of his disappearance much later than 
1757, and may be taken as a proof that not Ireland 
but the West Indies was his destination. 

The letter is from one of Romney's earliest friends, 
Adam Walker, who was then located at Manchester, 
and runs to three foolscap pages, and it contains 
many other amusing details of the thankless task of 
settling up his affairs which Steele had imposed on 
the amiable Walker. He speaks of having sent off to 
Steele, who was waiting for a ship at Liverpool, all he 
could get together — among these was "a laced suit" 
from the pawnbrokers. He recovered "a landscape 
of Poussin's, two war pieces, a night piece and a Dutch 
one, all of your performances, which I saved from the 

general wrack by giving him [the landlord] two guineas 
for them. My picture is in the same state you saw it 
— I do not think this wretch has done a week's work 
this 6 months — sometimes the weather, sometimes 
a girl, and sometimes the prospect of matrimonial 
emolument has kept him from all manner of business 
that might have kept him out of debt, and from those 
multitude of complications which continually attended 

As the Indenture speaks for itself, we may con- 
veniently leave Steele and his concerns for the more 
pleasant task of Adam \\'alker and George Romney. 
The group of Adam ]]'alker, his IVife and Family, 
now in the National Portrait Gallery, one of Romney's 
last works, will always remain as a memorial of their 
friendship. But only those who have read Walker's 
letters to Romney know of the beautiful character of 
that association. The earliest existing letter from 
Walker is the one of which a portion is here repro- 
duced ; the latest is dated from London, Jan. 27, 

Apart from the many expressions of affection, the 
later letter is especially interesting as referring to the 
group above mentioned, for Romney apparently did 
not finish it. In thanking his old friend for his 
" last most agreeable present, my family picture," 
he adds : " I have got the draperies painted, and a 
handsome Frame, so that it is the great Lion of my 
parlour. The next to it is King Lear and his 
Daughter, which, now it is cleaned, looks almost as 
fresh as when I sat to you with a Gown on for its 
drapery forty years since ! 1 " Referring to the recent 
loss of his wife, "one of the best of wives," Walker 
goes on to say; "I feel even yet as if I wanted one 
of my arms, and I miss her wherever I go, or what- 
ever I do. Tho' I have lost a good wife, I rejoice, 
my dear friend, that you have regained a good one, 
and long may you be happy together." But that was 
not to be, for Romney died in the following Novem- 
ber. Adam Walker, who is enshrined in the Dictionary 
of National Biography, inxw'weA his old friend many 
years, dying at the age of ninety in 1S21. 




{The Edito)- invite's the assistance of readers of The Connoisseur ivho may be able to impart 
the information required by Correspondents.'] 

Unidentified Portraits (Nos. 29S and 299). 
Dear Sir, — Can you give me any information 
which might lead to the identification of the sitters 
of the enclosed portraits ? The picture of the lady 
came, I have reason to believe, out of Reresby Abbey, 
and appears to be unsigned, although in the photo- 
graph a suggestion of a signature is shown, under a 
strong glass, on a fold of the drapery at the bottom 
left-hand corner. 

It is somewhat curious that in this portrait, and 
the one by an " unknown artist " reproduced in the 
March Connoisseur, there are several features so 
very similar. The size of the canvas is 40 in. by 
50 in., and that of the boy portrait 24 in. by 28 in. 
Perhaps you will be good enough to have these 
jihotos reproduced in your Notes and Queries 

Yours faithfullv, F. H. Radford. 

Portrait of Judce 
Information desired 
as to present where- 
abouts of portrait of 
Robert Day, Irish judge, 
sold to Barrett at sale of 
Lovett of Liscombe pic- 
t u r e s, at C h r i s t i e's, 
April 27, 1907. 

(Rev.) H. L. L. Denny. 

Captain Lee, hy 
Georce Engleheart, 


The author oi Josepb 
Lee : Painter in Enamels 
(January, 1918) would 
be glad if any readers 
could advise him as to 
the history and antece- 
dents of the subject ofthe 
above-mentioned minia- 
ture in the \V e 1 1 e s 1 e y 




collection, which was illustrated on page 67, June, 
1918. He would be interested to know, also, to what 
family the Miss Stanford, whose portrait, by Peter 
Romney, was reproduced in February, 1919, belonged. 
Was she one of the Stanfords of Ashbocking, near 
Ipswich ? 

Valentines (April, 1919). 
Dear Sir, — With reference to the instructive note 
by Mr. Maberley Phillips (p. 211) which puts the 
palmy days of the valentine from 1850 to 1870, I 
always understood from my father, who was engaged 
in the trade in them, that the climax of their popu- 
larity was when our troops were in the Crimea. The 
demand for valentines for despatch to them was 
enormous in 1855, and I believe a vessel loaded with 
mailbags full of them unfortunately went down in the 
Mediterranean, so that quantities did not reach their 

destination. The rise 
of the fashion of Christ- 
mas cards killed the 
valentines and made 
December 25th the 
heaviest day in the year 
for the General Post 
Office, while February 
14th dropped back to an 
ordinary day. 

Richard Warner 
(April, 1919). 

Dear Sir, — The 
Richard Warner about 
whose MS. notes Mr. F". 
R. Dudley Needham 
makes inquiry, must be 
the Rev. Richard 
Warner, the author of 
the History of Bath, 
where he was the clergy- 
man at St. James's for 
many years and a well- 
known figure. Inquiry 

Notes and Oiien'es 



of the librarian of the Municipal Reference Library 
would give your correspondent any information that 
is obtainable. — Yours faithfully, Harold Lewis. 

Unidentifieu Portrait (No. 300). 
Dear Sir,— I should be glad if you would obtain 
any information respecting the enclosed picture, which 
has been in our 
family for ico 
years. I can 
trace it back to 
Bristol, but it 
does not ap- 
pear to be a 
family portrait. 
\\' h a t is the 
period and who 
the probable 
very truly, 

Christ in the 

(No. 301). 

Dear Sir, — 
The editor of 
The Studio (301) 



suggested to me that I should send to you the enclosed 
photo of an oil painting in my possession. I think the 
picture is a very fine one and perfect in every detail. 
Unfortunately I have not found the name of the artist. 
If you care to make use of it for your paper I shall 
be pleased. Any information you can give me will be 
esteemed. Probably sixteenth-seventeenth century. — 

I am, dear Sir, 
yours faithfully, 
J. Lyon. 

(No. 302). 
Dear S i r, — I 
am enclosing a 
photograph of a 
picture I have 
in my posses- 
sion. It is an 
oil painting 
about 5 ft. by 
4 ft. There is 
no evidence of 
a signature. I 
have had the 
subject ex- 
plained to me as 


The Coi/iioisstiir 



bk. i. of the 
Faerie Queene 
(Spenser), and 
reading it 
through there is 
a remarkable 
of the feehng 
displayed in the 
verse. The word 
" Sawloi " is on 
the shield. 

It seems to 
me, as an artist, 
that the por- 
traits are really 
excellent work, 
but the animals 
are not quite 
so, although 
the ass is very 
passable. May I add that I found the picture badly 
torn in a wet condition in an outhouse of a public- 
house at Wallingford, near by. 

I am, yours truly, C. Oct.wius \Vright. 

Unidentified St.\tue. 

De.^r Sir, — I have in my possession a white marble 
figure which is very perfect in detail, and has quite a 
smooth yet not polished surface. 

1 have been told it is Venus Reclining, after Canova, 
and that it is seventy or eighty years old. The overall 
measure of marble is 2 ft. 9 in. long by i ft. 2 in. wide. 
It is not signed or dated. I shall esteem it a great 
favour if you will let me know through your valued 
paper all about this figure and its original. — Thanking 
you in anticipation, yours faithfully, R. M.\ddick. 

The Gorget 
(April, 1919). 
The account 
ofthe" Gorget" 
is most interest- 
ing, as I have 
one like the 
view of No. \'. 
(page 217), but 
i t differs in 
that it has an 
oval piece of 
the same metal 


w h i c h appar- 
ently fits the 
hole, and on 
which is en- 
graved the 
words " G 1 a- 
raorgan Volun- 
teer Rangers," 
and in relief a 
t rum pet sus- 
pended from a 
bow. This 
oval, it has 
been suggest- 
ed, was worn 
as a regimental 
badge on the 
belt across the 
chest ; it has a 
hook and two 
studs on the 
back. Evidently 
it is of the same date as Mr. Redfern's, having the 
letters " Ci. R.,'' with laurel leaves and the crown 
above. I should be much obliged for any further 
information about it. I imagine it belonged to my 
grandfather William Moore, who was in the Light 
Horse Volunteers of London and Westminster dur- 
ing the troublous times at the end of the eighteenth 
century. — A. C. M. 

Printed Cotton H.andkerchief 
(April, 19 19). 
Dear Sir, — With reference to the sketch of the 
printed cotton handkerchief shown on page 218 of 
The Connoisseur for this month, it may interest 
you to know that this handkerchief was printed 
at Lennox Mill, in 181 3, by Messrs. Dalglish, Fal- 
coner & Co., 
Ltd., n o w a 
branch of The 
Calico Print- 
ers' Assoc ia- 
tion, Ltd., who 
have one ofthe 
originals still 
in their posses- 
J. E. Clement, 


Relics of Mary 
Queen of Scots 

The Romance 
of Olivers 

Thk set of bed-hangings which Sir Charles Bruce of 
Arnot, C.M.G., has lent to the Royal Scottish Museum, 
forms an interesting link with Mary 
Queen of Scots, whose couch they 
are said to have surrounded what 
time the ill-fated lady was imprisoned at Loch Leven 
Castle. After the abandonment of the castle, the curtains 
were removed to the residence of the Earls of Morton, 
and, in 1675, passed into the possession of Sir William 
Bruce, architect of the more modern portions of Holy- 
rood. The four curtains, with their valances, are made 
of thick cherry - coloured cloth, enriched with embroi- 
dery, the main colour scheme of which consists of black 
applique velvet, heightened with gold thread and silks of 
difierent hues. 

There is a signpost m the parish of Stanway, Essex, 
bearing the legend " To Olivers." The wanderer, curious 
to know who or what " Olivers " may 
be, follows a narrow road of a type 
familiar to the county. A few trees 
clump here and there, bedizened with strands of straw 
snared from passing carts by their branches. At the end 
of the road, on the summit of the woody slope over- 
looking Roman River, stands the mansion of Olivers "in 
a quiet and agreeable place," as Morant described it 
more than 150 years ago, adding that there were " hand- 
some gardens and fishponds and a wood adjoyning, cut 
out into pleasant walks." The red brick faqade of the 
present building would appear to be an innovation of the 
eighteenth century, but the presence of plastered gables, 
surmounted by a clustered chimney-stack, points to the 
existence of far earlier features, although these again are 
not so remote as the memories clustering round about 
them. The house derived its name from its owners in the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. In course of time, 
Joan Oliver's marriage to William Doreward, of Bocking, 
was the means of bringing the estate into the possession 
of a more important family. The son of this match was 
the eminent John Doreward, .Speaker of the House of 
Commons in 1399 and 1413, who himself contracted a 
noteworthy alliance with another old established territorial 

The Churches of 
Stanway, Essex 

house by espousing the daughter of his colleague, Sir 
William de Coggeshall. Olivers continued in the line 
of Doreward (or Durward, as it was spelt anciently — a 
patronymic most familiar to-day from the hero of Sir 
Walter Scott's novel, who was represented, however, as 
being a Scot) until 1495. After two more families had 
been associated with it, the house was purchased by the 
eldest son of John Eldred (1552-1632), whose travels in 
Aleppo, Bassorah, and Tripoli engaged the attention of 
Hakluyt. Morant records the fact {Essex, vol. ii., 1768) 
that the old adventurer's "picture is preserved in the 
great parlour at C)livers, with that of his ship, remarkable 
for having four masts," and Wright repeats his informa- 
tion in 1836. I have been told that the painting still 

Le.-wing " Olivers" by a lane running at right angles 
to the road, one passes through a copse and emerges 
close to the old parish church ot 
Stanway, which has been a ruin 
ever since it was unroofed in the 
troublous times of the Civil War. It stands in the 
grounds of the hall, surrounded, as I saw it, by a pro- 
fusion of daffodils. Brick plays an important part in its 
constitution, and, like many other ecclesiastical buildings 
in the locality, much of this is of Roman origin. The 
picturesque porch presents a well defined Tudor arch of 
the debased type, surmounted by a coat of arms. The 
present parish church, which derives its nomenclature 
of " All Saints " from its forerunner, is worthy of a passing 
visit, since it houses a slightly-carved chair of the William 
and Mary type, with cane seat and panel back. Had it 
not been considerably over-restored, the chapel of St. 
Albright would be far and away the most interesting of 
Stanway's shrines, as parts of it have all the appearance 
of a pre - Norman origin, including its south doorway, 
which is constructed entirely of Roman bricks. The 
arcade in the chapel was removed from the destroyed 
church of St. Runwald, Colchester ; whilst other features 
include a representative fifteenth-century octagonal font 
and a cypress wood cofter incised with heraldic and 
mvthological beasts. — Criticus. 


td td 

>■ " *.r<< 



Pictures and 

A CERTAIN interest attached to Cliristie's sale of 
March 2ist, ahhough the preponderance of prices was 
on the moderate side. The pictures 
belonging to Mr. W. E. S. Erle-Drax 
were the first on the easel, amongst 
them being no less than live canvases from the brush of 
George Cole. Two of these were noticeable as exceeding 
the £100 limit, A Hi_s:hland River Scetre, 1852, 41 in. by 
71 in., ;£i4i 15s., and Changing Pastures, 1865, i6i in. 
by 24J in., £"136 los. P. Nasmyth was represented by 
three paintings : A Farm Pool, panel, 17 in. by 23 m., 
^141 15s. ; -4 Woody Lane, near a Farm, 17^- in. by 
23* in., £b^ 5s. : and A View near Dorking, Surrey, 
I3in. by I7iin., from Lord Northwick's collection, ;/;47 5s 
A'ear Tynemouth, by J. Syer, 33 in. by 51 in., sold for 
y;i3i 5s. ; and The Horse Fair, by J. \'eyrassat, panel, 
10 in. by 19 in., ^{^99 15s. A selection of less recent works 
was then offered, but few realised outstanding sums, the 
highest amount being £\oi paid for A Tavern Interior, 
by L. de Jonghe, panel, 20 in. by i6i in. Far more 
attractive were the pictures of the French school, which 
included A Lady and Three Gentlemen holding musical 
instruments in a forest glade, y]\ in. by 30 in., ^94 los. ; 
a set of four overdoors in monochrome, representing 
Pastorals, by F. Boucher, 27^ in. by 52 in., /220 los. ; 
three ovals by Greuze, The Love Letter, 27iin. by 2liin., 
/;504 ; La Poupee, 17^ in. by \\\ in., £220 los. ; and 
Portrait of a Girl in blue dress with ivhite frills and 
bonnet, I ji in. by 1 2i in., ^131 5s. : La Laitilre, by 
Greuze, 41* in. by 31^ in., ^73 los. ; A Hunting Party 
at a Repast, by Carle \'an Loo, 56 in. by 44 in., ^£388 ids. ; 
and Rural Employment, by J. Schall, 62 in. by 49 in., 
^546. From other sources came the oval of A Girl 
holding a kitten, by F. H. Drouais, \-]\ in. by 14* in., 
^273 ; Portrait of a Lady in brown dress, by Antoine 
\'estier, 21 in. by i6iin., ^231 ; The De Mauny Family, 
by C. M. Dubuffe, 1815, 42^ in. by 35 in., ^63; An 
Interior, with a cavalier and lady by a table, by G. 
Terburg, 27 in. by 22i in., £"735 ; The Beach, Schevenin- 
gcn, by J. ^■an Goyen, 24J in. by n in., ^120 15s. ; and 
another, by H. de Meyer, 22 in. by 36 in., £-]i> 15s. Two 
pastel portraits of ladies, by J. Russell, one an oval, each 
measuring 23 J in. by 17^ in., realised ^283 los. and i^i68 

On the 28th interest centred in a Portrait of Robert 
Manners, 4th Duke of Rutland, by Gainsborough, 495 in. 
by 395 in. The highest bid was one of £1,312, which 

quite put in the shade the /;42o given for -Sir J. '^^ty- 
noXAs's Portrait of the Duke of Albemarle, 42 in. by 35 in. 
Other items included a Portrait of C. Wakefield, Esq., 
of York,hy Lawrence, 36 in. by 28 in., /;94 los. ; The 
Interior of a Guard Room, by G. Van den Eeckhout, 
20 in. by 25* in., £\'i\ ; Portrait of a Gentleman, by 
R. E. Pine, signed and dated 1774, 5° •"• ^^ 39 i"-. 
£\zo 15s. ; Fisher-folk on the Beach, by W. Shayer, 
sen., 29i in. by 39* in., £220 los. ; Portrait of Lady 
Keith, by G. Watson, P.R.S.A., 34 in. by 27 in., 
£89 5s. : The Piazza of St. Mark's, by Guardi, 16 in. by 
igi in., £199 I OS. ; and An Arched Window, with a man 
giving a basket of fish, fowls and cabbage to a cook, 
by \V. \'an Mieris, signed and dated, panel, 16 in. by 
\l\ in., Shandon collection, 1877, £152 5s. Among the 
&xxw\x\%=,. Portraits of Ladies, by .\. Pope, 1805, 11 in. 
by 8 in., and by F. Cotes, pastel, 23* in. by 172 in., made 
£■11 los. and £63 los. respectively; whilst a Head oj 
Miss Bloxam, daughter of Rev. R. R. Bloxam and wife 
of J. Walcot, of Walcot, pencil and colour, 12V in. by 
10 in., went for £89 5s. K framed print by F. C. Lewis 
was sold with the drawing. 

The March book sales held under the auspices of 
Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge comprised some 
striking properties. Taking these in order 
Books of dispersal, we come first to Mr. J. 

HoUam's library, which was offered on March 12th and 
two following days. A number of G. Cruikshank's works 
was headed by an early issue of the first edition of The 
Humorist, Robins & Co., 1819-20, with £2,0 los. ; whilst 
in the Dickens series, £\(is was paid for a first edition 
oi Pickwick, with the Buss plates and several other plates 
in duplicate showing first state. The price included an 
additional volume containing the original wrappers and 
advertisements. .\nother first edition in the original 
wrappers, with the suppressed plates, and some of the 
Pickwick Advertisers, made /40 ; whilst the little Sun- 
day under Three Heads, in original covers, 1836, secured 
£26 ; the first 8vo edition of Sketches by Boz, with wrap- 
pers and advertisements, in folding cloth wrapper, 1839, 
/;45 ; and the complete two series, first edition of the 
same, with two extra plates, which appeared in the 
second edition, 1836-7,^38. A first edition of H. Aiken's 
National Sports of Great Britain, fifty coloured plates, 
M'Lean, 1821, fetched £lH; Daniell & Ayrton's P/V- 
turesque Voyage round Great Britain in fSfj, 1814-25, 


The Connoisseur 

£<)b ; and P. Egan's Life in London^ first edition in 
original parts, in watered silk folding cover, 1S21, £,12. 
On the last day of sale, a grangerised copy of Les 
Co>i/eiitpOfaines, by Restif de la Bretonne, 178 1-5, con- 
taining numerous different states of the plates and 45 of 
the original designs by Binet, brought £^AS; a first 
edition oi Real Life in London, 1826, ^82 ; a first edition 
of Surtees' Analysis of the Hunting Field, 1846, £^b ; 
a second edition of his forrocks's founts and follities, 
1843, £'^2,; a collection of first editions of Thackeray, 
^300; and a collection by Francis Harvey of over 1,000 
of Rowlandson's Political and Humorous Works, includ- 
ing caricatures, views, prints, and a few originals, 1774- 
1825, ^580. The total sum realised was ^8,550 14s. 

Of less general importance were the mixed collections 
tendered on March 17th and two days following, which 
fetched ^2,837 5s. 6d. A first edition in original cloth of 
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, 1866, made ^37 ; a 
specimen of binding bearing the portrait and crowned 
monogram of Anne, Duchess of York, La Pratique des 
Vertus Chretiennes, a Quevilly par Jean Berthelin, i66g, 
;£i53; and History and Antiquities of the County of 
Leicester, by John Nichols, 1795-1811, ^95. 

Although it only occupied a couple of days, the dis- 
persal of Lord Mostyn's collection of Early English plays 
was far and away the most important sale of the month, 
realising, as it did, the phenomenal total of ,£40,873 14s. 
for 364 lots. The first instalment was offered on March 
20th, but here again we are obliged to confine our notes 
to the most important items. The gem of this day's selec- 
tion was undoubtedly an unrecorded and probably unique 
edition of Fedele &^ Fortunio, London, Thomas Hacket, 
I 5S5, a play, ascribed to Anthony Munday, which formed 
the foundation of Shakespeare's Tiuo Gentlemen of Verona. 
Collier, Hazlitt & Greg refer to another edition of which 
only two copies are known to exist. As anticipated, this 
volume was in particular request, realising £3,020. Tak- 
ing the other outstanding items in order of sale, we noted 
A Humerous Dayes Myrih, by G. Chapman, first edition, 
V. Simmes, 1599, £311 ; another, shaved, ^235 ; Historie 
of the two valiant Knights iClyomon &= Clamydes), first 
edition of a work only preserved for us in two or three 
copies, Thos. Creede, 1599, £y20; another, slightly 
defective, £250; Loves Riddle, a Pastorall Coma-die, 
written at the time of his being King's Scholler in the 
Westminster Schoole, by Cowley, original edition, J. 
Dawson for H. Seile, 1638, ^134 ; The Merry Conceited 
Humours of Bottom the Weaver, by R. Cox, an adapta- 
tion of the humorous scenes from the Midsummer Night's 
Dream, for F. Kirkman and H. .Marsh, 1661, ^125 ; 
A Pretie new Enterludc . . . of the Story of Kyng 
Daryiis, first edition, Thos. Cohvell, 1565, £360; an- 
other, defective, ^340 ; West-ward Hoe, by Dekker & 
Webster, first edition, lohn Hodgets, 1607, one of the 
few known copies, £140; A Pleasant Enterlude, inti- 
tuled. Like will to Like quoth the Devill to the Collier, 
byFulwell, second edition, black letter, E. Allde, 1587, 
£240; The First Part of the Tragicall Rai°neof Selimus, 
by R. Greene, first edition, Thos. Creede, 1594, ;£525 ; 
George a Greene, the Pinner of Wakefield, probably by 

Greene, although it has been attributed to Shakespeare, 
Simon Stafford for Cuthbert Burby, 1 599, ^400 ; /;«- 
pacient Pouertie, apparently an unrecorded edition ( ? Wm. 
Copland), £610; The Disobedient Child, byT. Ingelend, 
original edition, Thos. Colwell, c. 1565, £jio; another, 
£y>o\ fack Jugeler, Wni. Copland, c. 1562, apparently 
the hitherto unrecorded original edition, £870 ; lacob 
and Esau, attributed to W. Hunnis, the only known 
edition, Henrie Bynneman, 1568, ^640; another, £630; 
The Fortunate Isles, by Ben Jonson, n.d., one of the 
very few known copies, £600 ; Chloridia, by the same, 
for Thos. Walkley, n.d., £200; and The Famous 
Victories of Henry the Fifth, the second edition of this 
foundation of Shakespeare's play, Barnard Alsop, 1617, 

Some 01 the pearls of the library were reserved until 
the second day. A unique copy of the Godely Interlude 
of Fulgen's Cenatoure of Rome, by Henry Medwall, 
London, Johan Rastell, before 1520, secured £3,400. 
Previously the existence of this work was known only by 
some fragments in the British Museum which did not 
disclose the authorship. One of the four known copies ot 
King Lear, Simon Stafford for lohn Wright, 1605, the 
precursor of Shakespeare's tragedy, realised £1,950 i 
whilst two copies, from the few known, of John Still's 
Gammer Gurton's Nedlc, Thos. Colwell, 1575, brought 
in £1,200 and £1,000 respectively. An apparently unique 
copy of W. Wager's Inough is as Good as a Feast, John 
Allde, c. 1560-5, went up to £2,600. The remaining 
noteworthy lots may be listed as follows; — The Wounds 
of Civill War, byT. Lodge, lohn Danter, 1594, £250; 
Pleasant Comedie of Muccdoriis, third edition, 1610, 
^400; New Custom, first edition, 1573, £450; another 
slightly larger copy, ^500; Nice Wanton, circa 1560, 
£740 ; The Araygnement of Paris, by G. Peele, first 
edition, 1 584, £500 ; 77/,? Battle of Alca:ar, by the same, 
1594, £310 ; The Love of King David and Fair Beth- 
sabc, by the same, 1599, £200; Cambises, King oj 
Egypt, by T. Preston, first issue, circa 1569, £^300; 
another copy, ^£265 ; the doubtful Shakespearean York- 
shire Tragedie, 1619, £130, and Sir lohn Old-Castlc, 
1619, ;£200 ; Sir Gyles Goosecappe, one of the few 
known copies, 1606, ^290; Thersytes, one of the four 
known copies, c. 1560, £510; Triall of Treasure, on^ 
of the two or three known copies, 1 567, ;£630 ; The 
Tyde Taryeth no Man, equally scarce, 1576, ^400; 
another, ;£44o ; Lusty Ivventus, c. i 560, £220 ; another 
and unrecorded edition, £790 ; and Thcterludc of Youth, 

c- 1550, £i°°- 

The silver sales of March showed no falling oft" in 
interest, although Messrs. Christie's session of the 5th 

somewhat overshadowed the other events. 

One of the properties dispersed on this 
occasion belonged to Mr. Montague G. Thorold, of Hon- 
ington Hall, the clou being a pair of late i6th century 
French silver-gilt tazze, engraved with the arms of 
Edward Pitt, of Ewern-Stepleton, Dorset, and his wife 
Rachel, daughter of Sir George Morton, and chased and 
repousse with hunting scenes, foliage, etc. The pair» 









H 3 
- U- 

y. < 

In the Sale Room 

which measured 4 in. hiyh, \\\ in. diam., \vt. 103 oz. 
15 dwt., marks I crowned, a hon rampant, with crowned 
tleur-de-lys and two pellets, maker's mark, I. S. with cadu- 
ecus, two pellets and crowned fleur-de-lys, were sold "all 
at," realising ;{^3, 400. It is recorded that the tazze descen- 
ded from the bearer of the arms, who married 1620 and 
died I &43, to William Horace Beckford, 3rd Baron Rivers, 
and passed to the late owner through the second wife of 
the 3rd Baron. Another historical lot, from a separate 
property, was the silver-gilt rosewater ewer and dish, 
which was presented by the Merchant Taylors to John 
Plomer, of New Windsor, in 1620, on his marriage with 
Anne, daughter of Philip Gerard, Reader of Gray's Inn, 
and which came from the sale of the Plomer- Ward heir- 
looms, 1914. The lot, which realised ^1,000 "all at," 
w^eighed 119 oz. 11 dwt., the ewer being i li in. high, and 
the dish 19^ in. diam.; London hall-mark 1618; maker's 
mark, a trefoil. Other pieces sold "all at" comprised 
a Monteith, iii in. diam., by Thomas Ffarren, 1710, 
60 oz. 15 dwt. , ^310; an oval wine-cistern, 9i in. high, 
22jin. wide, 1677, maker's mark, T I, with escallop shell 
and fleur-de-lys in shaped shield, 238 oz. 14 dwt., ^920 ; 
a steeple-cup and cover, 17 in. high, the cup 1626, 
maker's mark, R S, the cover 1636, 22 oz. 2 dwt., 
/^48o ; a pair of table-candlesticks, 1692, maker's mark, 
D B, with mullet and crescent, .£285 ; an Elizabethan 
tiger-ware jug, with silver-gilt mounts, 8| in. high, £()i, ; 
a small goblet, 2J in. high, 1657, maker's mark, H N, 
with bird and branch below, ^105 ; a miniature bowl, 
3i in. diam., 1646, m.aker's mark, I N, with mullet above 
and below, ^125 ; and a small bow-1, 3J in. diam., by 
Thos. Maundy, 1638, ^140. Turning to the silver sold 
at "per oz.," we noticed a porringer, embossed with 
a shield, etc., by Edward Richards, Exeter, 1707, 3 oz. 
7 dwt., 190S. ; an oval pierced mustard-pot, with blue 
glass liner, 1789, 3 oz. 2 dwt., iios. ; a pair of silver-gilt 
table-candlesticks, by Pent Symonds, Exeter, 1726, 29 oz. 
18 dwt., 140s.; a plain cream-jug on round foot, 1737, 
2 oz. 7 dwt., 320s. ; several plain tumbler-cups, of which 
the most was realised by a specimen by Richard Richard- 
son, Chester, 171 1, 2 oz. 6 dwt., 380s.; four circular 
salt-cellars, by John le Sage, 1729, 26 oz. 3 dwt., 165s. ; 
an oval bread-basket, by J. Jacobs, 1746, 63 oz. 6 dwt., 
Sos. ; a tazza, 14I in. diam., 1683, maker's mark, S T 
monogram crowned, 37 oz. 5 dwt., 225s. ; another, en- 
graved with a coat of arms, 7 J in. diam., 1682, maker's 
mark, R C, with six pellets in dotted oval, 1 1 oz. 15 dwt., 
400s. ; a Monteith, engraved with a coat 01 arms, I2jin. 
diam., by Francis Garthorne, 1709, 950Z. ijdwt., 120s.; 
a plain oval casket, i>\ in. wide, 1672, maker's mark, 

I N, with a tleur-de-lys and two pellets below, 12 oz. 

I I dwt., 720s. ; a pair of sauce-boats, by Louis Pantin, 
1732, 32 oz. 12 dwt. , 72s.; a plain square waiter, 6 in. 
square, by John Tuite, 1726, 8 oz. 3 dwt., 155s. ; a pair 
of others, by Paul Lamerie, 1723, 6 in. square, 25 oz. 
4 dwt., 360s. ; and four table-candlesticks, by the same, 
1733 and 1734, 86 oz. 13 dwt., 360s. A punch-bowl, by 
Wm. Fawdery, 1698, engraved with St. Lawrence on a 
sinking ship, the stern engraved 1692, and the ground 
"Revived 1698," gj in. diam., 4I in. high, 24 oz. 

12 dwt., which belonged formerly to the Rev. Wm. 
Abbott, Prebendary of York, d. 1826, made 365s. per 
oz., whilst a silver-gilt bell salt-cellar, gj in. high, 1607, 
maker's mark, T S monogram, 11 oz., was knocked down 
for a total of £')oo. Amongst other lots at "per oz." 
worthy 01 record were an Irish potato-ring, by Stephen 
Walsh, Dublin, c. 1770, 10 oz. 13 dwt., 2705. ; a plain 
jug with dome cover and short spout, by D. Sleamaker, 
1717, 26 oz. 7 dwt., 240s. ; a beaker, Norwich, c. 1690, 
maker's mark, PR, 3 oz. 15 dwt., 330s. ; and a plain 
chalice and paten, 1663, maker's mark, G S, with a 
shepherd's crook and two pellets, 9 oz. 6 dwt., 190s. Of 
less general interest was the same firm's sale of the 19th, 
although mention may be made of a tea-kettle by Peze 
Pilleau, 1754 (gross weight 63 oz. 4 dwt.), which went 
for .£120. This day was occupied with a property of the 
B.R.C.S. and Orderof St. John of Jerusalem, and brought 
in a total of ^2,319 i8s. gd. 

Of the silver sold by other firms, it is necessary to turn 
to Messrs. Robinson, Fisher & Harding's session of 
March 12th, when amongst other prices, 36s. per 02. was 
paid for a pair of Georgian oblong sauce-tureens and 
covers, 37 oz. ; 23s. for a 22-in. two-handled tray, shell 
and fluted border, four paw feet, 126 oz. 10 dwt. ; and 
2 IS. for a pair of i i-in. oblong trays, on four scroll feet, 
54 oz. At yet another March sale, Messrs. Debenham, 
Storr & Sons secured 70s. per oz. for a Queen Anne 
tankard and loos. for a pair of Queen Anne candlesticks. 

One piece, amongst the usual quota of choice furniture, 
excited especial attention at Messrs. Puttick & Simpson's 
on March 21st. This was a fine example 
of a Charles II. coromandel wood cabinet, 
incised and lacquered in colours with aChinese river scene, 
on eagle caryatid legs, 54 in. wide, 77 in. high. This 
splendid specimen, w-hich possessed chased silver mounts 
and mirrors on the reverse of the doors, heralded a 
Homeric contest, which ran up to £i>^\ before the hammer 
fell. An English i8th century green lacquer commode, 
52i in. wide, secured /"iio 15s.; and an old Chinese 
black lacquer chest, 55 in. wide, £fi() js. ; whilst an old 
English bracket clock, in tortoiseshell lacquer case with 
ormolu mounts, striking the Cambridge and Westminster 
chimes, 29 in. high, mad'e £11^ los. A Queen Anne 
hall clock, by Charles Grettan, London, in walnut mar- 
queterie case, 89 in. high, ^120 15s., and a Queen Anne 
walnut escritoire, with metal mounts, 40 in. wide, 
/304 los., were amongst a number of other \aluable 
pieces disposed of by Messrs. Puttick & Simpson, whose 
inhabitation of Sir Joshua Reynolds's house in Leicester 
Square always adds a romantic lustre to their varied 

^71 8s. was bid for an 8-fold Chinese black lacquer 
screen, 3 ft. 10 in. high, at Messrs. Robinson, Fisher & 
Harding's on the 19th ; whilst on the preceding day 
another screen of 12 leaves, 8 ft. high, brought in ^262 
at the King Street rooms. A heterogeneous assortment 
of furniture appeared at the latter on the 20th, when 
/60 1 8s. was paid for a pair of James 11. carved walnut 
chairs on turned legs ; whilst included in Mr. W. E. S. 



The Coiinoisseity 

Erle-Drax's property were a Charles II. carved wal- 
nut arm-chair on turned legs and X-shaped stretcher, 
_£i57 los., and two others of somewhat similar type, 
which fell for /152 5s. and ^94 los. respectively. A 
pair of Chippendale oblong mirrors in gilt frames, carved 
with branches of flowers, birds, etc., 39 in. high, 56 in. 
wide, brought ;Ci52 5s. 

Other sales during this month were held under the 
auspices of Messrs. Debenham & Storr, when an old 
French armoire fetched as much as ^222 15s. ; and 
Messrs. Hampton & Sons, of Cockspur Street, who 
dispersed French furniture to advantage, a prominent 
lot being a BouUe table, which went up to £325 ; whilst 
in the English section three Queen Anne chairs brought 


Messrs. Knight, Frank X: Rutley obtained high prices 
at the sale on 24th and 25th at 79, Fitzjohn's Avenue, 
Hampstead. A satinwood piano, by Kaps, realised 
^225 153. ; a pair of satinwood cabinets, 80 gns. ; a 
French chaise longue, 52 gns.; 3 Persian silk carpets, 
188 gns., 135 gns., and 125 gns. respectively; a camel- 
back settee of William and Mary design, 85 gns.; an 
ony.x clock, 50 gns. ; a bronze figure of Louis XIV., 
48 gns. Also at Hadlow Grange, Uckfield, a mahogany 
winged display cabinet realised ^120 15s.; si.\ Hepple- 
white chairs, ^52 los. ; and an amboyna secretaire, 
^40 19s. 

In Glasgow, Messrs. J. & R. Edmiston had some 
interesting lots to dispose of in .Mr. J. A. Holm's collec- 
tion on the 28th. A set of Queen .-Xnne walnut chairs 
covered in old Utrecht velvet, which belonged to the 
late Lord Blantyre, fetched ^250 ; whilst the fine pair of 
Chippendale mahogany chairs in the " Gothick " taste, 
which were exhibited at the Burlington House Fine Art 
Club, 1908, made ^420. 

The same day witnessed a fine set of six Chippendale 
mahogany chairs knocked down for /336 at the Leicester 
Square rooms ; whilst amongst other lots a William Kent 
side-table, 61 in. wide, brought ^105, and a Sheraton 
satinwood secretaire bookcase, 41 in. wide, ^126. 

A V.ARIED selection of brocades and needlework was 

offered by Messrs. Puttick & Simpson on March 21st, 

when ;£l20 15s. was secured by three 

Objets d'Art and ^^^^j^ ^^ antique crimson velvet, all 

about 9 ft. high ; ^79 i6s. for a large 
hanging panel of French iSth century ruby silk damask, 
designed with groups of flowers and columns: ^52 195. 
for an English 17th century bed-cover of pink flowered 
velvet, worked with birds and flower-sprays in coloured 
silks on cream ground ; £^% i6s. for a large bed-spread 
of linen, embroidered with flowers, in five panels, and 
sprays on herringbone ground, bordered with yellow silk 
and lace; £l\ 9s. for a set of four Italian early i8th 
century yellow silk panels with crimson borders, 8 ft. 6 in. 
by 6 ft. II in., from the Durazzo Palace, Genoa; £,bi 
for a panel of Louis XIV. needlework, with figures 
feasting, in petit-point, enclosed in a cartouche of gros- 
point, 34 in. by 27^ in. ; £^b 14s. for another with 
Ulysses on board ship, 34* in. by 28J in. ; ^45 3s. for a 

Pottery and 

pair of old Spanish needlework wall panels, with vases 
of flowers, in coloured silks and gold thread on crimson 
ground, 71 in. by 35 in.; and £11 12s. for a panel of 
Elizabethan needlework, with Christ and Mary in the 
Garden, dated 1569, i6i in. by 23|- in. A Savonerie 
picture, designed with Teniers' Jealous Wife, in mar- 
queterie frame, 2oi in. by 15^- in., made ^25 4s. 

^44 2s. was paid for a pair of Waterford glass cande- 
labra at the same rooms on April 4th ; whilst a pair 
of old English candelabra, on Wedgwood blue jasper 
pedestals, 31* in. high, went for ^215 at King Street 
on the preceding day. 

THii collection of English and Continental porcelain 
formed by the late H. J. Bretherton was the subject of a 
two days' sale held by Messrs. Sotheby, 
Wilkinson & Hodge on March loth 
and iith, for which a total exceeding 
y^i,43o was secured. Owing to the fact that a great pro- 
portion of lots were comprised of two or more items, 
it is difficult to select many prices as representative. 
Mention may be made, however, of a Bueno Retire 
chocolate-pot, 6j in. high, painted with a nude child 
caressing a dog, soft paste, pencilled mark, which made 
^13 15s. ; a Menecy cylindrical jar and cover, with 
coloured fruit handle, 5^ in. high, scratched mark D V, 
£\\ los.; an early St. Cloud teapoy and cover, painted 
in the Chinese taste, 4 in. high, pencilled mark St. C, 
^23 ; a St. Cloud jug with hinged cover, vertically fluted 
and painted with birds, etc., in blue, 6J in. high, pencilled 
mark St. C. T., ^21 ; and three Bow plates of varying 
designs, all marked with the anchor and dagger, ;^33. 

.A. Kang-He famille-verte beaker, igj^ in. high, was the 
main feature of the porcelain at Messrs. Puttick and 
Simpson's on March 2 1st. It realised ^99 15s. Some 
other famille-verte pieces of this period appeared at King 
Street on the preceding day, when a bowl, 8 in. diam., 
enamelled with a mandarin and other figures, went for 
£\b 4s.; a pair of shallow bowls, with river scenes, etc., 
8^ in. diam., ^105 ; a beaker, %\ in. high, from the 
late 0. R. Davies' collection, £()'>. 8s. ; and an oblong 
scent-case, 13J in. long, ^168. Two Ming famille-verte 
bottles, from the Bennet collection, made ^126 for that 
measuring \o\ in. high, and ^96 12s. for that with pear- 
shaped body, 7 in. high. In the Hon. C. Vavasseur 
Fisher's collection of English porcelain, two Nantgarw 
plates with impressed mark fetched ^50 8s. and ^30 9s. 
apiece ; a Swansea plate with impressed mark, ^35 14s.; 
two pair of old Worcester plates, both something over 
8 in. diam., ^73 los. and ^54 12s. ; a pair of old 
Worcester oval dishes, loi in. wide, from the Marchioness 
of Ely's collection, ^78 15s. ; an old Worcester oval 
basket, painted with flowers in dark blue borders, with 
pierced sides encrusted with blossoms, 7 J in. diam., 
£4i 43. ; and an old Worcester oviform vase with transfer 
portrait of the King of Prussia, by R. Hancock, 7 in. 
high, £l^ los. From other sources were a Nankin 
dinner service of some seventy to eighty pieces, ^50 8s., 
and two sets of four Battersea enamel candlesticks, l ij in. 
and 10 in. high, which went for ^46 4s. and ^39 l8s. 


/// the Sale Room 

On March 28th, Puttick's secured the tollowing prices :— 
£zi 4s. for a pair of old Derby figures of a shepherd 
and shepherdess, with the Dresden mark, iijin. high; 
/2S 7s. for a Worcester oval dish, painted with flowers, 
\V mark, loi in. wide; £l\ los. for a Nantgarw plate 
by Billingsley, impressed mark Nantgarw C W, 8J m. 
diam. ; ^30 9s. for a Chelsea triple-shell sweetmeat stand, 
with a bird on a branch forming the handle, 6 in. high ; 
and £.^^ 6s. for a Chelsea seated cupid, double anchor 
mark in gold, \o\ in. high. 

The pick of the late Hon. Mrs. Percy Mitford's col- 
lection, which came up at Kmg Street on April 29th, 
were three old Worcester oviform vases and covers, 
6J in. and 6* in. high, which made /241 15s. A pair of 
Chelsea groups, representing the "dog in the, manger," 
and a donkey laden with game, 9J in. high, secured 
/;204 15s. 

Mrs. Meredith's pottery and porcelain from Little Mas- 
singham Manor was offered on May 6th. An Astbury 
small oblong teapot and cover, with the Royal Arms, etc., 
in relief in white on red ground, fetched /;36 15s., among 
the English wares, being succeeded by such items as two 
salt-glaze teapots, with flowers and branch spouts, which 
made ^£43 is. and £ii> 5s. respectively. A salt-glaze 
figure of a cat, mottled blue and black, 5 in. high, was 
knocked down for ^34 13s.; a Whieldon figure of a girl, 
6 in. high, and a figure of a man, coloured green and 
brown, 6 in. high, £%c) 5s. ; and a money-box, formed as 
a dog, mottled blue and yellow, inscribed "Ann Wit- 
tin, 1717," and with inscription beneath foot, Sj in. high, 
/^35 14s. From other properties came some examples of 
Chinese porcelain, including a pair of figures of hawks, 
coloured brown on blue bases, 6| in. high, ^35 14s.; a 
turquoise crackle figure of Kwannon, on lotus pedestal, 
12I in. high, ;^30 9s.; a pair of Nankin vases and covers, 
painted with Lange-Lysen, 19J in. high, £()\ los. ; a pair 
of cylindrical vases, enamelled with dragons and fiowers, 
iii in. high, ^131 5s.; anda pair of pear-shaped bottles, 
enamelled with kylins, etc., 12J in. high, ^73 los. Some 
interest was shown in a pair ol hexagonal eggshell lan- 
terns, enamelled with flowers, 12 in. high, on metal stands, 
which went up to £'^0^,. Amongst other items, a Kien- 
Lung famille-rose vase, with beaker neck, 14 in. high, 
made ^63 ; a Ming cylindrical wine-ewer, enamelled with 
prunus blossom, etc., 18 in. high, £115 los.; part of a 
Kien-Lung famille-rose service, consisting of 18 pieces, 
,^69 6s. ; an old Worcester dessert service, of 34 pieces, 
^162 15s.; and a Fulda figure of a man dancing, 5J in. 
high, j^i78 los. 

Some interesting items opened the King Street sale on 
May 8th. A pair of Dresden figures of a Chinese lady 
and gentleman, with monkey and parrot, on ormolu 
plinths, 7 in. high, brought in ^189 ; a pair of Chinese 
powdered-blue bottles, Kang-He, \o\ in. high, ^420; 
and a Nankin bottle, shaped as a triple gourd, 4 in. high, 
;^22o los. The last mentioned came from the Lord 
Hastings collection. 

Batsford Park 

The presence of a fine feminine portrait, from the 
brush of Reynolds, caused great interest to centre in the 
sale at Batsford Park, Glos., which 
was undertaken by Messrs. Bruton, 
Knowles & Co., acting under the 
direction of the Rt. Hon. Lord Redesdale. The disper- 
sal occupied three days, commencing April 30th. The 
portraits were mainly of the Freeman family, amongst 
which that of Mary (died early in 1783), daughter of John 
Curtis, who married Thomas Edwards Freeman, junior, 
by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 50 in. by 40 in., held easily the 
first place. The highest bid for the coveted can\as, 
which was exhibited at Burlington House, 1889, was 
14,800 gns. A representation of the lady's husband, 
Thomas Edwards Freeman, junior (M.P. for Steyning, 
Sussex ; died March, 1788), emanated from the brush of 
Prince Hoare, 50 in. by 40 in., and realised 410 gns. As 
a similarity of family names appears to have caused some 
confusion in the identity of the subjects, we may add that 
the only child of the match was espoused to Thomas 
Heathcote, and, at her death in 180S, the Freeman estate 
reverted to the sister of Mrs. Freeman, wife of Thomas 
Edwards Freeman, senior. Amongst the remaining por- 
traits, Walter Edwards Freevian, byT. Hudson, 50 in. by 
40 in., secured 85 gns.; Mary, only daughter of Rt. Hon. 
Richard Freeman, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, by Kneller, 
49 in. by 40 in., 120 gns.; and Family Group on a terrace 
of the Veriions, Edwards, and Freemans, by T. Phillips, 
29 in. by 36 in., 102 gns. Amongst the furniture, a 
Louis X\\ marqueterie cabinet, 32 in. high, 57 in. wide, 
made 100 gns.; a Louis X\'. commode of inlaid rose- 
wood, 33 ins. high, 51 in. wide, 90 gns.; and a vitrine of 
kingwood, Louis X\'L design, 6 ft. 3 in. high, 4 ft. wide, 
85 gns.; whilst a Louis X\'. clock, by J. B. Baillon, 
22 in. high, fetched 85 gns. 

Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson & Houge held a four 
days' sale, commencing April 8th, when several interesting 
volumes found ready buyers. Watteau's 
Figures de difcre?2ts caractlres de Paysage 
et d\'tudes (Paris, n. d.), made ^235, whilst the very rare 
first complete edition of Bunyan's Pilgrim'' s Progress 
(1679) ran up to ^205. WJiat is believed to be a unique 
work. The Ariycles of the . . . Afagna Carta iRohen 
Wyer, c. 1524), secured ^^140; and two 15th century 
MS. Books of Hours made ^132 and ,^140 respectively. 
A first edition of Fitzgerald's O/'tar {iS^<p) fetched £gi ; 
whilst a fifth edition of Shakespeare's Romeo and fiiliet 
(1637) brought in ^200. More appreciation, centred in 
an unrecorded copy of the first folio (1623), .i{Jl,500, and 
a third folio (1664), ^750. ^120 purchased a first 
edition of Ben Jonson's works (1^616). This work men- 
tions " WiU. Shakes-Speare " amongst the "principall 
Tragedians " who acted in one of the plays. During the 
dispersal of some minor libraries on the 14th and 15th, 
a first edition of Evelina, by F. Burney (^3 vols., 177S;, 
made £~2. ■/■ , 



Mr. George Moore has enunciated the doctrine that 

great art is generally the aftermath of war. He writes : 

"The Greek sculptors came after 

The Royal Salamis and Marathon; the Italian 

Academy , i , ,■ 

renaissance came when Italy was dis- 
tracted with revolution and divided into opposing states. 

. . .. Art came upon Holland after heroic wars in which 
the Dutchmen vehemently asserted their nationhood, 
defending their country against the Spaniard, even to the 
point of letting in the sea upon the invaders. .A.rt came 
upon England when England was most adventurous, 
after the victories of Marlborough. Art came upon 





Current Art Notes 

France after the great revolution after the victories of 
Marengo and Aii5terlitz, after the burning of Moscow." 
In all these instances given by the veteran art critic it 

not begin to develop until many years after the fall ot 

Judging, then, from the analogy of the past, we cannot 




maybe noted that always a considerable interval elapsed 
between the wars and the art that they stimulated. 
Thirty-five years separated the commencement of the 
Parthenon from the battle of Salamis. The truce of 
Antwerp, which practically terminated the struggle ol 
Holland with Spain, was signed in 1609, whereas the 
earliest dated work of Rembrandt, who inaugurated the 
greatest period of Dutch art, was not produced until 
1627. Hogarth painted his Marriage a la A/ode in 1745, 
thirty-six years after the last of Marlborough's victories ; 
and the fine period of French nineteenth-century art did 

anticipate that the vitalising inspiration engendered by 
the war will reveal its presence in English art for a 
number of years to come. The present exhibition at the 
Royal Academy bears out this theory. It affords little 
evidence of new movements or fresh developments in art, 
and indeed, were it not for the contributions of Mr. 
Sargent and one or two other painters, it would rank as 
an exceptionally uninteresting display. One may set this 
partly down to the absorption of a number of leading art- 
ists in the production of war pictures. Unfortunately, the 
commissions for these, instead of being widely distributed 

The Coniioisscnr 

among artists capable of undertaking work of this kind, 
have been restricted to a favoured few who have had 
too much to do, and have generally failed to maintain 
their usual standard. Much of the work they have 
produced is scamped and sketchy, and often executed on 
a larger scale than is warranted either by the subjects 
or their treatment, so that there is a danger that the 
national war museums of the Empire will find themselves 
burdened with some acres of indifferently filled canvases, 
of little interest as war records and of no value as works 
of art. 

Fortunately for the Academy, the majority of these 
works have already been shown in London, and the few 
war pictures that are included maintain a fairly high 
standard. The best of them, and indeed the most im- 
portant work of art yet inspired by the great conflict, is 
Mr. Sargent's Gassed, a colossal canvas occupying nearly 
the whole of the end of the Third Room. It is a com- 
mission from the Imperial War Museum, and the fact 
that it is intended for a public institution must to a certain 
extent have handicapped the artist in his treatment of 
the subject. The public want pictures that are readily 
understandable ; they enjoy sensationalism of a melo- 
dramatic type, and the more realistic it is in the rendering 
of shocking and repulsive detail, the more they appreciate 
it. To an artist of Mr. Sargent's talent it would have 
been easy to have produced a work that would have 
surpassed in horror any of the war pictures of the once 
famous Russian painter, Vassily Verestchagin, and which 
would have won artistic respect through the employment 
of a technique far more forceful and convincing than any 
the latter could command. Mr. Sargent has not suc- 
cumbed to this temptation. His picture is sufficiently 
realistic as to be readily comprehended by the most 
unlettered spectator ; but the horrors of war are ex- 
pressed with commendable reticence, and the tragedy of 
the scene is suggested more by contrast than by an 
emphasis of painful detail. The artist has taken for the 
subject of his theme the approach to a dressing station 
some miles behind the fighting lines. A string of gassed 
soldiers, their eyesbandaged, each clinging for guidance 
to the man in front of him, are led by an ambulance 
worker towards a tent,, of which only several of its sup- 
porting stays are actually visible. Another string of men, 
bound for the same destination, are seen a little distance 
away, while other gassed men are lying in extended 
lines along the foreground. In the further distance some 
soldiers are engaged in an animated game of football ; 
while the scene is backed by a tranquil evening sky, in 
which the moon has already risen some distance above 
the horizon. Almost the only hint of actual fighting is 
afforded by the swarm of aeroplanes, so remote from the 
eye as to look more like moths than large and powerful 
machines. Mr. Sargent's principal group looks like an 
-Athenian bas-relief reproduced in colour. This sculp- 
turesque feeling is heightened by the grouping of the 
recumbent figures in front and behind ; hardly a sign of 
life is visible among them. Here and there a man lifts 
himself on his elbow or puts his fiask to his mouth, but 
for the most part they lie as the dead. Mr. Sargent has 

produced a monumental work, marked by fine plastic 
feeling ; its colour, if not distinguished, is at least har- 
monious, and shows pleasing tonality, while its lighting 
is extremely well managed. The canvas is the most 
important pictorial work yet produced in connection with 
the present war, but it must rank as a triumph of tech- 
nical knowledge and dexterity rather than a great 
emotional eft'ort on the part of the artist. 

A second war picture by Mr. Sargent showed the 
interior of the Cathedral of Arras in August, igi8. It 
recorded in strong, sentient technique one of those scenes 
of ruin and spoliation now familiarised to English people 
by numerous photographs and pictorial records. Mr. 
H.Hughes-Stanton was represented with several canvases 
depicting similar scenes, treated with greater feeling but 
less dexterous in their brushwork. Blangy on the Scarpe, 
near Arras, shows what was formerly a flourishing village 
transformed into a few shattered ruins and broken trees. 
A glowing sunset heightens the effect of the desolation of 
the scene. Both this work and the Lens, igiS — another 
transcript of ruin — are somewhat heavily handled and 
wanting in vitality. A third picture of the Lens-Arras 
Road looking on to Vimy Village, with troops marching 
along it, gains from its greater openness and the sense of 
movement imparted by the passing soldiers, but none 
of the trio can be said to represent Mr. Hughes- Stanton 
at his best. Another phase of war is illustrated in Anna 
Airy's view of The 6-i?t. Shell Forge, National Projectile 
Factory, Hackney Marshes, a work painted with meti- 
culous care and absolute sincerity, but which is destitute 
of imaginative qualities. A coloured photograph of the 
scene would have conveyed as good an idea of it as 
Miss Airy's painting, or perhaps better, for the painting 
fails to suggest either that the forge is an especially large 
one, or that the work performed in it is being executed 
under pressure. The same artist's "Z" Press : forging 
an iS-in.gun at the Works of Messrs. Armstrong, Whit- 
worth £-^ Co., Openshaiv, is more animated, and is 
characterised by more interesting colour ; but neither 
work, when hung in the Imperial War Museum, for which 
they have been commissioned, will be calculated to 
impress posterity with an exalted idea of the art or energy 
of England during the great war. Mr. Stanhope Forbes's 
two essays in similar themes. The Munition Girls and 
Shell Workers, are distinctly better. These are realistic, 
but their realism is less photographic. There is more 
variety in their colour and greater depth and force in 
their chiaroscuro. 

Munition-making is a peaceful phase of war-work, and 
even more peaceful in their aspect are war councils. The 
most interesting representation of one of these is em- 
phatically shown in Sir John Lavery's picture of the Fore 
Cabin, H.M.S. Queen Elizabeth, Rosyth, i6th November, 
igiS : Morning. A group of officers are symmetrically 
seated on either side of a long table, but Sir John has 
broken up the formality of his composition by placing 
this to the left of the canvas, balancing it on the right by 
a couple of detached figures, and so arranging the high 
lights afforded by the white chairs, the white papers on 
the table, the unshuttered portholes and skylights, and 


Current Art Notes 


[copyright reserved by WALTER JUDD, LTD.] 

even the electric-light bulbs, as to achieve a perfectly 
balanced scheme of tone and colour which could be 
scarcely altered without detriment. The picture is 
thoroughly interesting from an artistic standpoint, a criti- 
cism which cannot be extended to Mr. Herbert A. Oliver's 
rendering of The Permanent Military Represe?itatives oj 
the Supreme War Council, Versailles. The portraits of 
the distinguished soldiers assembled are well charac- 
terised, and some attempt has been made to break up 
the two long lines of figures facing one another by varying 
the individual attitudes ; but the most arresting feature 
of the work is a brilliant pink table-cloth, which dominates 
the canvas, practically cutting it into two halves. Air. 
Oliver should either subdue this, or modify its aggressive 
effect, by repeating the same colour in other portions of 
the picture. The most stirring representation of actual 
fighting is given in the First Australia?i Divisional 
Artillery going into action before Ypres, July jist, igiy, 
by Mr. H. Septimus Power. The thrusting forward of 
the guns on this occasion to within almost point-blank 
range of the Hun riflemen in order to support the advance 
of the British infantry was one of the most gallant actions 


ot the war, and Mr. Power has well suggested its bold- 
ness and risk. The horses straining at the heavy guns, 
putting forth every ounce of strength to drag them into 
position, and the artillerymen firing off those pieces 
already placed, are realised with wonderful vigour ; and 
the picture should certainly prove one of the most popular 
of the works commissioned by the Austrahan Govern- 
ment. -Mr. W. B. Wollen, in Cavalry of the Air : " Oiu 
loiu-flying machines attacked the enemy's troops and 
transport" has treated his theme with less abandon. 
He sees too much, and the main interest of his work is 
weakened by the mass of obtrusive detail that he gives. 
A similar failing characterises Mr. W. L. Wyllie's naval 
scenes. It would be impossible for an ordinary observer 
to discern all the minuti;E shown in The Surrender of the 
German High Sea Fleet, November 2ist, igiS, at the 
distance at which the vessels are shown ; but one knows 
it was there, even if out of sight, and its addition adds to 
the value of the canvas as a historical document. Lieut. - 
Commander Norman Wilkinson has painted his Merchant 
Service with a somewhat freer brush and a more accurate 
perception of the natural vision, but his version of the 


The Coiiiiflissc/ir 


[reproduced by PERMISSION OF THE OWNER, MR. N. 

already frequently essayed theme of ships' boats escaping 
from the vicinity of a submarine does not possess any 
specially novel or dramatic features. Mr. Bernard Crib- 
ble's The Battered IVarn'or's Return, showinjf a shattered 
steamer in tow of an uninjured consort nearing the coast, 
while a number of sailors in a third vessel watch her go 
by, is more attractive, because the ships and figures 
represented are on a larger scale, and the interest of the 
picture is less diffused. Another similar work is Mr. Julius 
Olsson's Lame Duck in the Channel, a camouflaged ship 
— from the list on it, obviously torpedoed — being towed 
towards port escorted by several torpedo-boats. Mr. 
Olsson has pictured the scene under a bright moon and 
a cloudy sky, a combination allowing of strong contrasts 
of light and shadow — of the silver of the shimmering 
water against the black silhouettes of the torpedo-boats, 
and of the straight shafts of the searchlights against 
billowy masses of dark cloud. Mr. Olsson has taken full 
advantage of this setting, producing a work which, while 
infringing against no canon of realism, is yet highly 
romantic in its treatment. 

Of other pictures connected with the war, perhaps the 
most noteworthy is Mr. Edgar Bundy's first conception 
for his picture of the Landing of ist Canadian Division 
at St. Nazaire, February, igij, painted for the Canadian 
War Memorials. It is inferior to the final work, less 
suggestive of the importance of the event it commemo- 
rates, for the disembarkation of the Canadian battalions 

at the royal academy 

in France was the first tangible evidence given to Europe 
that the British Dominions, so far from wishing to throw 
off their connection with England, as was alleged by the 
Germans, were ready to pour out their best blood for her 
in any part of her far-flung battle-line. Mr. Bundy's 
record of this momentous incident practically resolves 
itself into the presentment of a picturesque group of 
Highland pipers making their way through a crowd of 
more or less interested spectators. An ordinary territorial 
parade could scarcely have been presented with less 
impressiveness, and often has been presented with more. 
Mr. Fred Roe, in The Return of the Victors, presents a 
more homely scene — the arrival of a party of time-expired 
men at X'ictoria at night-time. The title veils a scarcely 
concealed irony, for the victors, instead of returning in 
triumphal procession, are coming back in little groups, 
each individual burdened with his full marching kit, and 
is more engaged in satisfying the ticket-collector as to 
the validity of his pass than in looking out for plaudits of 
the onlookers. The scene is true to life, and is painted 
without any attempt to accentuate its sentiment, the soldiers 
being typical "Tommies," and the spectators showing 
only a normal amount of interest in their arrival. The 
deep blue shadow, beyond the glare of the electric light, 
filling the upper part of the picture, makes an ideal back- 
ground for the khaki uniforms of the soldiers ; the same 
deep blue repeated in the dress of the women porters 
carries the tone throughout the canvas. The grouping is 

Sold for 14,800 guineas at the Batsfovd Park Sale 


Current Art Notes 

weill arranged and the coloration highly efifective. Another 
well-painted work by Mr. Roe is The Ever Open Door, 
showing a soldier entering a church porch, in which the 
hue of the khaki is re-echoed in the tones of the wood- 
work. Both these works are good examples of an artist 
who has been specially fortunate is his khaki pictures 
during the war, being one of the few men who has suc- 
cessfully introduced this difficult colour in large masses 
into his pictures without modification of hue. Another 
war scene, Late News, by Mr. George Harcourt, shows 
a poor street, when a last edition of an evening paper is 
being carried round. It is distinguished by depth of 
tone and strong colour, but the latter shows too great 
variety, giving rather a scattered effect to the work as a 
whole. Other present-day war pictures that should be 
noted include Mr. J. P. Beadle's Letters from Home, 
which gives a more wintry idea of the life of our troops on 
the Asiago Plateau, Italy, than was generally entertained 
at home ; and Mr. Frank O. Salisbury's picture of King 
Peter retreating across the Albanian Mountains, De- 
cember, igi^, a well-grouped canvas, which, howe\er, 
hardly justified its huge size. Its dimensions were sur- 
passed by Mr. Sydney Lee's River Source, another 
\ariant of the motif of James Ward's Gorsdale Scar, 
which has already inspired the artist in more than one 
work. Mr. Lee shows little variation from or improve- 
ment on his last year's effort. He may have attained 
greater simplicity of colour, for the scene is realir^ed in 
practically only three hues — green, white, and blue. The 
work offers little scope for hostile criticism so far as re- 
gards colour or arrangement, yet it is hardly of sufficient 
interest for the huge scale on which it is executed. A 
third Brobdingnagian canvas is occupied by the Pul'.'is 
ct Umbra of Mr. Walter Bayes. Undeniably clever, it 
makes its chief appeal as a piece of scientific painting, 
colour, lighting, and composition being all arranged 
according to well-understood and well-applied principles. 
The draughtsmanship is of high quality, yet the general 
impression derived from the work is one of cheap epheme- 
rality, and it resembles nothing so much as one of those 
Chinese wall-paintings popular in England during" the 
eighteenth century as a substitute for wall-paper. This 
unsatisfactory result is partly the outcome of Mr. Bayes's 
pigment, which is thin and opaque, and partly to his 
arbitrary introduction of some curious patterning in crosses 
and stars in his shadows, for which there is no adequate 
excuse. Mr. Bayes is too accomplished a painter to 
need to cultivate eccentricities of this kind to call atten- 
tion to his work, and he has only to take himself more 
seriously to be recognised as one of the most capable of 
living artists. 

It is a mistake, however, to include canvases of this 
size in an academy exhibition. They are too large for 
pictures, and their proper place is as mural decorations 
in an arts and crafts e.xhibition. This does not imply 
that they are to be regarded as artistically inferior to the 
smaller works, but it is unfair to the latter that they 
should be shown together. The large and broad hand- 
ling suitable for them detracts from the more finished and 
refined technique of the orthodox gallery pictures, and the 

latter are apt to be overpowered. Turning from these 
Brobdingnagian examples, one found that the generality 
of the work shown was of smaller dimensions than usual, 
and many of the smaller works were among the best. 
Thus Mr. Arnesby Brown contributed several of the 
most striking landscapes in the exhibition, though the 
largest of them was not much above cabinet size. This 
artist, Mr. D. Y. Cameron, and Mr. Bernard Priestman, 
all seem to have departed from the conventional style of 
colour, adopting a palette cooler and more transparent 
in tone than that of the majority of landscape painters. 
Mr. Brown is perhaps most successful in the experiment, 
for he keeps most close to nature, and gains his original 
etfects from close and subtle observation. Thus, in his 
Line of the Plough, the tint of the ploughed field in the 
foreground is quite unconventional, yet it is nowise false 
to nature, and the general colour of both this and his 
other two pictures, The Distant Marshes and Aptil, 
impress one with the charm of novelty and yet have 
about them nothing that is outre or eccentric. His 
success is due to the rhythmic balance of his work ; each 
tint and line is part of a finely conceived pattern, more 
plainly visible in some of his pictures than others. In 
The Line of the Plough it shows itself in a strongly 
marked succession of regular curved forms contrasted 
against a number of almost straight horizontal lines. 
The effect is very striking, but perhaps the mechanism 
by which it is attained is allowed to remain a little too, 
apparent. Cn this account one prefers The Gatheri>ig 
Storm, which is characterised by equally delightful 
colour and greater simplicity and breadth. In April, a 
beautiful expression of the freshness and delicate hues 
of spring, Mr. Brown introduces a group of sleepy-looking 
cattle, whose black and white coats form an essential 
component of a highly elaborated though subtle arrange- 
ment of colour and form carried out with great skill. 
.Mr. D.Y. Cameron, \n Sound of Ke?-rera,iQ\\o\vs\\\s-ai,\i-a\ 
principles of horizontal com|3osition. He has, however, 
carried them out in a lighter key of colour, almost wholly 
confining his pigments to light greens and blues. The 
effect, though pleasant, is thin and unconvincing. Mr. 
Bernard Priestman, too, shows an excessive partiality for 
light greens in his Hay-time among the Hills. With a 
little more colour contrast the refinement and delicacy of 
the picture, and the tender glow of sunshine suffusing it, 
would be better appreciated. As it is, the effect is a little 
monotonous. The Afterglow, by the same artist, in 
which there is far greater strength of contrast, though 
not so original in treatment, is one of the most efifective 
landscapes in the exhibition. The shadows in Mr. R. 
Gwelo CTOodman's Stellenherg, South Africa, appear un- 
duly black to eyes accustomed to European atmospheric 
conditions : but once the spectator has accepted the fact 
that the dryer, hotter climate of the southern dominion 
causes more dense and opaque shadows, and he is pre- 
pared to admire the clever use that has been made of 
them in the picture. The foreground of the two is 
patterned with a variegated expanse of light and shadow, 
the strong contrast between the two forming a telling 
and effective setting to the old Dutch mansion in the 


The Coiiiioisseiiy 

background. In the Ouarry Farm Mr. R. Vicat Cole 
has sought for inspiration from the Flemish masters, the 
golden atmosphere and the warmth of the coloration 
reminding one of the landscapes of Rubens. The picture 
would have been more eflective had there been a little 
more variation in the colour, the hue of an old thatched 
roof in the middle distance being too closely repeated in 
the raw earth of a quarry in the foreground. One can 
well forgive this, however, on account of the strength 
and originality of the work. Another landscape artist 
seen to advantage is Mr. S. J. Lamorna Birch, who in 
his Lamorna paints a scene he has already familiarised to 
the public in numerous pictures. Variety, however, may 
be attained even more completely by change of treatment 
than change of theme, and Mr. Birch gives us Lamorna 
in a different mood to what he generally depicts it. A 
warm, sunny haze flooded with tender dulcet colour 
transforms the old quarry pond, with the heights beyond 
rising behind it like a broken amphitheatre of green and 
white, into a dream-like embodiment of tranquillity and 
rest. The picture marks the highest advance of Mr. 
Birch's achievement. Mr. B. W. Leader shows no 
falling-off in his three landscapes. They are of a literal 
type of art not popular among critics of to-day, but 
though depicting the obvious in a photographic manner, 
they are e.xecuted with a technical dexterity that com- 
mands respect. Mr. Peter Graham and Mr. Joseph 
Farquharson also tread well-worn paths, each painting 
Subjects precisely similar in outlook and treatment to what 
he has done before, and while showing no advance, they 
do not fall below their accustomed level. The San 
Vigilo of Mr. Sargent is a long, narrow canvas, showing 
a little Italian harbour looking like a blue lagoon behind 
its semi-circular breakwater. Behind it is the foot of 
some low green-clad heights with an old-world palace 
below, and the water in front of it, in the bright sunshine, 
lustrous with amethyst and emerald. The picture is 
painted with ease and certainty, yet it is hardly a typical 
Sargent. It is picturesque rather than great, and one 
could well imagine an Italian railway company making 
use of reproductions of it as an attractive advertisement. 
.Mr. George Clausen's Ne-w Moon in May is one of the 
most sincere pieces of nature-painting in the exhibition. 
A clump of trees not yet in full leaf is shown against a 
sky warmed with the afterglow, in which the crescent 
moon is faintly visible. Though the tree branches are 
somewhat clumsily painted, the artist has succeeded to 
the full in realising the tender brightness of the waning 
day and the poetry and mystery of its translucent atmos- 
phere. Mr. Tom Mostyn is represented with a couple 
of brilliantly coloured garden scenes, a little scenic in 
their effect ; and Mr. Alfred Parsons with an English 
garden picture, entitled Lavender and Lilies, showdng a 
picturesque old-world domain backed by a large Gothic 
manor-house. This is painted with all his usual careful 
appreciation of the masses of beautiful bloom and some- 
thing more than his customary warmth of colour. Of 
Sir David Murray's several examples, the most striking 
is The Greed Creek, Stornoway, showing a narrow arm 
of the sea thrust in between white cliffs crowned with 

greenery, while a low rocky islet planted with graceful 
trees forms a picturesque feature in the centre. The 
colour is bright and sunny. Some boats are introduced 
with good effect in the foreground, and a group of 
camouflaged ships at anchor in the distance give a piquant 
note to the scene, showing that even this scene of sylvan 
loveliness was not immune from the effects of the war. 
Mr. Claude Hayes contributes some Constable-like tran- 
scripts of English scenery ; Mr. Edward Chappel, a view 
of The Downs, large and poetical in feeling ; and Mr. 
Adrian Stokes shows refined and dehcate colour in his 
Early Spring. 

Turning to that class of subject which halts on the 
border-line between figure subject and landscape, one 
must note the three works contributed by the newly- 
elected associate, Mr. \V. J. Munnings. Of these the 
Zennor Hill, Cornwall, with its wide-stretching vista of 
grey moorland, lightened up by the introduction of red- 
coated huntsmen, hounds, and horses in the foreground, 
is the most complete. It is broadly and vigorously painted, 
with great ease and facility of workmanship. A similar 
subject, Drawing for an April Fox, is highly effective, 
but is scarcely carried sufficiently far to rank as a finished 
picture. The single-figure subject Evelyn, representing 
a girl in bright, gipsy-like garments, seated on a green 
knoll, is a brilliant and spontaneous piece of work, which 
also might have been carried further with advantage. 
Mr. Harry Watson's trio of pictures are all concerned 
with the expression of bright sunlight, and in no other 
works is the intense %vhite glare of noontide heat so well 
suggested. In two of them, A Woodland Stream and 
Mid-Day, the artist shows parties of children scrambling 
along leafy brooks. The figures are so gracefully and 
attractively expressed that one regi'ets that the artist has 
been compelled by his outlook to more or less merge 
them with their surroundings, and to some extent to 
sacrifice colour ; yet these sacrifices are well made in the 
cause of truth, and add much to the convincing qualities 
of the work. 

In genre and historical pictures the e.xhibition is un- 
usually weak. Mr. Maurice Greiffenhagen's decorative 
panel of The Battle of Langside, painted with the aid of 
the students of the Glasgow Art School, is a well-balanced 
arrangement chiefly in red and black, in which good use 
has been made of the picturesque costume of the period. 
In a second work. The Sirens, the artist has achie\-ed a 
piece of practically pure decoration, expressed with great 
rhythmic feeling and power. Mr. Charles Shannon is 
more pictorial in his Summer Sea, an idyll of undraped 
women and children disporting themselves beside its deep 
blue waters, which form a rich background to their 
gleaming forms. The picture in its coloration is reminis- 
cent of G. F. Watts and some of the great \'enetian 
masters. Mr. Shannon, however, assimilates what he 
borrows, making it entirely his own, and his work ranks 
as one of the most beautiful and refined expressions of 
female form that has been produced in recent years. 
There are few other noteworthy pictures of the undraped 
figure. Sir Edward Poynter's Love Philtre depends for 
its attraction largely on its romantic setting ; and Mr. 


Current Art Notes 

H. S. Tuke's pictures of youths, though finely observed 
studies of flesh-painting in the open air, do not mark any 
fresh developments in the artist's style or outlook. Mr. 
Charles Sims has returned to one of his earlier manners 
in The Vase, a sculpturesque group of two figures crouched 
on a stone platform on either side of a large vase of fruit. 
In this work the artist combines strong plastic feeling 
with tender diaphanous colour. His figures are beautifully 
modelled, but set down with a slightness that makes them 
appear like dream visions instead of tangible flesh and 
blood. This mannerism gives Mr. Sims's picture a 
curiously tantalising quality. It appears full of beautiful 
suggestion never carried forward enough to become an 
actual embodiment. His fantasy of, "And then the fairies 
ran away with their clothes," showing a mother and her 
little daughter, partially disrobed, by a shady brook, 
watching a number of tiny elves carrying off their dis- 
carded garments, is more commonplace. Graceful as are 
the two principal figures, they appear to have little con- 
nection with the rest of the work, the light falling on them 
being apparently untempered by the leafy shade environ- 
ing them on every side, while they regard the theft of 
their clothes with astonishing placidity. A cabinet work. 
Be you Blithe and Bonny, by Mr. J. Se>-mour Lucas, is 
a finished example of his scholarly style, being well com- 
posed and showing excellent colour and deft, sentient 
brushwork. Mr. Stephen Reid's Heraclius, Patriarch 
of Jerusalem, visiting King Henry 11. at Reading Abbey, 
if not so dramatic as his last year's picture of Macbeth, 
fully equals it in colour and design. The numerous 
figures are well arranged and the coloration is rich and 
well sustained. 

Of most popular interest among the portraits is Mr. 
Sargent's ^10,000 picture oi President Wilson, a striking 
and dignified likeness, yet hardly marked by the usual 
vehemence and directness of the Anglo-American artist's 
brushwork. The same criticism largely applies to Mr. 
Sargent's other ;{J 1 0,000 picture olMrs. Percival Duxbury 
and Daughter, which, moreover, is wanting in colour, 
the grey dress in which the lady is attired being of too 
neutral and unattractive a tint to arouse the interest of the 
spectator. The figure of Mrs. Duxbury's little daughter, 
also in grey, appears inserted rather as an after-thought, 
and her head is aw'kwardly placed. Sir John Lavery is 
represented by one of his best works in the half-length of 
the Marquis Londonderry. The artist has produced 
a manly and aristocratic likeness, and has been singu- 
larly successful in his management of the blacks and 
whites in his sitter's costume, making them luminous 
and full of quality. Another portrait characterised by 
good paint is Mr. Harold Speed's Portrait of a Young 
Manin Khaki, against a delicate blue-green background. 
The flesh-tones are good, and the frank ingenuousness of 
youth is happily suggested. Well painted also is the 
same artist's picture of The late Dr. David Little opera- 
ting for Cataract, yet one could have wished that the 
subject was less realistically treated, for the sight of the 
prostrate patient undergoing the cruel mercies of the 
surgeon's knife, while nurses and assistants hover in atten- 
dance, awakens a repulsion in the mind of the lay spectator 

almost the same as the sight of actual suffering would in 
actual life. Of Mr. Arthur Hacker's portraits, the best 
is an alert, well-characterised likeness of Sir William H. 
Ellis, G.B.E., painted among his customary surround- 
ings. The figure is well posed, and the colouring is soft 
and atmospheric. Sir William Orpen's solitary contri- 
bution is a portrait of Michael Wcmyss, Esq., Royal 
Horse Guards, painted with his usual fluency and fine 
feeling for colour, but also not without an element of 
caricature. The minuteness with which the sitter's clothes 
are rendered, and the emphasis pictorially laid on his 
gloves, handkerchief, cane, and other adornments, sug- 
gest the idea of a glorified fashion-plate, or at least a 
design for the cover of Arnold Bennett's novel. The Card. 
Mr. George Henry is brilliant but not quite convincing 
in his several portraits. In all of them the flesh-tones are 
forced and look unreal, giving an impression of paint and 
powder rather than of flesh and blood. Mr. J. J. Shannon 
also is not as good as usual. Mr. J. Seymour Lucas has 
an animated and finely characterised portrait of W. J. 
Eniier, Esq., and Sir Arthur S. Cope several successful 
likenesses noteworthy for their good flesh-tones and 
pleasant colour. 

A COUPLE of sales of great interest to connoisseurs of 
English pottery and glass will be held at .Messrs. Sotheby's 
during the month. The first of these 
S^k!"^"'"'"^ is of the well-known collection belong- 

ing to Mr. .A. E. Clarke, noteworthy 
for its fine pieces of salt-glaze, as well as a number of 
interesting examples of English delft and blue-dash 
chargers. One of the most important of the plain pieces 
of salt-glaze is a Portobello mug with the inscription, 
"The British Glory reviv'd Nov e 22r 1739." This came 
from the Edkins collection, and is similar to one illustrated 
in Burton's English Earthenware. A number of the pieces 
were exhibited at the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1913, 
among them being a pear-shaped salt-glaze jug {circa 
1760), enamelled in colours, with a landscape, ruins, and 
castles in brown, and a full-length figure of a man between 
the initials " W. B." .At the same exhibition were also 
shown several teapots decorated in similar style, and a 
remarkable Jackfield jug {circa 1746), glazed in black, on 
which is painted in blue and oil gilding a half-length por- 
trait of the Young Pretender, in a rococo frame, supported 
by two Highlanders carrying swords and targets. The 
examples of English delft include pieces dated 1633 and 
1676, a dish decorated with the arms and motto of the 
Drapers' Company, and a pill-slab with the arms of the 
.Apothecaries' Company, while blue-dash chargers, a phase 
of ceramic art on which Mr. Clarke is a leading authority, 
are strongly represented, the collection containing speci- 
mens decorated with portraits of practically all the Eng- 
lish sovereigns of the Stuart and Early Georgian periods 
and other noteworthy personages of the epoch, as well as 
several Adam and Eve plates. The collection is especially 
rich in museum pieces, and is the most important of its 
kind to be dispersed in the auction-room for some years. 
The sale of old English glass belonging to Mr. W. H. B. 
Leslie, which will take place in the same rooms, will form 


T/ic Connoisseur 

another noteworthy event in the collector's calendar. 
The items are too numerous for detailed description, but 
mention should be made of the fine collection of sweet- 
meat glasses, which include many fine specimens in 
pressed glass with baluster stems on domed and folded 
feet, and stands for sweetmeats. The light-holders, 
candlesticks, etc., include some very remarkable early 
mortars or light-holders for holding wax or oil ; while 
there is an especially fine William and Mary moulded 
candlestick, period 1680-1690; a practically unique 
eighteenth-century candlestick in barley-sugar glass, with 
domed base of moulded or hammered glass, probably of 
Lambeth origin ; and other pieces equally interesting. 

Paintings by 
A. J. Munnings 

The present display of Mr. A. J. Munnings' works at 
Messrs. Connell's Galleries (47, Old Bond Street) showed 
a marked advance on the war paint- 
ings in the recent Canadian E.xhibi- 
tion, not so much in technique as in 
variety of outlook and freshness of inspiration. Mr. 
Munnings showed himself far less limited to equestrian 
subjects than usual. Possibly he may have had a surfeit 
of them owing to the number he executed for Canada : 
but whatever the reason, the result was a subject for 
congratulation, as it conclusively revealed the artist as 
one of our greatest living painters of landscape in com- 
bination with figures. He paints with a broad and fluent 
brush, while his colour is always good and convincing. 
Some of his works were inclined to be over-summary in 
their execution, looking like confused and chaotic layers 
of paint when seen near to, and only focussing themselves 
into proper form and significance when viewed from some 
distance away. But compensation for this w^as afforded 
by the freshness and vigour of the brushwork. One of 
the most noteworthy examples of this was the large 
picture, Sun and Shade, showing some cattle standing 
knee-deep in a stream, with patches of sunlight coming 
through the trees. This was a brilliant tour de force. 
In a couple of smaller pictures. Up the Vatteyand Zennor 
Hill, Cornwall, the efiect of broad vistas of valley and 
moor was attained by extraordinary direct and simple 
means. Both these had equestrian figures in the fore- 
grounds, pictured in complete unison with the landscapes. 
This is a striking characteristic of all Mr. Munnings' 
equestrian pictures, and was equally shown in The 
Huntsman, a fine rendering of a red-coated rider on a 
grey horse, with a background of trees and the several 
pictures of horses and jockeys. Another good picture 
chiefly dependent upon its equine interest was The Barn, 
in which a white and a dark-brown horse with a couple 
of labourers were grouped in a lofty pillared interior 
merged in shadow. Mr. Munnings' other works chiefly 
concerned gypsies, tramps, and humble countryside 
characters. In Gypsies in Hampshire, The Green 
Waggon, and the Portrait of a Poacher, the picturesque 
vans of the nomads were introduced with good effect, 
but in these, and indeed most of the works, the interest 
lay not in any particular feature, as in the close and 
accurate observation of the entire scene. The idiosyn- 
crasies of the characters represented were realised with 
an intimacy rare in modern genre painting, so that in 

Wooden Walls 

A Stone Breaker one had a character who might have 
stepped out of a novel by Hardy, and in the September 
Evening a group of boys and greyhounds, each possess- 
ing a marked and distinct individuality. In a September 
Afternoon, The Boat-house, and Autumn at Lamorna, 
the rural characters were replaced by urban visitors of 
the fair sex, well painted, but hardly realised with the 
same intimacy. Two pure landscapes. In Caleot Park 
seaAJune Afternoon in Caleot Park, were daring in their 
vivid presentment of masses of bright green, but their 
handling was somewhat heavy and coarse, and this is 
a fault that Mr. Munnings must guard himself against. 
He possesses the qualifications of a great artist, but he 
has a tendency to attain strength at the cost of delicacy 
and refinement, and to be content with too swift and 
summary handling. 

It is only natural that a great marine power should 
experience a certain amount of romantic interest in the 
ancestors of its Navy. At a time 
when the recent exploits of the Fleet 
are fresh in our memories, the appeal is stronger than 
ever. Drydens exclamation that 

" To see ihis fleet upon the ocean move. 

Angels drew wide the curtains of the skies," 

is as true to-day as it was in the ages of the wooden walls. 
Unfortunately, w^e have not always been kind with the 
old ships. They inscribed their lines on the scroll of 
fame, became antiquated, and were relegated to the 
breakers, who destroyed them without trace. Now, in 
the days of iron and steel, a more patriotic spirit has 
decided that if the ship; cannot be preserved intact, they 
can at least form the basis of furniture which fulfils the 
requirements of those who admire the historic and pic- 
turesque. Messrs. Hughes, Bolckow & Co. (10, Dover 
Street, W. i: have been active in meeting an increasing 
demand by supplying replicas of antique furniture in 
excellent taste, which possess the added advantage of 
being fashioned from seasoned timbers calculated to 
survive the ravages of an uncertain climate to a period 
when much modern furniture will have come to an un- 
timely end. Although this firm deals extensively in 
articles fashioned from the wood of old vessels, it has also 
genuine antiques at the disposal of those who prefer 

C.\PT. Edmonu X. K.\I'P has achieved two things : 

he has executed some clever caricatures, and has amused 

^ ^ j^ Mr. Max Beerbohm. The first exhi- 

r. . ? bition of " Kapp's " work at the Little 


."^rt Rooms (8, Duke Street, Adelphi) 

showed him to possess an appreciation of the powers of 
black and white, which, added to facile draughtsmanship 
and a sense of humour, have carried him far. It would 
seem that Captain Kapp has a great idea of the possibilities 
of Mr. G. K. Chesterton as a subject, since no less than 
four studies of his familiar form were in evidence. The 
cartoons of other personalities included a head of Vone 
Noguchi, the Japanese poet, rendered in excellent imita- 
tion of Oriental mannerisms, and a clear pencil sketch of 


Ciirroit Ai't Notes 

Fairies," by 
Pamela Bianco 

John Masefield. A forcible fantasy ot two ecstasisiny 
musicians, entitled The Exquisite Hour, loimed a strik- 
ing comparison to a serious study of Miss Muriel Pratt, 
which showed that " Kapp " can turn his hand to more 
" legitimate " art if he has a mind to do so. 

Lady Butler has immortalised so many scenes from 
past conflicts that her collection of impressions of the 
Great War seems singularly appo- 
" Some Records of ^^^^ ■ -^y^^ ^[^|gf ^^.^^^ f^^^^ ,^gj. ^j-ush 
the World War," ^^ ^,^g Leicester Galleries (Leicester 
" R^h'^'' ^"''^'" Sqoare) is The Dorset Yeomanry at 

Agagia, February 6th, igi6, \\hich 
the artist has imbued with a re- 
markable suggestion of movement, 
although a better effect might have been obtained by a 
bolder treatment of the figures in the foreground. Other 
works included such episodes as the Charge of the War- 
wick and Worcester Yeomanry at Huj, near Gaza, and 
a cavalry affair entitled On the Heels of the Hun, both 
subjects after the artist's heart. 

The drawings by little Pamela Bianco, who is only in her 
thirteenth year, display considerable artistic precocity. 
She has no great predilection for the use of colour as yet, 
although the few exhibited examples of her water-colours 
show her eye to be good. It can hardly be supposed that 
a child of such tender years is afiected materially by any 
school of art, so that the faint Cretan suggestions con- 
flicting with an apparent Aubrey Beardsley influence which 
occur in her work may be assigned to the realms of coin- 
cidence. It will be interesting to note the expansion of 
Miss Bianco's powers with advancing maturity. 

Without accusing Mr. Kiddier of conforming in any 
way to the popular heresy that drawing and decorative 

art are not allied, we might suggest 
Paintings by , n • j ,,. T,. ■ ,. tli^it a trine more care m draughts- 

William Kiddier , . , , ,. . r , 

™r ■ mansnip would eUmniate occasional 

Water-colours . , . , , 

u u i_ I H.T • w eak passages m his landscapes. 
by HughL.Norris ° 

Thus, one of the three large wood- 
land scenes which occupy places of honour at the Fine 
Art Society's Galleries (148, New Bond Street) is marred 
by a file of wooden cows passing along a sunk road. Mr. 
Kiddier is endowed with a keen eye for colour. He views 
life from a decorative rather than a natural standpoint, 
and, as he understands values, is able to achieve some 
interesting effects. A few of his pictures verge upon being 
ultra-prismatic, although this cannot be said of his bril- 
liant Spring and grej- Rain Pools. 

The same galleries house a collection of water-colours 
by Mr. Hugh L. Norris, an artist who possesses the gifts 
of fine colour, treatment, and choice of subject. He is 
well acquainted with his country-side, and, instead of 
shirking details, like so many contemporary painters, em- 
ploys them to enhance his effects. The e.xhibition main- 
tains such a high standard that it is difficult to single out 
individual works for notice, although special mention may 
be accorded to his Bluebells in the Woodland, April in a 
Cornish Wood, the grey distances of ZJi^a/w/^w, Wilts, and 
a sunny Burton Brads lock, Dorset: Toivards Evening. 


The exhibition at the Greatorex Galleries (14, Grafton 

Street, W. ) reveals Mr. Renison as an etcher with a 

„ . . . keen perception of the picturesque. 

Etchings by tt ■ , ■ j ■ ■ u 

,„,,,,. n . He is at home in depicting such 

William Kenison '^ 

scenes as a mellow Doge s Palace, 

Venice, John Knox's House, and The Great Clock, Rouen. 

In some respects his landscapes in dry-point are even 

more interesting, such as the simple study of A Moor- 

latui, with its rare breath of loneliness. Many of the 

plates printed in colours deserve praise, especially an 

impressionistic Edinburgh Castle: Early Autumn, and 

an atmospheric Stirling Castle. Kelburn House is less 

successful, the tones being a trifle too hot. 

An inspection of a series of drawings at the Goupil 
Gallery (5, Regent Street, W. i) leaves one with the 

impression that Mr. Meninsky is a 

Drawings fay . /■ • .^ • 1 m . • 

j^ ^ sort of pictorial Mestrovic, possessing 

more observation of nature, though 

less of its decorative possibilities. 

The studies of Maternity and other figure subjects are 

rendered in pen-and-ink, pencil, and pencil tinted with 

flat water-colour washes. The last are probably the least 

successful, as Mr. Meninsky insists on the most unbeauti- 

ful aspects of his sitters. Certain of his more careful 

sketches are imbued with so much individual appreciation 

of the powers of the pencil as to suggest that he can rise 

to greater heights when he permits himself to do so. 

This was noticeable especially in a Head of a Lady, and 

some studies from the life. 

If Miss Norris has not been uniformly successful in 

her pastels of cloud effects at the Maddo.x Art Gallery 

, , ,„ (.Maddox Street), the cause mav be 

Pastels by Miss „ , . i . »i r . .1 . 1 ' 1 

^ T < KT attributed to the fact that she has 

E. LI. Norris . 

chosen to depict one of the most 

difficult aspects of nature. Miss Norris's work displays 

great conscientiousness, although she does not always 

rise above mere prettiness. Cloud and sunset effects are 

so extremely transient that it is a matter of great difficulty 

to record them adequately. Only one who has attempted 

their mastery can realise fully the hindrances to complete 


It is satisfactory to learn that the late Sir George A. 
Drummond's collection of pictures is to be dispersed at 
Christie's at the end of June, thus 
attbrding British purchasers a better 
chance of participating than if the 
event had occurred in New York, as had been considered 
probable at one time. The collection is especially strong 
in examples of the Barbizon school, including Daubigny's 
Rentree des Moutons and three Corots. Turner is re- 
presented by his celebrated Port Ruysdael, whilst Franz 
Hals is evidenced by his Portrait of Joseph Coy mans, 
which he painted in 1643. C)ther names of note include 
P. de Hooch, \'elasquez, Goya, J. van Ruysdael, Con- 
stable, and Watts. The arrangements for the sale have 
been entrusted to Mr. D. Croat Thomson (Henrietta 
Street, Cavendish Square). 

The Drummond 


Louis Raemaekers may be described as the awakener 
of the neutral conscience during the war, for his cartoons 

were the first articulate protest on 
" Raemaekers' jj^g p^^j ^f ^ neutral against Hun 

Cartoon History barbarities. In this role he achieved 
of the War," • ■ r^, 

' a unique position. Ihe genius 

compiled by J. j- , . ■ t,- j • j 

,, , ,,. aisplayed in his drawings procured 

Murrav Allison ^, ,, .,".,. 

T, „; ^ , for them a world-wide circulation, 

Ihe rirst 1 welve , , . . 

,, ^, , ,, and their poignancy, freshness, and 

Months ot the . . . . 

Wa Cloh La sincerity compelled conviction of the 

fs 6d net) truth of the German outrages in the 

minds of thousandswho would other, 
wise have regarded them as gross exaggerations by the 
Allies. To posterity, the Raemaekers cartoons will com- 
mand an unique interest as the most effectual unveilment 
o the true inwardness of Cerman A'u//ur and its exposure 
as a deliberately organised system of scientific brutality. 
How effectually this was done is shown in the first volume 
of Raemaehers^ Cartoon History of the War, compiled by 
Mr. J. Murray Allison, and covering the first eventful 
twelve months of the conflict. It contains reproductions 
of a hundred of M. Raemaekers' cartoons, accompanied 
by notes giving the facts — almost invariably taken from 
official documents or statements — on which each cartoon 
is based. It forms what is perhaps the most graphic and 
telling indictment of Hun methods that has yet been 
issued. M. Raemaekers in these cartoons introduces the 
types of German soldiers, sailors, and statesmen which, 
since he first observed them, have been followed by 
nearly all the caricaturists of the Allies — types so true to 
life as hardly to be exaggerated, and yet which reveal the 
latent brutality and stupidity of the modern Hun with a 
lucidity that no previous artists had attained. The car- 
toons themselves, suggesting the horrors and atrocities of 
German warfare with a graphic verisimilitude rivalling 
that of Callot or Goya, are already familiar to all English- 
speaking people, and their present issue in a handy, 
compact, and permanent form should be highly popular 
with those who desire that the memories of the war 
should not be forgotten. M. Raemaekers' work, vividly 
epitomising, as it does, all the currents of contemporary 
feeling, forms a record far more interesting than any 
written history, and well deserves to be handed down to 
our children's children, so that they may be able to follow 
the artist's graphic pencil through the chequered story of 

The Twelfth Annual Report of the Scottish Modern 
Arts Association shows a continued record of useful work, 
and the additions to the permanent 
Ihe Scottish collection, though not so numerous 

Modern Arts .^^ ;„ ,^,7^ mc\v.A^ several interest- 

Association ■ •, ^,, -r^ u »» t 

_ ,, , , , uig items. The gift by Mr. James 

1 welfth Annual r- j 1, j r hi 1,1 

_, ^-r- o A Cadenhead of a -small but highly 

Report. (T. &A. ■, ■ ■ ., ,^^ ' 

^ ^ , , , attractive oil painting entitled C2/;5;,/, 

Constable) ,,,,;.. 

by the late Miss H. C. P. Macgoun, 

and the purchase of another of her works, a cabinet picture 
of St. Andrews Fisher-Folk, ensures the representation 
in the collection of a clever Scotch artist whose work was 
always marked by vigour and sincerity. Other purchases 
by the Association comprised three drawings — Makers oj 
Airships, by Captain \V. Russell Flint ; Renteria, Spain, 
by \V. Y. Macgregor ; and Chalice, by W. Gibb ; the 
Association, in making the last-named acquisition, being 
assisted by gifts from members. Unfortunately, the 
utility of the Association's collection is handicapped by 
the want of adequate space in which to properly display 
it. Already, before the outbreak of the war, it had out- 
grown the accommodation hospitably provided by the 
Royal Scottish Academy and H.M. Board of Works. 
Since then it has been increased by twenty-five works, 
so that the problem of additional temporary exhibition 
space becomes one of urgency. LHtimately, it is the 
hope of the Association that the formation of a Scottish 
Luxembourg Gallery, towards which it has been working 
from the first, will provide a permanent solution of the 
problem. The report is, as usual, illustrated with excel- 
lent reproductions of the acquisitions made during the 
year. Anyone desiring to join the Society can obtain 
full particulars regarding it from the hon. secretary, Mr. 
Gilbert L. D. Hole, 36, Murrayfield Avenue, Edinburgh. 

This well-illustrated record of furniture and interior 

decoration in Holland from the Gothic period to the early 

nineteenth century, which witnessed 

Huisraad en a Dutch version of the Empire style, 

Binnenhuis in jg ^f interest both on its merits to 

Nederland in students of the rich and original 

vroegere eeuwen," j^^^^j^ ^^.^^ ^^^^ .^^ affording 

by K. Sluyterman ■, r .1 1 1 c 

' . evidence 01 the d e ve lo pment of 

(Martinus . . .„,,.. , , 

,,.., -r „- design in England during the lat- 

Nijhoff, 1918) , ,r r , , J , 

ter halt ot the seventeenth and early 

eighteenth centuries. Domestic building developed with 


The Connoisseur Bookshelf 

almost feverish 
land during the 
first quarter of 
the seven- 
teenth century, 
which saw the 
rise of innu- 
merable well- 
appointed bur- 
ghers' houses 
at Amsterdam, 
R ot te rd a m, 
a n d o t h e r 
Dutch cities ; 
and these red- 
brick houses, 
outwardly sim- 
ple in design, 
were furnished 
and decorated 
with a degree 
of comfort and 
solid luxury 
unknown in 
middle -class 
houses. It is 
to the novelty 
of this type of 
evolved that 
w e owe the 
number of 
Post- Restora- 
t i o n travel 
books written 
who could not 
help putting on 
record their 
admiration for 
this new lux- 
ury and clean- 

It s e e m s a 

pity tliat the author has not included some extracts from 
these authorities, or from wills, inventories, etc., which, 
with other contemporary records, are so useful in deter- 
mining the dates of the introduction of styles and fashions. 
The illustrations are mainly drawn from the Rijks Museum 
and the other excellent Dutch collections. Those espe- 
cially illustrative of foreign influence upon contemporary 
English work are the parchemin-plie -p^neXi (Figs. 2 and 
3), closely resembling English linen-fold panelling ; the 
chairs illustrated in the fourth chapter, which are either 
carved or have spirally-twisted or turned legs and stretch- 
ers ; the early gate - legged and drawing - tables ; long- 
clocks and brass chandeliers ; and the carved stand (p. 330), 
which is very similar to the English elaborately carved 



(JOHN lane) 

and gilt stands 
for lacquer 
cabinets of the 
late seven- 
teenth century. 
There was 
close commer- 
cial connection 
between the 
t w o countries 
before the 
great period of 
English furni- 
dating from 
the middle 
)• e a r s of the 
c e n t u r y. At 
this period, 
howex-er, there 
is a parting of 
the ways, Hol- 
1 a n d copying 
closely the 
French rococo 
in both decora- 
tion and furni- 
tu re, whereas 
the rococo in 
England was 
always seen 
through the 
spectacles of 
the national 
In the later 
years of the 
century, again, 
Dutch art was 
more directly 
influenced by 
the French 
classic revival 
at a time when 
Robert Adam, 
version of the 

in England, gave us his more individual 
revived classic. 

Among minor criticisms, there is a somewhat scanty 
treatment of marquetry ; and bare mention is made of 
Grinling Gibbon (who, after all, worked in Holland) 
and his activities in England, which are, curiously enough, 
restricted by the author to the reign of William of Orange 
(p. 217), whereas it was in the reign of the second Charles 
that that craftsman was discovered by Evelyn, and intro- 
duced to the Court. The book, with its 435 excellent illus- 
trations, will prove most helpful to the collector and student, 
and the enlarged photographs of carved detail which are 
supplied in some cases are a valuable addition, and show 
the full vigour and freedom of Dutch carving. — N. J. 


T/ie Coiiiioissciir 

Enquiries should be made on the Enquiry Coupon. 
See Advertising Pages. 


The reader who makes a careful study of our sale-room notes 
cannot fail to be struck by the appreciation of values in certain 
branches of collecting. Furniture, for instance, has attained a 
very high standard. Chairs, whether single or in sets, are real- 
ising almost phenomenal prices in certain cases : witness the six 
Chippendale chairs which ran up to over ;^I,ooo at Tavistock 
recently. The other day, a correspondent submitted to us a 
photograph of a pair of rather plain Louis XVL chairs, and was 
interested to learn from one of our experts that £^0 would be 
quite a fair price for it, on the assumption that the quality was 
equal to that indicated in the print. In this connection we may 
remind readers that it is impossible to value furniture from a 
description alone. If a clear photograph accompanies it, we 
can usually obtain an approximate opinion, but are always pre- 
pared to quote fees for sending an expert to examine the actual 

Although it is only within comparatively recent years that 
glass has been understood at all widely, the consistent upward 
trend in value of good, and even fair specimens, is well worth 
noticing. Many pieces which were purchased for the prover- 
bial song by far-sighted collectors, are now worth almost literally 
their weight in gold. We think that we are not romancing when 
we cite the instance of a small collection recently dispersed which 
realised well above £yoo, as compared with an original outlay 
amounting to about one-seventh of that sum. 

Enquirers forget occasionally that all pictures and prints sent 
to these offices for inspection should be removed from the frames. 
Also, that all letters should be accompanied by a stamp for reply. 
Now and again, correspondents omit to endorse their letters with 
the office reference number allotted to them, thereby causing 
delay in dealing with the mass of enquiries with which this 
department is inundated. 

Portraitof Richard Sneyd. — B2, 421 (Taunton).— A por- 
trait of Richard Sneyd, who conducted the fugitive Charles II. 
to Boscobel, is reproduced in .-{/'/ir H'oraster Fif;ht, by Allan 
Fea (John Lane, 1904). It is preserved at Ashcombe, one of 
the seats of the ancient family, and represents Mr. Sneyd with 
long hair, wearing armour and a white cravat. We are unable 
to say if a portrait exists of his sister Anne, who married into the 
Pigotts of Chetwynd. Perhaps some of our readers can help. 

Jamaican Pestles. — 82,429 (Devizes). The "stone cones 
with heads on top," which you mention, sound very similar to a 
series of pestles from Jamaica. Examples are ]ireserved in the 
American collections at the British Museum. 

Master Burke.— 82,434 (Chelmsford). — The miniature of 
Master Bui ke^ by Buck, about which you enquire, would seem 
to be identical with that in the Victoria and Albert Museum. It 
is painted on card, signed and dated 1S15, the measurements 
being 4f by 3I ins. In the same museum is Buck's miniature 
of himself, signed and dated 1S04, on ivory, 2^ by 2.-^^ ins. 

Tonbridge Ware. — 62,435 (Worksop).— There is a certain 
demand for the inlaid wooden articles classed under the generic 
title of " Tonbridge ware." Judging from the description, we 
think that your tray might be worth £^. 

Readers of The Connoisseur who desire to take 
advantage of the opportunities offered herein should 
address all letters on the subject to the manager of 
the Heraldic Department, i, Duke Street, St. James's, 
London, S.W.i. 

Only replies that may be considered to be of general 
interest will be published in these columns. Those 
of a directly personal character, or in cases where the 
applicant may prefer a private answer, will be dealt 
with by post. 

Readers who desire to have pedigrees traced, the 
accuracy of armorial bearings enquired into, or other- 
wise to make use of the department, will be charged 
fees according to the amount of work involved. 
Particulars will be supplied on application. 

When asking information respecting genealogy or 
heraldry, it is desirable that the fullest details, so 
far as they may be already known to the applicant, 
should be set forth. 

WiLDEV. — We were unable to write to you, as you did not 
give your address ; if you will do so, we will send you fuller 
particulars. The following notes may be of some interest : — 

Mr. Wildey, " who kept the great toy-shop at the corner of 
St. Paul's Churchyard," died II November, 1737. In July, 
174S, Thomas Wildey, Toyman, of the same place, died. In 
January, 17S6, died William Wilday, aged loi, at Dunton 
Basset, co. Leicester. 

William Burnett, son of James Burnett (representative of the 
Burnetts of Barns, co. Peebles, N.B.), of Demerara, merchant, 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Charles Wilday, Esq., Colonial 
Registrar in that settlement, in the early part of the last 

Henry Whitby (3rd son of Richard Whitby, of Osbaston, 
CO. Derby), of Atherstone, co. Warwick, M.D., married Anna, 
daughter of Thomas Wilday, by whom he left ten daughters. 
Henry Whitby died 183S, aged 76. 

Thomas, son of Thomas Wildey, of Worcester (city), matri- 
culated at Balliol College, Oxford, 22 March, 1638/9, aged 15 ; 
B. A. from Trinity College, II February, 1642/3 ; M.A. 17 June, 
1646 ; and delegate of visitors, 1648. 

There is a Chancery action in the reign of Elizabeth in 
which Richard Wildey is defendant, the object of which was 
to prove plaintiff's title to lands in Shenton, alias Shaynton, 
CO. Leicester. 

There is another Chancery suit, between 1642 and 1660, in 
which Humphrey Wildey was plaintiff', relating to premises in 
Hinckley, co. Leicester. There are, doubtless, many of such 
actions in this and other courts, which are sure to contain 
a lot of genealogical and biographical material, and which 
should be abstracted. 

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, O'NEII, 




lULV, 1919- 

Syon House, the Isleworth residence of His Grace the 
DuKe of Northumberland By FredericK Litchfield 

An article descriptive of 
the artistic contents of this most in- 
teresting old English family mansion 
would be incomplete without a brief 
record from some pages of its early 

The convent of Bridgettines, 
named after St. Bridget and dedi- 
cated to the Saviour, was founded 
by Henry V. in 1414, and named 
after Mount Zion, originally built at 
Twickenham and moved to Isle- 
worth in the reign of Henry VI., 
partly on the site of the present 
building. It was suppressed by 
Henry VIII., and the unfortunate 
Katherine Howard was imprisoned 
within its walls from November, 1 541 , 
until the following February, when 
she was executed. 

Edward VI. granted the convent 
to the Lord Protector, Dukeof Somer- 
set, by whom the present building 
was erected and the grounds laid 
out. On his attainder it reverted to 
the Crown, and was granted to Lord 
Dudley, Duke of Northumberland 
(quite a distinct family from the pre- 
sent line of dukes), whose son. Lord 
Guildford, married Lady Jane Grey, 
and it was here that she accepted the 
crown, and from here was removed 
to the Tower. It thus again reverted 
to the Crown, and was in Queen 
Mary's (Tudor) possession until 
1557, when she restored the convent. 


Queen Elizabeth dissolved the 
convent, and subsequently granted 
it to the 9th Earl of Northumber- 
land, who is said to have spent 
^"9,000 on house and gardens, and 
to have repaired the building under 
the direction of Inigo Jones. This 
nobleman had the custody of the 
children of Charles I. from August, 
1 646. The Duke of York was then 
fourteen years of age. Princess Eliza- 
beth twelve, and the Duke of 
Gloucester seven. 

Charles Seymour, who was known 
as "the Proud Duke,'' married Lady 
Elizabeth Percy, and obtained pos- 
session of Syon in 1682. By his 
permission Queen Anne (then 
Princess ^ of Denmark) lived here 
during the time of her quarrel with 
her sister. Queen Mary. The Duchess 
of Somerset was mistress of the robes 
to Queen Anne. The grandson-in- 
law of this Duke of Somerset was 
created Baron W'arkworth and Earl 
of Northumberland in 1749, and 
later, in 1766, became Earl Percy, 
and later the first Duke of Northum- 

It was during this ownership that 
the mansion underwent partial re- 
construction and entire decoration 
from the designs and under the 
personal direction of Robert Adam ; 
and it is of interest to quote here 
at some length the letter which 

Vol. LIV. — No. 215. — c 


The Comioisi 



appeared in the first of three volumes, Works of 
Robert and James Adam, pubHshed in 1775. He 
wrote ; — " In the year 1762 the Duke of Northumber- 
land came to the resolution of fitting up the apart- 
ments of Syon House in a magnificent manner. He 
communicated his intentions to me, and, having 
expressed his desire that the whole might be executed 
entirely in the antique style, he was pleased, in terms 
very flattering, to signify his confidence in my abilities 
to follow out his idea. Upon this plan," Robert 
Adam continued, " the alterations and inside decora- 
tions of Syon House were begun, and as the idea was 
to me a favourite one — the subject great, the expense 
unlimited, and the Duke himself a person of extensive 
knowledge and correct taste in architecture — I en- 
deavoured to render it a noble and elegant habitation, 
not unworthy of a proprietor who possessed not only 
wealth to execute a great design, but skill to judge of 
its merit." Then follows the architect's remarks upon 
certain inequalities of levels, and other difficulties with 
which he had to contend. 

Syon House is of rectangular form, measuring some 
138 ft. from north to south and 164 ft. from east to 
west, exclusive of the angle turrets. Within the house 
a square open court has been formed. The Thames 
flows by at the end of the grounds, separating Syon 
Park from Kew Gardens, which are on the opposite 

bank. From the original plans prepared by Adam, 
which are deposited in the Soane Museum, he evi- 
dently intended to remodel the whole of the interior, 
part of his scheme being to construct a large circular 
saloon in the open quadrangle, but this and some 
other intended structural alterations were not carried 
out. The principal apartments which he designed 
were the ante-chamber or vestibule — where are the 
ten famous columns of verde-antique marble, which 
cost the duke _;^i,ooo each in those days, and would 
now be unprocurable — the state dining-room, the red 
drawing-room, and the long gallery or library. 

The entrance-hall, although decorated by Adam, 
was designed by Inigo Jones for the tenth Earl of 
Northumberland, and constructed about 1659, which 
date is conspicuous on the lead pipes of the building. 

In each of these rooms one finds characteristic 
features of decorative treatment which is recognised 
as the Adam style. This great entrance-hall, which 
is of noble proportions, contains antique colossal 
statues of Mark Antony, Cicero (which are said to 
have been brought from HerculanKum and Pompeii), 
the Empress Livia, and a Priestess, with a life-size 
bronze of the Dying Gladiator, an excellent eigh- 
teenth-century Roman copy from the antique by 

Enclosed in an upright glass case there stands, just 


Syoii House ami its Treasures 

inside the en- 
trance-hall, an 

interesting relic 

of ancient Eng- 
lish history, in 

the form of an 

oak pike, which 

is said to have 

formed part of a 


time of Queen 

lioadicea, when 

she defended 

the ford of the 

'I'hames close to 

where the Syon 
House grounds 
run down to the 
river. There is 
a silver plate on 
the glass case 
the following 
description : — 
" Remains of an 
oak stake from 
the bed of the 
Thames in the 
Syon reach, and 
part of the an- 
cient British 
pal i s a d e work 
defending the 
great ford there, 
which Julius 
Cresar forced in 
his historic en- 
gagement with 
Cassive 1 a u n u s 
during his 
march to capture Verulamium, 54 r..C., D.i;. Callicov. 
iS. It is one of many similar specimens discovered 
there while dredging for deepening the channel for 
navigation purposes, 1907." The stake is about 6 tt. 
6 in. high and some 5 in. in diameter. 

In the vestibule which leads out of the great 
entrance-hall are the ten columns mentioned above, 
each surmounted by classical leaden statues entirely 
gilt, and the two statuary marble chimney-pieces are 
quite Adamesque. The great Sevres porcelain vase 
which ornaments the centre of the vestibule was a 
present from Charles X. of France to Hugh, third 
duke, who was ambassador at his coronation. This 
vase, although rather too late in the period of the 




renowned Sev- 
res factory — 
that is, after the 
soft - paste time 
had passed and 
been replaced 
by pate dure or 
hard paste — is 
a magnificent 
to>ir de force of 
this kind of 
porcelain. The 
classical figures 
are by Le Guay, 
oneof the noted 
Sevres artists. 
Mounted upon 
a verde-antique 
marble pedes- 
tal, it forms a 
striking feature 
in the vestibule. 
It was formerly 
in Northumber- 
land House,and 
when a fire oc- 
curred in the 
ballroom where 
it stood, was 
damaged. The 
restoration has 
been skilfully 
effected, and 
without careful 
e .\ a m i n a t i o n 
would pass un- 
noticed. An- 
other important 
ornament in 
this room is the life-size seated statuary marble portrait 
of Louisa, Duchess of Northumberland, by Conelly. 
The statuary marble chimney-piece in the vestibule 
(see illustration) is a particularly good example ol 
Adam's treatment of marble. The grate, with perfor- 
ated steel ornaments, is also of the time and true to style. 
Rather hidden away behind a statue of Apollo and 
somewhat out of place with its surrounding, is an inter- 
esting piece of furniture, the history of which is linked 
up with the vicissitudes of Syon. It is an old oak garden 
seat or bench, and has been painted white. One 
would like to remove this paint, restore the original 
oak, and find a suitable place in a garden house. 
An illustration of this bench is given, and particular 

The Coinioisscur 


attention is called to it because it is a genuine exam- 
ple of old English Tudor oak, and the initials carved 
on the back are those of the two nephews of the last 
Prioress of Syon Convent. The date, also carved, is 
undoubtedly genuine — 1 523. There are also two more 
life-size bronze statues by Veladier, the one of Hector 
taking leave of his child and the other of Achilles. 

The furniture consists of a very handsome French 
suite, with carved and gilt frames upholstered with rich 
silk in the style of the First Empire, and \vas removed 
to Syon from Northumberland House. One of the 
fauteuiis of this suite is illustrated, and shows a good 
example of the rather heavy and grandiose style 
affected by Napoleon. It is, however, not altogether 
out of harmony with Adam's furniture which was 
made for Syon House. 

Passing from the vestibule, one enters the state 
dining-room, a fine apartment 45 ft. in length and 

22 ft. in width. This measurement is increased by 
two semi-circular half-domed additions at either end, 
each dome supported by fluted columns. I believe 
the correct architectural term is " exhedrce." They 
certainly add to the dignity and proportions of a 
state-room. A striking feature of the decoration is 
the arrangement of six domed niches, three on either 
side of the chimney-piece, in which are placed life- 
size marble statues of Greek deities, which are 
faithful copies of famous antiques in the Vatican, 
Macaenas Villa, the Capitol, and from a gallery in 
Florence. When Adam decorated the room the in- 
teriors of these niches were coloured a cream tint, but 
in later years this colouring has been replaced by a 
brown paint, doubtless with a view to giving more 
outline and relief to the statues. There is a signed 
letter by Adam in the duke's possession relating to 
the ordering of these statues. The chimney-piece 




The Connoisseur 

is elaborate, and is surmounted by an overmantel 
having a panel with a bas-relief sculptured represen- 
tation of the Three Graces (see illustration). The 

are Renaissance pilasters with a section of a Corin- 
thian capital, the sous de porte being ornamented by 
scrolls and trophies surmounted by a cornice enriched 



ceiling of this room is decorated in Adam's style, and 
some finely painted rectangular panels, by Angelica 
Kauffmann, which decorate the frieze, are worthy of 
close attention. The photographs of two of these will 
convey an idea of the minute care which the artist 
devoted to the work. They are excellent examples of 
her style of painting. 

From the state dining-room one passes through a 
handsome doorway into the red drawing-room, and 
one cannot but remark upon the beauty of the doors 
and architraves which Adam designed for these rooms. 
The doors themselves are of richly figured old Cuban 
mahogany, each with six panels, the mouldings carved 
in egg-and-tongue ornament and gilt. The architraves 
are thoroughly Adamesque. On either side of the door 

with a galoche of conventionalised honeysuckle orna 
ment. This ornamental work is gilt, and as a proof 
of the excellence of the material, as of the workman- 
ship employed by Adam, this gilding is throughout 
the house almost as fresh as it was within a few years 
of the work being done. There is no sign of decay or 
deterioration, only the mellowed tint wrought by time. 
The red drawing-room has received particular atten- 
tion in the decorative treatment of its ceiling. The 
space is divided into small panels of squares and 
octagons. The squares contain paintings of classic 
heads and lamps alternately, while the octagons 
enclose circular panels with classical subjects and 
conventionalised ornament. This decorative work is 
said to have been executed by Angelica Kauffmann, 


Svoii House and its Treasures 

who first came to England in 1766, and was employed 
constantly in carrying out the decorative schemes of the 

from signs of wear as if it had been hung there half a 
score of years ago. The carpet for this apartment 


brothers Robert and James Adam. By an ingenious 
method of electric lighting this beautiful ceiling can 
be illuminated by concealed lamps in a hollow above 
the cornice. The walls of the room are covered with 
a rich damask of rose-pink scrolls on a cream ground, 
and it is difficult to credit the fact that this beautiful 
silk was woven at Spitalfields, to the special order of 
the duke, about 150 years ago. It is fresh and free 

shows evidence of Adam's special design, and, not- 
withstanding its age, is still comparatively fresh and 
very beautiful. It bears the following inscription in 
a corner of the border : "By Thomas Moore, 1769." 
This room contains some finely carved and gilt con- 
sole tables, two of which are illustrated. The honey- 
suckle ornament, which was such a favourite detail 
with Adam, is beautifully cut, as our photograph shows, 


The Connoisseur 

- jlii 

^'njilil'.t'-.!'>l!"''UUC" "T 



and the raais' heads with frieze of husks, also charac- 
teristic of his adaptations from classical designs, would 
pronounce these tables as Adam's, even if we did not 
know that they were designed by him and made for 
the positions they have always occupied. The slabs 
which form the tops are remarkable specimens of 
antique marble mosaic work, and are said to have 
been taken from the Baths of Titus in Rome. There 
are several of these console tables in the house, and 
they recall the time when wealthy travellers collected 
fine slabs of rare marbles in Italy, and brought them 
home to be converted into the tops of tables which 
were designed for the purpose. 

We have now reached the end of the side of the 
house, and enter the library, or long gallery, which 
traverses the entire width from east to west. The 
room is too long and narrow to be in proper propor- 
tion, but, having regard to the space at his disposal, 
the architect preferred to limit the width of this room 
rather than cramp the length of those which I have 
already described. From a somewhat didactic dis- 
quisition which Adam wrote upon the manners and 
customs of contemporary linglish society, he evidently 
intended this room to be more for purposes of enter- 
tainment than for study. He has himself described 
the library as " a gallery of great length though rather 
too narrow and too low to be in the just proportion 
he could have wished. It is, however, finished in a 
style to afford great variety and amusement, and is for 
this reason an admirable room for the reception of 
company before dinner or for ladies to retire after it : 

for the withdrawing-room lying between this and the 
eating-room prevents the noise of the men from being 
troublesome, and for this reason we would always 
recommend the intervention of a room in great apart- 
ments to prevent such inconvenience." This rather 
caustic comment upon the manners and customs of 
Adam's time is one of others which are to be found 
in his book which criticise the bibulous habits of our 
" two-and-three-bottle " forefathers. The long gallery 
which we are now describing looks out on to the 
grounds and the river Thames, while the side opposite 
the windows is somewhat over-decorated with stucco 
ornament in slight relief, combined with painted land- 
scapes in panels, which are attributed to the brush of 
Zucchi, Angelica Kauffmann's husband, and alternate 
medallion portraits of the Dukes and Duchesses of 
Northumberland, from the time of Hugh, the first of 
the present line of dukes. There are also two excellent 
statuary marble chimney-pieces of Adam character. 
There is an illustration of one of these. The books 
are in recesses, and the mellowed tints of their uni- 
form calf bindings harmonise well with the colour- 
scheme of the apartment. At each end of this long 
gallery is a small turret chamber, one being round 
and the other square in form. The latter is decorated 
in the style which, during Adam's time, became some- 
what of a craze among our nobility and fashionable 
folk. The travels of William (afterwards Sir William) 
Chambers in the East resulted in his publishing a 
book of Chinese designs, and the kind of furniture 
known as " Chinese Chippendale " dates from this 






The Coiiuoisseiir 

period, when 
adapted to his 
furniture de- 
signs pagodas, 
c]ueer exotic 
birds, man- 
darin figures, 
and an East- 
ern lattice- 
work, all of 
which came 
from the fas- 
h i o n intro- 
duced by 
Chambers's in- 
fluence upon 
the decoration 
of h is period, 
the beginning 
of the latter 
half of the eigh- 
teenth century. 
The circular 
turret room at 
Syon is an in- 
teresting exam- 
ple of this kind 
of decoration. 
The panels of 
look ing-glass, 
the surface 
of which are 
painted with rococo ornamentation, are alternated 
with panels decorated with hand-painted wall-paper of 
Chinese birds and peony blooms. These panels have 
been protected by a glass covering, placed there 
probably when the house was renovated some fifty 
or sixty years ago. It is seldom that one has the 
opportunity of seeing an original room decorated in 
this manner, and the miniature cupola which forms 
the ceiling is part of the scheme of decoration. The 
corresponding turret room at the other end of the 
long gallery is square in form, and there is a legend 
that here the unfortunate Lady Jane Grey spent many 
sad hours. 

The small dining-room, the green drawing-room, the 
print or muniment room, the duke's small library or 
study, and the state bedroom which Queen Charlotte 
used during her visits to Syon, contain good Adam 
marble chimney-pieces, but their decoration is not 


remarkab le, 
and the con- 
tents, compris- 
ing valuable 
pictures and 
much fine fur- 
niture of the 
period, will 
form the sub- 
ject of future 
articles in Thk 
that dealing 
with the furni- 
ture being con- 
tributed by the 
writer, while the 
pictures will be 
described by 
Mr. Collins 

No article 
dealing with 
Syon can omit 
a m e n t i o n of 
the fine e n- 
trance gateway 
which orna- 
ments the main 
road. This is 
a characteristic 
Robert Adam 
design, and is 
surmounted by the famous lion from Northumberland 
House, which was demolished in 1874, and by a pair 
of sphinxes, which are probably the finest specimens 
of lead figure work — a speciality of eighteenth-century 
English art industry. 

Readers of The Connoisseur who feel a special 
interest in the work of Robert and James Adam 
should not fail to read an exhaustive work by John 
Swarbrick, A.R.I.B.A., entitled Robert Adam and his 
Brothers, published by B. T. Batsford. This contains 
many e-xcellent illustrations of Syon, and also of 
Kenwood, Bowood, Lansdowne House, Harewood, 
Kedleston, the Admiralty, and other public and pri- 
vate buildings, together with a full and descriptive 
account of the work of these eminent architects. 
The writer has much pleasure in acknowledging the 
assistance which he has availed himself of in the 
foregoing pages. 






Old Plate in the Imperial Museum at Vienna 
By E. Alfred Jones, M.A. 

Vienna is justly famed for its collections of 
art, both public and private. The Imperial Museum 
contained before the war many objects of great his- 
torical interest and of artistic beauty in the precious 
metals, as well as vessels of crystal and divers precious 
stones, mounted in gold and silver and enamelled. 

Old English plate was not, however, represented by 
any important piece in this museum or among the 
domestic plate of the Emperor of Austria. 

One of the objects in the Imperial collection 
which has perhaps aroused the greatest curiosity and 
interest to visitors from all lands is the celebrated 



The Connoisseur 

golden salt-cellar of 
Benvenuto Cellini 
(No. i.). The gift of 
Charles IX. of France 
to the Archduke Fer- 
dinand of Tyrol on 
the occasion of the 
king's marriage to the 
Archduchess Elizabeth, 
daughterof the Emperor 
Maximilian I L, the 
story of its gradual pro- 
g r e s s from the wax 
model to a finished 
work of art is vividly 
told by Cellini in his 
Memoirs. According to 
Cellini, the Cardinal 
of Ferrara had so much 
admired designs for a 
salt-cellar submitted to 
him by one Luigi and 
one Gabriello, that he 
could not arrive at a de- 
cision, and finally left 
the selection to Benve- 
nuto Cellini. Cellini, 
however, with charac- 
teristic self-confidence, 
replied to the Cardinal's 
cherished the children 
therefore, the 
first design 
w h i (■ h he 
would submit 
would be of 
his own ima- 
gining. Even- 
tually, the 
famous silver- 
smith presen- 
ted a model in 
wax of the 
proposed salt- 
cellar, pro- 
mising the 
prince of the 
Church that 
he would one 
day see the 
dred times 

No. II.- 

17 IN. 

suggestion by saying that he 
born of his own art, and, 

No. III. — DISH 


more richly than the 
model. Cellini now 
journeyed to France at 
the invitation of 
Francis I., and in due 
time proceeded with the 
modelling of the object 
of his own imagining, 
the famous salt-cellar, 
which he describes as 
oval in form, about two- 
thirds of a cubit high, 
representing the .Sea and 
the Land. In the left 
hand of Neptune, sym- 
bolical of the sea, is a 
ship, very finely worked, 
to hold the salt. Under 
the figure are his four 
sea-horses, surrounded 
by fishes and other ma- 
rine creatures, the water 
b e i n g represented by 
waves, exquisitely ena- 
melled in its own colour. 
Representing the land 
is a lovely lady holding 
a cornucopia in her 
hand, naked like the 
male figure, and carrying in her left hand a little Ionic 
temple to hold the pepper. Under her are fashioned 

the most beau- 
tiful animals 
of the earth, 
the rocks be- 
ing partially 
The whole is 
supported on 
with gold fig- 
ures of Night 
and 1 )ay,Twi- 
light and 
Dawn. Four 
other figures 
of equal size, 
the four chief 
winds, are 
Thus was 
25^ IN. LONG finished this 


0/ci/ Plate ill the Imperial Miisciini at I leusia 

celebrated salt-cellar, 
with the help of Cel- 
lini's assistants, in the 
year 1543. There are 
divergencies from this 
description, as will be 
observed from the il- 
lustration. \\"hen 
Francis I. beheld the 
golden salt-cellar, we 
are told in the Memoirs 
that he cried aloud with 
astonishment at its 
beauty, and could not 
restrain his admiration 
for it. The artist him- 
self was commanded 
by his august majesty 
to take the precious 
object home and await 
the king's pleasure. 
Elated by the praise 
bestowed on this " child 
of his own imagining," 
Cellini carried it home 
in triumph, and forth- 
with invited a number 
of friends to partake 
c:f a feast in honour of 
the occasion, the salt- 
cellar being accorded the chief place in the middle of 
the table. 

The Imperial Museum contains an imposing collec- 
tion of German plate of the Renaissance and of later 
periods, some of which is now illustrated. Nos. ii. 
and iii. illustrate a rose-water ewer and dish, lavishly 
decorated with allegorical subjects and partially ena- 
melled, the ewer being 17 in. high and the dish 
25I in. long. Christoph Jamnitzer, of Nuremberg 
( 1563-1618), was the silversmith who wrought these 
pieces. The present writer was permitted to see a 
pair of cups by this silversmith in the important col- 
lection of English and German plate of the Duke of 
Cumberland at Penzing, just outside ^'ienna, and at 
Gmunden, in Austria. 

One of the quaint figures of bears, used as flasks 
and displayed as ornaments for the table, which were 
wrought in considerable numbers at Augsburg and 
Nuremberg and elsewhere in Germany at the end of 
the sixteenth and in the seventeenth century, is here 
illustrated (No. iv. ). This e.vample, which came from 
ihe atelier of an unknown Augsburg silversmith about 
the year 1600, is embellished with precious stones 
and enamelled ornaments. 

» f J 


An exceedingly rare 
example of Russian 
gold plate, in the form 
of a bowl — known in 
Russia as bratina*, a 
loving-cup or bowl 
which was passedround 
the guests at the begin- 
ningofafeast. TheTsar 
Michael of Russia, the 
first of the Romanoff 
line of Tsars, presented 
this bowl to Wladis- 
laus IV. (i 63 2 -4S), 
King of Poland, and is 
one of the most in- 
teresting of all the trea- 
sures in the Imperial 
collection (No. v.). 
This costly gift is 
adorned with large pre- 
cious stones — sap- 
phires and rubies — 
and with rows of pearls, 
t h e king's enamelled 
monogram being fixed 
on the body of the 
enamelled eagle which 
surmounts the bowl. 
The cover and the lower 
part of the body are divided into sections of pierced 
decoration, richly enamelled in the Russian taste, 
while on the lip is an inscription in Slavonic deco- 
rative lettering. Ornate silver bowls of this kind 
were very popular in Russia throughout the seven- 
teenth century, some specimens seen by the writer 
in Russian churches and monasteries having covers 
shaped like the familiar cupolas of Russian churches. 
One of these bowls, fashioned in gold and enriched 
with decoration in niello, was presented by the same 
Tsar Michael to the Church of the Annunciation in the 
Kremlin for incense. Russian inscriptions on bratiiii 
reveal the names of the owners, or disclose some such 
expressions as " Drink to our healths ": " True love 
is a golden cup : it can never be broken : the soul 
alone can influence it "; or " Cup for going round : 
pour into it that which refreshes the mind, corrupts 
the morals, and divulges all secrets." t The fate of 

- Specimens in electrotype of this type of Russian diinking 
vessel may be seen in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

t Translations of other inscriptions may be found in Russian 
Art and Art Objects in Russia, by A. Maskell, Part I., 1SS4, 
p. 138 (Victoria and Albert Museum handbooks). 

CIRCA 1600 


TJie Connoisseur 

a magnificent pair of English silver-gilt flagons of the Imperial collection at Vienna, and of a large silver- 
year 1617-18, presented by Charles I. of England gilt cup at AVindsor Castle." 
to the Tsar Michael, as of other rare and unique German plate, from the end of the sixteenth century 



4^. iu; 





specimens of old English plate of the Imperial col- 
lection of Russia, is creating anxiety in the present 
anarchical condition of that country. 

The next illustration (No. vi.) is ot one of a set of 
eight double cups, wrought in silver-gilt, the bodies 
being formed of sections of mother-of-pearl, on which 
enamelled ornaments are fixed. The covers form 
separate cups when removed. Friedrich Hillebrandt 
(or Hildebrand), of Nuremberg, was the maker of 
these cups at the end of the sixteenth century, as well 
as of another pair of cups of mother-of-pearl in the 

and throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth cen 
turies, is conspicuous for the extravagance and taste- 
lessness of much of its decoration, as will be observed 
from a cursory examination of any public collection. 
The ostrich-egg cup here shown (No. vii.) is an 
illustration of the employment of large pieces of 
coral, standing out like leafless trees, as accessories to 
the ornament of table -pieces — an eccentric taste in 

-' The Gold and Silver of Windsor Castle, by E. Alfred Jones, 
191 1. Pl.ite III., No. 2. 



c- y 

Z 5 


D a 5 
c c - 
Q < 5 

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2 y u. 


The Coinioisseiir 

embellishment which was seldom practised elsewhere. 
Enamel has been introduced, by the Augsburg crafts- 
men of the end of the sixteenth century who wrought 
this cup, on the ostrich and on the figure of the negro 
boy who is leading the bird. 

Maximilian I. (1459-1519) is claimed as the first 
august owner of the German silver-gilt cup decorated 
with pears in relief and surmounted with the Emperor's 
favourite symbol, the pomegranate, chosen by him "to 
represent the sweet fruits of clemency and honour 
under a plain and hard exterior" (No. viii. ). Even 
the last year of Maximilian's life, 1519, would be too 
early a date for the production of a cup of this character, 
and the present writer ventures to ascribe the date as 
some few years later in the same century. The cup 
may have been ordered for a commemorative purpose. 

The last piece of German silversmiths' work illus- 
trated in the first instalment of this article is a small 
clock (No. \\.) enamelled with figures, animals, and 

other ornaments in the style typical of the German 
enameller who executed the case, namely, David 
Altenstetter (Attemstetter), of Augsburg. A few years 
before his death this enameller-silversmith had been 
attached to the Court of the Emperor Rudolph II. 
(15 5 2-1 61 2), the scholarly and artistic but incapable 
ruler of Austria, and it was during that brief period 
in his career that Altenstetter is believed to have exe- 
cuted the enamelled case for the clock, as well as 
to have executed the enamelled decoration for the 
Austrian Crown.'" 

A little treasure worthy of notice in the Imperial 
Museum is a miniature portrait of Queen Elizabeth 
of England, in onyx, mounted in a gold and enamelled 
frame set with diamonds. 

' Thieme and Becker : AUgcmeines Lexikon der bildeiiden 
Kiinhler von dei- Antike bis zur Gegaiwart, 1907, \'o\. I., 
p. 350. M. Rosenberg : Der Goldschniiede Merkzeichen, 1911, 

PP- 5 

( I'o be contiinced. ) 

T "-^m^ia^"*!^ < pp^ 



Gouaches by George Chinnery 

By R. R. M. See 

Author of "English Pastels," "J. J. Masquerier," "P. Romney," etc., etc. 

"Chinnery's talents and genius as a painter have never 

received due recognition Always original in his 

technique, he devised a process which coml lined the softness 
of pastels with the brilliancy of water-colour, a sort of gouache 
in which he did some striking work." — W. G. Strickland 
{Diuioiiaiy of Irish Arliits^ pp. 173, 174). 

It is now some ten or twelve years since the 
fashion in George Chinnery's works (and more especi- 
ally in his pastels, water-colours, and gouaches) began 
to develop. The French collectors, as in the case of 
Constable in the nineteenth century, were the first to 
recognise their merit, and there followed suit their 
American and British colleagues, who are now no 
less appreciative and de- 
sirous of those gems of 
art which sprang from 
the impulsive genius 
who was so true a child 
of the land of his birtii, 

These gouaches show 
a tendency to become 
increasingly valuable — a 
fact which has led to the 
discovery of one exam- 
ple after another — in the 
same way as the small 
but charming works of 
Gardner have been re- 
discovered after a cen- 
tury of neglect and ob- 
livion. I have no doubt 
whatever that Chinnery 
will be one of the next 
artists to be "boomed" 
in the world of art : but 
leaving commercial con- 
siderations, whether of SELF PORTRAIT 

to-day or to-morrow, entirely on one side, and, judging 
the matter purely from the artistic point of view, the 
recognition bestowed upon his merit is fully justified. 
He is a great artist — at any rate so far as his gouaches 
are concerned. The man who, at the Enghsh Pastel 
Exhibition of 191 1, was named by enthusiastic ad- 
mirers of the two works exhibited on that occasion 
the "Frans Hals of the Irish school," was well termed 
by one of the greatest of French art critics, Arsene 
Alexandre, " le suave et sauvage Irlandais," whiFe by 
others he was given the name of the "Hibernian 
Whistler." These flattering epithets were especially 
applied to the author of these firm outlines, those 

symphonies in white, 
grey, and blue, executed 
in that extraordinary 
medium which, for con- 
\' e n i e n c e, was termed 
"gouache," though in 
reality it was a composite 
mixture, and not gouache 
pure and simple. Being 
a great admirer of Chin- 
nery himself, and anxious 
to discover the compo- 
nent parts of the medium 
which h e employed, as 
well as to add to my 
knowledge of pastel 
processes in general, I 
took advantage some 
time ago of the oppor- 
tunity of studying a 
batch of Chinnery's 
work, sketch-books, 
folios, scrap-books of 
water-colours and 
gouaches, as well as a 


The Coiiiio/ssc/ir 

number of oils, which had arrived direct from Macao, 
having been sent to Europe to a friend of mine by 
a relative who had purchased them in that colony. 

so many French eighteenth -century gouaches : and, 
thirdly, to satisfy myself as to whether a remedy for 
this existed, and what means, if any, there might be 


Their owner was only too pleased to give his assist- 
ance in furthering my studies in regard to the com- 
position of the medium used by the master, and to the 
possibility of restoring them, when impaired, without 
risk of incurring further damage, and he accordingly 
allowed me to experiment with soaie of the drawings, 
and afforded me every facility for a thorough investi- 
gation. We made a chemical analysis of a few un- 
important bits, carrying out on certain other portions 
various experiments as to the means of .saving similar 
works of art when oxidised through the action of the 
carbonic acid of the air and of those deleterious gases 
which emanate only too frequently from central heat- 
ing apparatus. Each of these causes has the effect 
of turning grey or black the lead elements of the 
gouache (zinc Chinese white was but little used in days 
aone by) or of encouraging the growth of mushroom 
or mildew spots on works which have been allowed 
to hang upon damp walls, or have (shame be it to 
their owners '.) been kept in some dark place. 

My studies had therefore a threefold object — firstly, 
to discover the composition of Chinnery's so-called 
"gouaches"; secondly, to fathom the reason why some 
of them had suffered from the same diseases that attack 

to prevent a recurrence of the trouble. Putting on 
one side the agglutinative elements, which we will 
study later on, the gouaches examined were found to 
be composed by means of three processes — water- 
colour painting, crayon painting, and gouache proper. 
The sky, background, and general delineations are 
usually drawn in water-colour, and even in the finished 
work many parts are left in that state. In several cases, 
however, and more particularly in the landscapes, small 
sketches of the Chinese period, traces of pencil-drawing 
can sometimes be detected underneath, indicating that 
the artist's seeming carelessness is more apparent than 
actual. This is a very interesting point, and reminds 
the student of another great artist, Sir Thomas Law- 
rence, apparently so broad and untrammelled in his 
methods, whose unfinished sketches give the impres- 
sion of being "de premier jet," although in reality he 
expended an immense amount of work upon the pencil 
drawings for most of his portraits, and afterwards made 
a perfect drawing on the actual canvas before com- 
mencing them. 

But to return to Chinnery. Once his general scheme 
has been delineated in water-colour, he applies liber- 
ally all his impasto, his gouache mixture, made from 




In Ihc possession of il/cs Norman Thorpe 


Gouaches by George C/iiiiiiery 

a basis of Chinese white, gum-coloured powder (ob- 
tained, no doubt, from crushed pastel sticks), and 

rarely, to be found in some of these works. The rosin 
of the turpentine may have had some action in this 


sometimes also white-lead. Like Russell, he employed 
pastels which he had ground himself, and chemical 
analysis reveals the presence of both turpentine and 
spirits of wine, whitening (CO,Ca), and the ordinary 
elementary coloured earth. The turpentine was the 
factor by which to obtain soft sticks ; the spirit was for 
securing hardness, and here we find the possible ex- 
planation of the yellowish tints occasionally, though 

discoloration. Here, too, is the explanation of the 
cracks in some of the pastel-gouaches in which there 
is a strong body of colour, for although the inex- 
perienced student, who imagines cracks to be the 
special prerogative of oil-paintings, may be astonished 
to find them in works of this character, the explana- 
tion, after a thorough study of the medium employed 
by Chinnery, is found to be perfectly simple. It must 


The ConiioissL 

not be supposed that reference is being made to wide, 
bituminous cracks of that unpleasant type exhibited 


masterly way of applying his body-colour mixture with 
a freedom that almost amounted to a savage wildness. 



\\1I.I.:AM ;I1.L: 

by many late eighteenth-century oil-paintings ; on the 
contrary, they are usually sharp, clean, little narrow 
cracks, not in the least affecting the appearance of 
the work, but at the same time, in many cases, easily 
traceable without the aid of a magnifying-glass. 

Now that we have discovered the artist's method 
of first sketching his compositions either in pencil 
and water-colour, or in water-colour alone, his broad, 

we come to the completion of the work — the finish- 
ing touches. Just as a painter in oils glazes his 
pictures, so Chinnery glazed his gouaches by " rub- 
bing in" pastel, both directly with the stick or crayon 
or with the finger and drawing-stump, so as to obtain, 
where needed, a rounding-off, a half-tint, a more deli- 
cate, subtle effect. It must not be supposed that he 
invariably applies the glaze ; examples show us that 


4' W 


The Connoisseur 

there may be a considerable amount of pastel over his 
body-colour foundation, or, on the contrary, quite a 
small amount. This depends very largely on the nature 

luckily the more numerous, he employed gum-arabic 
as the agglutinative substance, so that neither acidifi- 
cation nor fermentation has taken place. 


of the subject : the mood of the artist and the period 
at which the work was carried out. 

From the examples which we have had in hand, 
and which happened to be fairly representative of 
the master, we came to the conclusion, after analysis, 
that Chinnery in some of his works used a gelatine 
or parchment size, rendered soluble by acetic acid, 
which latter is largely responsible for their having 
more or less blackened with time. In other cases, 

In the case of those composite productions with no- 
strange admixture, the state of preservation remains 
perfect, and will continue so provided ordinary care 
be taken. Possessing greater solidity than pastel, 
their surface cannot be shaken, the pastel element 
being rubbed in ; their colours prove faster than do- 
the over-glazed oil - paintings of Reynolds's second 
manner ; they have, indeed, preserved the colour of 
the day they were executed. 



T/ic Coinioissc/ir 

The import- 
ant point to be 
observed in re- 
gard to the 
health of pic- 
tures such as 
these is the 
provision of 
light. It is not, 
of course, ad- 
visable to go 
to extreme 
lengths, nor 
would it be wise 
to indulge them 
in a sun-bath, 
for in that case 
the sun would 
act as a bleach- 
ing factor, as it 
does on all 
colours. But 
good light is re- 
quisite for the 
proper conser- 
vation of a n v 
gouache, b e i t 
French, British, 
or Oriental. 

Too much 
could not be 
made upon the 
importance of 
not keeping 
any work of this 
type (the pre- 
caution is by 
no means pe- 
culiar to Chin- 
n e r y ' s ) in a 
dark place, or, 
as is sometimes 
the practice 
among dealers, in covered bins or vaults. Another 
dangerous practice consists in the use of paste when 
Ikying down these works or even in fixing them in their 
frames. The laying down of drawings and gouaches is 
a general practice, and is often necessary in order to 
ensure the rigidity of the picture. The owner should 
in these circumstances be on his guard that the special- 
ist to whom he entrusts the work uses no paste or 
gelatinous substance for the purpose. This would be 
mere courting of disaster, as fermentation will, in 
nine cases out of ten, occur, bringing with it its train of 
evils, such as partial discoloration, darkening of the 
lead basis impasto, growth of mushrooms, mildew, 
and other sporadic diseases. In a word, it will be a 
case of a veritable " bouillon de culture." 

Only slightly less is the danger of pasting in draw- 
ings and pastels. This creates an enclosed space, 
and though we may safeguard the work from the 
damp and dust of the atmosphere, of what benefit will 
this prove if locked up within are all those hydro- 
genic and carbonic elements which are powerless to 


evaporate, com- 
bined with pos- 
sible gas pro- 
ducts produced 
by the fermen- 
tat i on of the 
paste ? 

It cannot be 
too often re- 
peated that the 
only agglutin- 
ants that may 
be employed 
are gums, and 
of these only 
the very purest. 
The initial ex- 
pense is cer- 
tainly greater, 
the application 
and successful 
fixing more dif- 
ficult : but there 
i s no question 
that in the long 
run this will be 
amply compen- 
sated for, and 
the risk of al- 
terations, if not 
entirely obvia- 
ted, minimised 
to such a degree 
as to be prac- 
tically non- 

A\' e come 
now to the 
possible reme- 
tl i e s fo r the 
trouble. The 
old rough 
methods of 
scraping and 
repairing are, of course, obsolete. These, by neces- 
sitating an amount of repainting, end by suppressing 
the original to a certain extent ; and apart from the 
fact that they introduce an element that is not genuine, 
tend to darken, or in some instances to lighten 
(according to the composition of the materials in- 
volved), as time goes on, and so eventually to create 
an effect of patchiness. A great debt of gratitude is 
owing to Mr. Thenard for the careful study and 
exhaustive research which he has brought to bear 
ujion the more modern processes of chemical regenera- 
tion of gouaches in general. Starting from the same 
principle of the neutralisation of the acid decomposi- 
tion, and bearing in mind the existence of fermenting 
products which have to be done away with, we have 
evolved a regenerating process of chemical treatment 
which may be brought to bear upon all species of 
damage arising from age, atmospheric conditions, 
neglect, or lack of knowledge as to the proper way in 
which works of art of this kind should be treated. 
As the evolution of this process was the result of joint 

Gouaches by George CJiiiinery 

experiment, and not my own individual discovery, 1 
am not, however, at liberty to quote details. I may, 
however, say that, although not absolutely infallible, 
it is successful in a very high proportion of instances. 
In especially bad cases in which it is necessary to 
increase the strength of the substance employed, a 
certain amount of bleaching occurs, but this is very 
small, and in any case is preferable to the process 
of scraping and repainting. A very little water-colour, 
with pastel powder dissolved in gum-arabic, has to be 
applied at the few bare spots where the roots of 
growths formerly existed, but these form but an infini- 
tesimal fraction of the whole work of art, the life of 
which is thus preserved. All being well, we shall, in 
the course of time, be enabled to judge as to the 
manner in which the process stands the test of years : 
up to the present its success has proved complete, at 
least so far as British gouaches, composite pastels, and 
water-colours are concerned, and especially has it 
shown itself effectual in the case of Chinnery's works. 
Experiments are now being carried out upon French 
eighteenth-century gouaches which have all more or 
less suffered similar damage. 

In a further article I propose to set forth a number 
of incidents in the life of Chinnery, matter on which 
I have been engaged for several years. This eccentric 
wanderer on the face of the earth, this utterly original 
but ever-genial figure, is one of the most attractive 
personalities that one could possibly study.''' 

The succinct account of his life given by W. G. 
Stricklantl in The Du/io/iarv of Irish Artists, the 
most important work yet published on the subject of 
Irish art, is correct in substance, though necessarily 
condensed and by no 
means complete. For 
many years even the date 
of Chinnery's birth was 
the subject of controversy 
among art historians. In 
my early researches I 
personally was inclined 
to accept the theory of 
the centenarian Chin- 
nery, as reported by his 
American friends in 
Macao. Mr. Strickland's 
discovery o f h i s birth 
certificate is, however, 
conclusive, and proves 
that the Chinnery of 
the Free Society was 
George's father, and not 
George himself, as 
Redgrave and others 

■ The |i u I) 1 i cation of a 
volume dealing wilh Tht 
life and Worlds of Ceorgi- 
C/tiiineiy has had to be post- 
Ironed owing to interruption 
caused to iis production 
through the author's absence 
on active service with the 
Frencharniy.-TnEEniTOi;. PORTRAIT OK A LADY 

imagined. Nevertheless, it must be confessed that 
for a long time Redgrave's views on the matter com- 
mended themselves greatly to me, mainly on account 
of several existing gouaches by Chinnery which are 
undeniably genuine, and in which the mode of coiffure 
might well have indicated a very early period in his 
work had he been born in the seventies. I find, 
however, that the powdered hair to be found in his 
as well as in other artists' work was worn in England 
several years later than in France, and that the in- 
fluence of the fashions of the Directoire made itself 
felt in England more tardily, the war between the 
two countries rendering intercourse and the exchange 
of fashions a matter of some difficulty. The discrep- 
ancy is thus easily explained. 

Chinnery executed his gouaches from his earliest 
up to his latest period in London, Ireland, Calais, 
India, China, and Macao. He maintained practically 
throughout his breadth of treatment, though he tended 
in his oils to continually tighten his technique as time 
went on. The miniaturist, who had begun with experi- 
ments on such broad lines as the Lady Tuite of the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, remained to the end 
the man whose manner, according to a contemporary 
writer,t " possesses a peculiarity which would enable 
one anywhere to distinguish his work. They have a 
strong expression of original genius, bold, but always 
either palpably unfinished or with as little finish as 
possible. It appears to be his wish to paint everything 
in an uncommon manner, and, of course, to attract 
the attention which would otherwise be directed to 
more finished productions of the common walk." 
He always remained slapdash and broad both in 

his large and small gou- 
aches, which, though 
sketchy, were really com- 
plete, even when delib- 
erately left unfinished. 
Taking everything into 
consideration, it has 
clearly been a duty owing 
to posterity that at least 
this, u n d o u b tedly the 
most artistic side of his 
work, should receive due 
study and not be left for 
the generation to come. 
As Mr. Strickland 
writes with so much wis- 
dom : " His portraits 
often masquerade as 
Romney's, Raeburn's, or 

My modest efforts will 
be amply rewarded if 
this brief essay carries 
any weight in the 
suppression o f s u c h 

t DublinExhibition, iSoi. 
Criticism in an MS. journal 
of the R.l.A. 


Although Sulgrave Manor-house had been 
for very many years an object of great interest to our 
visitors, it be- 
came much 
more widely 
k nown when 
were made for 
its purchase by 
the committee 
formed to cele- 
brate one hun- 
dred years of 
peace between 
England and 
the United 
States of 

Now (thanks 
largely to the 
efforts of Lord 
Burnham) that 
the Sulgrave 
Institution, a 
society which 
aims at streng- 
thening the 
bonds of,'\nglo- 
friendship, is 
actively pro- 
ceeding with 
the restoration 
and furnishing 
of the house, 
the time is 


opportune to call attention to several heraldic glass 
memorials which commemorate some of the more 

important alli- 
ances of the 
Sulgrave Wash- 

As far as I 
have been able 
to discover, 
they are first 
mentioned by a 
contributor to 
t h e G e ntle- 
ma/t' s Maga- 
ziue, in 1789. 
He writes : — 
"The old man- 
sion-house is 
situated at the 
east end of the 
town ; it is now 
much dilapi- 
dated. ... In 
the kitchen 
w i n d o w are 
the following 
arms, finely 
painted on 
glass, but, alas ! 
now much in- 
jured. They 
were removed 
from the part 
taken down a 
few years ago. 

ton and Butler 






Heraldic Glass Memorials 

— Argent, two bars 
gules, three mullets in 
chief of the second, 
impaling, argent, a 
chevron or, between 
three urns of thesecond. 
Date 1588. 

"2. Wasshingtonand 
Kitson — Wasshington, 
impaling sa. three fishes 
hauriant arg. a chief or. 

"3. Wasshington 
withacrescentf or differ- 
ence, impaling arg. and 
sa. paly:of five, a canton 

"4. Ihon Wakelay 
niaried the dauftear of 
Wasshington, 1588. 
Arg. on a cross sa. five 
lions rampant or, im- 
paling Wasshington as 
the third." 

The reference to the 
part of the manor-house 
recently taken down is 
interesting, because, of 
t h e e.xisting building, 
most likely only the 
porch and the hall (now 
divided into two rooms) 
date from the time of 
the first Washington 
grantee of Sulgrave. 

On Aug. 15th, 1793, 
the Rev. Richard Wyk- 
ham, then Vicar of Sul- 
grave, in a letter to Sir 
Isaac Heard, wrote : — 
"The arms of the 
Wasshington family (so 
spelled on six of the 
seven) were copied 
from some painted glass 
of the old manor-house 
in this village." 

Although only four 
pieces of heraldic glass 
at Sulgrave manor- 
house were described in 
1789, there were evi- 
dently at least seven. 

When Washington 
Irving publish ed, in 



1855, the first volume 
of his Life of George 
Washington, he wrote 
the following ; — " The 
writer of these pages 
visited Sulgrave a few 
years since. It was in 
a quiet rural neigh- 
bourhood, where the 
farm-houses were 
quaint and antiquated. 
A part only of the 
manor-house remained, 
and was inhabited by 
a farmer. The \\'ash- 
ington crest, in colored 
glass, was to be seen in 
a window of what was 
now the buttery. A 
window on which the 
whole family arms was 
emblazoned had been 
removed to the resi- 
dence of the actual pro- 
prietor of the manor." 

About fifteen years 
before the date when 
Washington Irving 
wrote the foregoing, the 
entire manor of Sul- 
grave had passed from 
the Bartholo mew 
family into the posses- 
sion of Colonel H. 
Hely Hutchinson, of 
W e s t o n - b y- Weedon, 
not far from Sulgrave, 
in the county of Nor- 

Two at least of the 
Washington heraldic 
glass memorials were 
removed by Col. Hut- 
chinson to Weston 
Manor-house. They 
were there in 1S85, 
when Sir Henry Dryden 
gave a description of 
them, and illustrated 
one of them in Nor- 
th a mpto nshire Notes 
and Queries, and they 
are most likely there 
now. Near to Weston 


The Connoisseur 

and to Sulgrave is 
Fawsl ey, and in the 
windows of F a \v s 1 e y 
Church are numerous 
coats of arms connected 
with the K nightley 
family. Here also are 
six heraldic composi- 
tions of the Washing- 
tons of Sulgrave, two 
of which are undoub- 
tedly those described in 
the Gentkmai/'s Maga- 
zine in 1789 as then 
being in the kitchen 
window of Sulgrave 
Manor-house. There is 
no genealogical reason 
why these shields 
should be in Fawsley 
Church ; and the way 
in which they are hung 
inside, and not inserted 
in the windows, sup- 
ports the conclusion 
that they rt//came from 

Each shield display- 
ing the coat of arms is 
surrounded by elabo- 
rate mantling or by a 
wreath attached to the 
shield by clips or 
scrolls, so that they 
might be termed 
heraldic compositions, 
which are roughly oval 
in form. Seven of 
these compositions 
measure i ft. 7^ in. by 
I ft. li in., while the 
shield measures S;| in. 
by 7 ;| i n . , a n d the 
wreath is of steel- 
coloured blue with 
inserted small leaves 
of green colour. 

The one composi- 
tion which differs from 
the other seven, mea- 
sures I ft. 6h in. by 
I ft. I in. The upper 
side of the elaborate 
mantling round the 
shield is white, and the 

Witshiiiiiton Arms iiiipttliitg tlime of Kytitoii, iii Weston Manor-liuuse 


»— r 


Heraldic Glass at Fawsley Clnirch : Washittgtott impaling Neu-ce 


under side where turned 
over is crimson, while 
the outlines are in dark 
brown. The shield 
measures 6 J in. by 
4J in., and displays — 
Argent, two bars gules, 
in chief three mullets 
of the second, with a 
crescent gules at the 
fesse point. The crest 
appears to be not a 
raven, but an eagle pro- 
per, rising from a ducal 
crown on a helmet. On 
a scroll below the shield 
is \vassh[ington]. 
This shield would be 
the first in chrono- 
logical order, and the 
crescent at the fesse 
point denotes that 
Robert W a s h i n g t o n, 
of Tewitfield and 
W a r t o n, in North 
Lancashire, the grand- 
fa t h e r o f t h e f i r s t 
Washington owner of 
Sulgrave, was the 
second son. 

John Washington, 
son of Robert, married 
Margaret Kytson, and 
this alliance is recorded 
on a composition at 
Weston. The \\'ash- 
ington coat of arms im- 
pales — Sable, three 
in fesse argent, a chief 
or. Below the shield is 
inscribed wasshing- 


Lawrence Washing- 
ton, twice Mayor of 
Northampton, and jiur- 
chaser of Sulgrave, was 
the son of John and 
Margaret ^Vashington, 
and he married for his 
second wife Amee Par- 
giter. His eldest son 
was Robert, who mar- 
ried Elizabeth Light, 
of Radway Orange, and 

Heraldic Glass Memorials 

who sold Sulgrave in i6io. Another son of Lawrence 
and Amee Washington was Lawrence, who married 
Martha Newce, of Great Hadham. All these three 
marriages are recorded in the glass shields at Fawsley 
Church. In each case on the dexter side appears the 
Washington coat of arms with the crescent at the fesse 
point impaling (isti barry of four or and sable three 
mascles, two and one counterchanged for Pargiter, with 
the inscription below — wasshingto and pergiter ; 
( 2nd) gules, a chevron between three swans argent for 
Light, with the inscription below — wasshingto and 
lighte: (3rd) sable, two pallets argent, acanton ermine 

for Newce, with the inscription — wasshingto and . 

Lawrence Washington, eldest son of Robert and 
Elizabeth {nee Light), married Margaret Butler; and 
the Butler coat of arms — azure, a chevron between 
three covered cups or — appears impaled by the 
Washington coat on a glass shield at \\'eston, and 
above is the date 1588. 

The two remaining heraldic compositions are at 
Fawsley Church. One has the date 15S8, and dis- 
plays on the de.xter side of the shield argent, on a 
cross sable five lions rampant or, for Wakelyn, im- 
paling the Washington coat of arms. Alban \\'akelyn 
married Amye, a daughter of the Robert \\'ashington 
who sold Sulgrave. Below this shield is a niuch-obli. 
terated inscription which may be read : [a s]o[n of] 
[wakeJlvn m[arried a s]pl'nstear of washingeton. 
It is no doubt the fourth heraldic composition men- 
tioned in the Gentleman s Magazine in 1789. The 
remaining glass shield 
shows, by the wreath 
and scrolls and the 
measurements, that it 
was one of the Washing- 
ton series, but aeon- 
fused comb ination of 
q u a r t e r i n g s of the 
Knightlev family now 
occupies the shield, 
above which can be 
seen part of the \\ash- 
ington eagle crest. Five 
of these shields record 
the coats of arms of 
direct ancestors of the 
first President of the 
United Statesof Ameri- 
ca, because Lawrence 
ANashington, who mar- 
ried IMargaret Butler, 
was the grandfather of 
George A\'ashington"s 
emigrant ancestor. 
My readers will better 

understand the marriage alliances by studying the fol- 
lowing pedigree ; — 

Robert Washington = Elizabeth Westfield. 
of Warton, co. Lane. [ 

«^(I) I -(2) 

John Washington = Margaret Ivytson 
of Warton, co. Lane. 
*(3) I 

Amee Pargiter = Lawrence Washington 

of Gretworth 

of Northampton 

and Sulgrave : 

died 1584 

Robert Washington 

of Sulgrave ; 

died 1620 




of Radway 

■ Kb) 
Lawrence Washington ^ Margaret 
of Tighes 

of Sulgrave and Butler Wakelyn : 

Brington : of Tighes died 1603 

died 1616 

Rev. Lawrence — Amphyllis 
[Bouden ?] 

* 15) I 
Martha = Lawrence 
Newce Washington 
of Great of Maidstone : 
Hadham died 1619 

Alban ~ Aniye 




of Purleigh ; 

died 1652 

John Washington, 
emigrant ancestor of the first President. 

Some authorities think that Robert, the second Washing- 
ton owner of Sulgrave, built the manor-house, and their 
opinion is based chiefly on the fact that the two dated 
heraldic glass shields record the year 1588. My own 
opinion about the two dated shields is that they refer to 
the marriages and not to the erection of the manor-house. 
Lawrence Washington married Margaret Butler on 
August 3rd, 158S. I have not been able to ascertain the 
date of the alliance between Alban Wakelyn and Amye 
Washington, but the year 158S is not at all unsuitable. 

There are still two 
Washington coats of 
house, outside the 
porch, which is the old- 
est part. They are in 
the spand rils of the 
arch, one on each side 
ut the doorway, the 
charges being cut deep- 
ly into the stone. The 
one on the left formerly 
showed the crescent, 
but it is no.w very much 
worn ; the one on the 
right has the mullets 
and bars without aci-es- 
cent at the fesse point. 
fl desire to thank Sir 
Charles Knightley for 
permission to publish 
illustrations of theglass 
shields at Fawsley, and 
Mr. T. C. Pinny for the 
use of his nesratives. 1 


Queen Anne Silver 

By Cecil Boyce 

UuEEN Anxe silver is always in fashion — 
never more so than at the present moment — and 
therefore, instead of roaming at large through the 
treasures of old plate — Elizabethan salt - cellars, 
Henry VIII. seal-top spoons, and what not — now on 
view in the cabinets of the Goldsmiths and Silver- 
smiths Company (i 1 2, Regent Street), I propose to 
confine myself to the silver of this one period It 
was a great period, giving birth to work, unique in 
certain characteristics, which, in its happy combina- 
tion of beauty with utility, has never been surpassed. 
The state exigencies that forced the Government of 
William III. to decree that all silver-plate should be 
made up of a higher standard than the coin of the 
realm, proved a blessing in disguise to the silver- 
smiths. The law to this effect was passed in 1697, 
and not repealed until 1720, and so, during these 
twentjj'-three years, including the whole of the reign 
of (^ueen Anne, the silver used in making plate was 
more pure than during any other period in English 
history. But silver is a comparatively soft metal, and 
the absence of the normal amount of harder alloy 
rendered it more susceptible to wear, and so the silver- 
smith perforce was compelled to modify his designs 
and simplify the forms of his pieces, so that they could 

be shorn of all elaborate ornamentation which would 
wear easily. Thus, at about the time when such 
articles as tea, coffee, chocolate, and sugar were 
coming into general use in English polite society, 
and the amenities and refinements of the dinner-table 
were beginning to be understood and appreciated, the 
English silversmiths were compelled to ignore their 
fondness for e.xuberant decoration and largely con- 
centrate their efforts to achieve beauty on the symmetry 
and good proportion of their pieces. This limitation 
inspired that refined and artistic sense of design so 
characteristic of the best Queen Anne silver. 

Some of its forms are borrowed from earlier periods. 
Thus, at the Goldsmiths and Silversmiths Company 
are two fine sets of trencher-salts — one of four circular 
.salts, each 2| inches in diameter, made by Nathaniel 
Locke in 1707 : and the other of the same number of 
ovals, each 3 J inches long, dated 1698, and bearing 
the maker's mark of Samuel Hawkes. In this instance 
the Queen Anne pieces belong to the earlier and more 
usual type, the circular form having been more or less 
in vogue since the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. This particular set, however, is heavier than 
usual, and is in exceptionally fine condition, the 
hall-marks, set under the bowls, being still well and 




Queen Anne Silver 


clearly defined. The oval 
salts are far more un- 
common, and it would 
be difficult, if not im- 
possible, to duplicate 
such a set, the quaint- 
ness and originality of 
which give them a 
unique appeal to the 
eyes of the collector. 

Equally simple in their 
design are the pair ot 
well-proportioned tum- 
bler cups, fashioned in 
1 7 1 o by that well-known 
silversmith Anthony 
Nelme. In all probability 
one may also give him 
credit for the arrange- 
ment ofthe contem- 
porary coats of arms 
engraved on the cups. 

These are admirably set out, the elaborate borderings 
encircling them converting them into highly effective 
pieces of decoration, nicely proportioned to the size 
of the cups, and affording relief and contrast to their 
plain surface. Another type of cup is shown in the 
two-handled cup with cover, gilt, decorated with cut- 
card and bead ornamentation in applique. It is an 
early and rare piece be- 
longing to the period of 
William III. These covered 
cups, intended for the hot 
drinks and possets so dear 
to our forefathers in the 
times when tea and coffee 
were either unknown or used 
by only a small portion of 
the wealthier classes, re- 
mained in vogue for many 
decades. Their forms, with- 
out being greatly modified 
in their essential features, 
responded to the vagaries of 
contemporary taste, so that 
the bowls and handles vary 
in their lines according to 
their periods, and their de- 
coration is continually chang- 
ing. The William III. ex- 
ample is unusually elegant 
in its shape, and bears evi- 
dence in its symmetrical 
proportions to that fine 
feeling for form which was 
to come to full fruition dur- 
ing the Queen ."^nne period. 
The bold and appropriate 
applique ornamentand bead- 
work enhance its aesthetic 
effect, but this is mainly at- 
tained by its good lines. In 
the George I. " Cup and 
Cover" this principle is 
carried further, for all its 



extraneous ornamenta- 
tion consists of a plain 
band round the body. 
To compensate for this, 
the form of the piece is 
far more elaborate, its 
domed top, high stand, 
and flowing scroll han- 
dles being sufficiently 
interesting in themselves 
as not to require the 
addition of further deco- 
ration. The cup bears 
the date-stamp of 17 15 
— the yearofthe first 
great Jacobite rising — 
and so comes just out- 
side the reign of (^ueen 
Anne. It, however, 
belongs to the period of 
high-standard silver, 
and is a fine example of 
that chaste simplicity of design evolved by the Queen 
Anne silversmiths to meet the difficulties caused by 
the use of the purer metal. 

The octagonal coffee-pot, with half-skirt border, is 
dated just one year earlier, and is made to conform 
to the same conditions. In designing tea and coffee 
pots silversmiths had no traditions to guide them, 
n e i t h eT of the beverages 
making its appearance in 
England until about the 
middle of the seventeenth 
century. Both tea and coffee 
pots, as originally evolved, 
were tall and upright vessels, 
but while the former have 
altered, the latter have re- 
tained their original shapes. 
The distinction between 
them dates from about the 
reign of Queen Anne, when 
teapots began gradually to 
assume the proportions of 
^those of to-day. The 
George I. example i n the 
Goldsmiths and Silversmiths 
Company's exhibition, while 
conforming in its main pro- 
portions with the standard 
examples of its time, is un- 
usual in its broadened base, 
and was obviously made to 
harmonise with the bulged 
octagonal teapots of the same 
date. Though quaint rather 
than beautiful, it is a piece 
which, from its uncommon 
form, will arouse the cupidity 
of a collector, and should 
find its way into either a 
public or private museum. 

The snuffers, with octa- 
gonal stand, are the work of 
Lewis Mettayer, i 708, and 


The Connoisseur 

worthily maintain the high reputation this silversmith 
gained for the excellence of his craftsmanship. Severely 
plain in design, the moulded borders and baluster- 
stem support are almost the only attempts at or- 
nament ; but the lines of the piece are so good that 
more ornate decoration would be superfluous. Equally 
characteristic of the Queen Anne period is the set ot 








Qnccii Anne Silver 

three sugar castors, 
the work of the well- 
known Aug. Cor- 
tauld, and dated 
1 7 13. The centre 
castor is 8J in. high, 
and the side castors 
2 in. less. Like cof- 
fee and tea pots, 
castors were late 
seventeenth century 
innovations, and in 
the reign of Queen 
Anne they attained 
their most chaste 
and elegant, if not 
their most ornate, 
forms. In the pre- 
sent exa mples the 
maker has kept the 
bulged octagon 
bodies severely 
plain, and they thus 
form a more effec- 
tive setting to the 
rich pierced worked 
tops. This rule was 
often ignored in 
later times, and 

manybeautiful plain 

pieces have 

been ruined 

by having 

their bodies 


through the 

folly of own- 

ers desiring 

to have their 

plate con- 

f r m with 

the fashions 

of their day. 

The height 

o f t h e cas- 
tors is also 

a Queen 

Anne c h a- 


the earlier 

castors be- 
in g g e n e r- 

a 1 1 y more 

squat, and 


1 y not so 

well propor- 


b y virtue of 
its date 
(1704), the 
with cover 



belongs more to the 
style in vogue dur- 
ing the reign of Wil- 
liam III. This may 
be partly accounted 
for by its Scottish 
origin, it being the 
work of James 
Sympsone, of Kdin- 
burgh, at a time 
when English fash- 
ions did not pene- 
trate to the Scottish 
metropolis with the 
same speed that they 
do to-day. The cut- 
card decoration, 
with gadroon wires 
round the foot and 
body, i s highly 
effective, and the 
scroll handle is well 
proportioned to the 
size ofthe body. 
One ofthe attrac- 
tions of this interest- 
ing piece is its ex- 
ceptionally fine con- 
dition; it is perfectly 
hall-marked and 
practically in 
a mint state. 
other inter- 
esting pieces 
at the 
and Silver- 
smiths Com- 
pany equal- 
ly deserve 
mention, but 
lack of space 
forbids their 
and suffici- 
ent examples 
have already 
been given 
to illustrate 
some of the 
most charac- 
teristic fea- 
tures of do- 
mestic plate 
in Q u e e n 
the period to 
which so 
many of our 
most useful 
and beauti- 
ful modern 
types owe 
their origin.- 


{The Editor invites the assistance of readers of The Connoisseur who may be able to impart the 

information required hv Correspondefitsi\ 

Mark on Bristol Tea Service. 

Dear Sir, — I have in my possession a very beau- 
tiful Bristol tea service, of which I enclose a photo 
of the marks. Can any of your readers decipher the 
signature ? It has been pronounced by the curator 
of one of our most famous museums to be of abso- 
lutely the first quality, and he thinks the name is 
meant for R. Champion (the tiny " p " being inserted 
above). Can any of your readers throw any light on 

I should add that the service of thirty-eight pieces 
was left my late husband by an old lady who had a 
very fine collection, inherited from her father-in-law, 
Thomas Butts Minter, Master-General of the Forces, 

Unidentified Portrait (No. 303). 
Dear Sir, — When in Aylesbury some years ago I 
found two portraits, very fine drawings in oil. Enclosed 
is a photo of one of them, the other is presumably his 
wife. Can any of your readers inform me who this is, 
and the artist? — Yours respectfully, G. Normanton. 

Unidentified Paintings (Nos. 304 .\nd 305). 

De.\r Sir, — I venture to send photographs of two 
pictures in my possession. I do not know when they 
came into my house nor whence they came, so they 
must have been there for a very considerable time. 

The portrait group of artists is finely painted, but 
there is nothing to show whom it represents. The 


the friend and patron of William Blake, who died 
early in the nineteenth century (a very old man). I 
have reason to think it may have been bought direct 
from the factory. 

Yours faithfully, Mary Colvii.le Hyde. 

portrait of the lady, which there is good reason to be- 
lieve to be by Romney, was called at home a portrait 
of Elizabeth Farren, Countess of Derby, but it is quite 
unlike authentic portraits of her. 

I am, dear Sir, yours faithfully, "Enquirer." 



/ ■ 





III the possession of Mrs. Nonnaii Tliorpi 


Notes and Oueries 



The Gorgkt (April, 1919). 

Dear Sir, — It is to be regretted that Mr. W. B. 
Redfern did not add one item to his interesting 
remarks on this subject. As one meets with so many 
cases of incorrect disposing of the gorget (i.e., the 
gorget proper, not the " toy " variety), it would be 



as well to inform the persons at fault that this piece 
of armour was worn under the breast-plate and not 
over it. — Yours faithfully, F. Gordon Roe. 




The Romance 

of Berechurch 

A REFERENCE to barbers' " reminder " bowls in 
pottery, on page 199 of your December issue, recalls 

the fact that, in 1903, I purchased 

Barber's . ^ c ^u u ' 

,. „ ., „ apewter specimen at Sotneby s, 

Reminder , ■ , ... 

gp^j beanng the engraved mscnption, 

" Sir, your quarter is up ! " I have 

not met with another example in pewter, and the 

enclosed photograph of my bowl may be of interest. 

It is 5 in. in diameter, 3 in. high, and is unmarked : 

but 1 take it to be late eighteenth century. — W.\l- 

TER G. Churcher, Joint Hon. Secretary, The Society 

of Pewter Collectors. 

A BEAUTIFUL example of a carved door exists at 

St. Michael's, Berechurch. It is ornamented with 
panels alternately presenting the 
linenfold and parchmin patterns, one 
of which has been replaced at no 

recent date by a fragment carved with a Gothic arch, 

inserted on its side in order to accommodate the space. 

It is worth while to draw the attention of connoisseurs 

to this relic, as the little Essex church might easilv be 

missed by searchers 

after the pictur- 
esque. The name 

Berechurch — 

which, by the way, 

has been explained 

to mean "a church 

in the corn-fields" 

— recalls the vicissi- 
tudes of a family 

quite after the heart 

of Sir Bernard 

Burke. The hall 

was conveyed by the 

monks of St. J o h n 's 

Abbey at Colchester 

to the then Lord barber's "reminder" kowl 


Chancellor, Thomas Audley (1488-1544), best known 
to us to-day, perhaps, as the Baron Audley of Walden, 
who was a factor in severing no less than two of 
Henry VIII.'s nuptial knots, having carried through 
Parliament the Act for the dissolution of the marriage 
with Anne of Cleves, and having passed judgment on 
the ill-fated Catherine Howard. The collateral des- 
cendants of the Chancellor held the manor for some 
generations, until the line failed in 17 14 with Henry 
Audley. This " weak and wicked man " (as Morant 
dubs him) played such havoc with his estates that 
he eventually became a Fleet prisoner. The story 
goes that a friend called accidentally to see him, 
and was horrified to find him dead and about to 
receive a pauper's funeral. Communications with the 
widow, Elizabeth, daughter of Philip Smythe, Viscount 
Strangford, from whom the deceased had been parted 
for some time, elicited the sum of _£,So for his ob- 
sequies, which were celebrated at Berechurch, where 
his ancestors rested in their own chapel. 

Owing to pressure on our space, we were unable 

to mention that the 

Plates in the June 

three colour plates, 
Evening, or the Sports- 
man's Return, Black 
Monday, and Venus 
andC!tpid,viere repro- 
duced from originals 
in the collection of 
Mrs. Mango, whilst 
the original of the 
plate of Lady Dur- 
ham, by S. Cousins, 
after Lawrence, is in 
the possession of the 
Earl of Durham. 





Water from 
Stones : a 

The seaside village of Blakeney, Norfolk, is so 
largely frequented by the s-ummer artist that it is 
unnecessary to dilate upon its 
scenic possibilities. It possesses a 
Neglected Relic ^^^ Perpendicular church (in the 
course of the restoration of which 
the lid of a mediaeval censer was discovered) and a 
rectory containing Gothic beams and heavily framed 
panelling of an early type. It has also a Guildhall 
down on the quayside. I made a pilgrimage to this, 
and found it to be an oblong building of stone, ap- 
proached through a doorway with decayed mouldings. 
The act of pushing open the door expelled a breath 

of dank air, whilst the light thus admitted— the sole 
illumination — revealed a fifteenth-century interior, 
with stone pillars supporting groins of red brick, which 
literally glistened with water. No edifice, however 
strongly built, can be expected to face with impunity 
such conditions as this forgotten relic of mediaeval 
domestic architecture has been doomed to undergo. 
I understand that an offer of ^^500 was made by 
a public-spirited person towards having the place re- 
paired and used for parochial purposes. The ofter 
was refused, and the fund devoted to another source. 
Perhaps this note may have some effect in directing 
attention to the plight of the edifice. — Criticus. 


Pictures and 

The British schools were well represented at King 
Street on April 4th. Two drawings by Copley Fielding, 
views in the Isle of Wight and On the 
Beach at Folkestone, both about 7 in. 
by 10 in., went for £-]\ 8s. and £%^ 5s. 
These formed part of the Martyn Kennard collection. 
Other drawings from the same hand were included in 
different properties. A Bay Scene with Boats: Sunset, 
6f in. by 10 in., made ^{^152 5s.; Near Littleliampton, 
1833, 10 in. by 14 in., ^157 los. ; and Arundel, 8i in. by 
I2i in., ^65 25. By Birket Foster, three vignettes of 
A Relic of the Past, Ahbotsford, and Melrose, secured 
^50 83., ^iio 5s., and £,\oa i6s. respectively; whilst 
Feeding Ducks, 5 in. by 7 in., brought in ^^152 5s. ; 
Young Anglers, 55 in. by 7j in. ^99 15s. ; and The 
Fisherman's Return, 5 in. by 7 in., ffii> 2s. Turner was 
represented by two small specimens: Shakespeare's Tomb, 
vignette, £71 8s., and The Meet of the Greta and the 
Tees, 2ii in. by 6 in., ^125 15s. Other items were a 
Portrait of Senora Eleanor Duse, by J. S. Sargent, 
charcoal, 23 in. by 16 j in., ^199 los. ; Flotsam and 
Jetsam, by W. McTaggart, 1879, 215 in. by 15 in., 
_^299 5s.; View in an Old Town, by S. Prout, 17 in. by 
1I4 in., .£99 15s. ; Partridges, by A. Thorburn, 1892, 
27 J in. by 46 in., ^168; and Fittleworth Common, by 
E. M. Wimperis, 13 in. by 21 in., ^120 15s. 

Taken as a whole, the pictures did not maintain a high 
standard. Mention is due, however, of Three Peasant 
Children seated on a fence, by T. Gainsborough, 23 in. 
by 17J in., AUnutt collection, 1863, ^99 15s.; A Ship 
Entering Port, by F. Brangwyn, 1894, 50 in. by 39 in., 
^336 ; Harvest Time, by W. Shayer, sen., panel, 154 in. 
by 19J in., /^I05 ; A Piping Shepherd Boy, by U. A. C. 
Artz, 43 in. by 31 in., £ioz, ; and Un Prcclie, by 
A. Legros, 1871, 28J in. by 37 in., ^378. 

Messrs. Puttick & Simpson included a few works be- 
longing to the Ladies Lindsay in their auction on April 
9th, and secured ^126 for a Portrait of a Gentleman 
wearing black dress with lawn collar, by Dobson, 41 in. 
by 33 in. On the following day Messrs. Robinson, 
Fisher & Harding offered a miscellaneous collection, 
when A Canal Scene, by Turner, brought in ^152 5s., 
and An Interior of a Barn, by Isaac Van Ostade, signed 
and dated, panel, 29 in. by 22 in., ^136 los. A Por- 
trait of Mrs. Wright, of Lcnton Hall, Nottingham, by 

Hoppner, 30 in. by 25 in., realised ^882. It represented 
an ancestress of John Wright, afterwards John Wright 
Osmaston, of Osmaston Manor, and belonged formerly 
to John Ray, Esq., and his son, the Rev. G. H. Ray, 01 
Heanor Hall, at whose decease it came into the posses- 
sion of the late owner. 

The King Street sale 01 the 7th presented but few out- 
standing items, although cursory reference may be made 
to a drawing by C. Robinson, i888. The Faithful at 
Prayer, 36 in. by 52 in., ^^136 los., and a Portrait of a 
Gentleman, by A. de Vries, 26 in. by 23 in., £10^. Far 
more importance attached to the auction on the nth, 
which commenced with pictures belonging to the late Sir 
F. B. Palmer, amongst which priority was accorded to 
the panel by Roger \'an der Weyden of The Madonna 
and Child, 33 in. by 27 in., ^4,200. Four lots were 
concerned with the Early Catalan school, all the examples 
except the last-named having been exhibited at the 
Spanish Old Masters, Grafton Galleries, 1913-14. The 
first consisted of a set of four panels, 37 in. by 19J in. 
each, showing the Legend of St. Ursula, /609, followed 
by the Madonna and Child Enthroned, panel, 65 in. by 
44 in., ^924 ; St. Michael and the Dragon, 69 in. by 
32 in., ^399 ; and The Birth of St. John, 40 in. by 20 in., 
^462. A triptych of the school of Gheerard David, 
panel, centre 31^ by 21^ in., made ^525 ; and a panel of 
Christ Triumphing over Sin and Death, Early German 
school, 31 in. by 45 in., /472 los. The latter picture 
bears an inscription commemorating the death of Frau 
Elizabeth Hartlungen the Elder, 15th April, 1530, and of 
her husband, Heronimus Hartlungen the Elder, Baron 
and Rentmaster of Iselen, 9th May, 1539. From various 
sources came Two Children with a Negro Page in the 
gardens of a Palace, French school, 67 in. by 62^ in., 
^ 1 89 ; Don Quixote, in green dress, by F. Goya, 1 7j in. by 
13 in., Grafton Galleries, 1913-14, ^210; David Hume, 
Esq., by Gainsborough, 294 in. by 24I in., ^^84 ; Children 
teasing a cat, by Raeburn, 35 in. by 27 in., ^120 15s.; 
Men-of- War, Boats, and Figures on the Dutch Coast, 
by W. Van de Velde, grisaille, panel, 295 in. by 414 in., 
;£6o9 ; John, 3rd Duke of Rutland, by Prince Hoare, 
29 in. by 25 in., ^168 ; P?-occssion of Triumphal Cars in 
the Piazza of St. Mark's, Venice, by F. Guard i, 25^ in. 
by 35i in., A. S. Wortley collection, ^430 los. ; Woody 
Landscape, by P. Koninck, 52 in. by 64^ in., ^1,260; 


/// the Sale Room 

A i^roup, representing Sir Joseph and Lady Sco/t with 
Parson Wilder, by T. Beach, 54 in. by 60 in., ^105 ; 
Admiral Sir George Cockburn, of Langton, by .A.. W. 
Devis, 36 in. by 28 in., /304 los. ; and Peacock and 
Poultry, by M. d'Hondecoeter, 64 in. by 84 in., ;{;273. 
^997 I OS. was bid for Beechey's Portrait of Anne, 
Countess of Newbiirgh, 94 in. by 57I in., from the Egre- 
mont collection; whilst ^i,575 "'^s given for the same 
artist's Portrait of the Misses Annand Augusta Coventry, 
granddaughters of the 6th Earl, 49^ in. by 39i in., which 
belonged to the late .Mrs. F. de B. Hancock. Cata- 
logued as the property of a nobleman, a Portrait of the 
Artist, by Rembrandt, panel, 18 in. by 15J in., also 
realised ^i,575 ; whilst a similar sum secured Raeburn's 
Portrait of Miss Charlotte Monro, 1782-1822, wife of 
L. H. Ferrier, and great-grandmother of the late owner, 
Capt. .A.lan Ferrier, 29 in. by 24 in. From a different 
source came G. Romney's Mrs. Freeman, 35 in. by 
27* in., ^2,467 los. ; \V. Owen's Afrs. Heathcote, 29 in. 
by 24 in., ^252 ; B. \'an der Heist's Portrait of a 
Cavalier, signed with monogram and dated 1667, 27f in. 
by 23 in., ^892 105.; J. Van Ruysdael's Landscape with 
Sheep, panel, 11 in. by 13 in., ^131 5s.: and Wouvermans 
Hawking Party before a Mansion, 30 in. by 39 in., 
/105. Another example of d'Hondecoeter appeared in 
Lord Belper's collection. Domestic Poultry, 47 in. by 
34 ia., which fetched .1^525; whilst the names of Cuyp, 
A Hilly Landscape, 39J in. by 55* in., /120 15s.; J. 
Jordaens, Portrait of a Gentleman in grey dress 7vith 
fur-lined cloak and hat, 31^ in. by 25 J in., ^210 ; Peru- 
gino, 6'5. Jerome, Mark, and Gerardus Gredus, panel, 
53 in. by 57^^ in., bearing a signature, " Pietro Perugino, 

I 5 1 2, " at one time in the Rinuccini Gallery, its attribution 
being dealt with by Dr. Borenius in Crowe and Caval- 
caselle's History of Painting in Italy and in History of 
Painting in Northern Italy, £2,2'^ los. ; and the school 
of Pontormo, View in Florence, panel, 33J in. by 28I in., 
^325 los., were also represented. A number of pictures 
from the Camperdown collection included An Interior oj 
an Apartment, by Q. Brekelenkam, panel, 17^ in. by 
14 in., ^525 ; Sir David Wtlkie, R.A., by A. Geddes, 
1S16, panel, 26 in. by 19 in., Glasgow, 191 1, ^325 los.; 
A Common Scene, by J. Wan Goyen, panel, 9I in. by 
16 in., ^336 ; Head of a Cavalier, by F. Hals, 14 in. by 

II in., ^2,310; Portrait of a Gentleman in black dress, 
by B. Van der Heist, 41 in. by 35 in., /'630 ; Tavern 
Interior, by P. de Hooghe, panel, I9i in. by ijj in., 
/357 ; Figures seated round a table in a courtyard, by 
Metsu, 25 in. by 27 in., ^399; The Prodigal Feasting, 
by the same, 30 in. by 23! in., ^420: a pair of Camp 
Scenes, by J. B. Pater, panel, 9 in. by 13 in., ^1,785; 
The Father of Rembrandt, by Rembrandt, panel, 7f in. 
by 6i in., ^462 ; The Rat-catcher, by Jan Steen, 213 in. 
by 17 in., ;/^493 los. ; and Interior of a Guard-room, by 
G. Terburg, 22^ in. by 30 in., ^357. An Early English 
pastel. Portrait of John Flaxman, R.A., oval, 9^ in. by 
8 in., secured ^105. Six drawings belonging to a gentle- 
man were noteworthy. They were a pen-and-ink study, 
probably for the etching of The Man of Sorrows, by 
Diarer, 8J in. by 5^ in., Hibbick, of Hamburg, ^^325 los. ; 

Head of the Artist, by Raphael, pencil, Wellesley, lojin. 
by 74 in., .^399; Woman seated at a window, Rem- 
brandt, sepia, 6} in. by 4| in., /^399 ; A Landscape with 
t7t'0 kneeling figures in the foreground, by Titian, pen and 
sepia, 9J in. by 8 J in., Mariette, Esdaile, B. West, Sir 
T. Lawrence, and Wellesley (a copy by Watteau is in the 
Louvre), ^388 los. ; Portrait of John Cachiossin,hy\3Ln 
Dyck, sepia, 10 in. by 6| in., Mariette, Lawrence, King 
of Holland, and Leenbruggen (engraved by Demarteau), 
^861 ; and Queen Henrietta Maria and Child, by 
Watteau, after \'an Dyck, black and red chalk, 12 in. by 
9 in., W. Russell, ^^399. 

The proverbial apathy attaching to a Monday sale was 
illustrated once more on the 14th, when only one lot 
aroused any marked attention, in this case being a trip- 
tych of the Flemish school, panel, centre-piece 344 in. by 
22 in., ^£220 los. .\ few interesting items figured on the 
i6th, when the late Sir Henry Hawley's property came 
under the hammer. A Portrait of St. Donatiani of 
Bruges, by Cornelius \'an Haarlem, after Van Eyck, 
panel, 12 in. by 9 in., ran up to ^399, and a Portrait of 
a Woman in brown dress, by Rembrandt, 24 in. by 
19* in., realised ^735. From another source, a Portrait 
of Mrs. Seaforth and Child, by Sir J. Reynolds, 56^ in. 
44 in. (engraved by J. Grozer), made ^525. A similar 
sum was secured by Seghers' Vieiv of a Town on a River, 
panel, 27J in. by 46J in. ; whilst Gonzales Coques' First 
Earl of Carnarzion and Family and friends at a repast 
in a dining hall, 3ii in. by 40 in., was knocked down for 


Comparativelyfewcanvases realised recordable amounts 
at Christie's on .\pril 25th. Two Starks, Scene in Windsor 
Forest, 17 in. by 23 in., and A Woodland Scene, panel, 
9j in. by 13J in., realised ^{,'210 and £\-o 15s. respec- 
tively. ^157 los. was the highest bid for Constable's 
Lock on the Stour, 40 in. by 49^ in., and Courbet's 
Winter, 12 in. by 15^ in.; whilst ^147 purchased The 
Road to the Village, by A. Hervier, 1858, 18 in. by 44 in. 

Mr. Dowell, of Edinburgh, disposed of many modern 
pictures on the next day, prominent amounts being £2-]l 
for Hugh Cameron's Evening, 15J in. by 21 J in. ; 
,£472 los. for McTaggart's Young Bait Gatherers, iji in. 
by 1 1 4 in.; and ^210 for his water-colour. Boys Bathing, 
15 in. by 1O5 in. 

1 f we except a Portrait of the Duchess of Richmond, 

by Van Loo, 49* in. by 33 

which made ^441, there 

was little of importance in the late Hon. Mrs. Percy 
Mitford's property, which appeared at King Street on the 
28th. From other sources, a self-portrait of Gainsborough 
du Pont, 29i in. by 244 in., mentioned by Fulcher, sold 
for ^178 los. ; and a Portrait oJ Mrs. Mary Elizabeth 
Watson, by Gainsborough, on copper, 5 in. by 4 in., 
;^i2o 15s. The May picture sales commenced at King 
Street on the 2nd with the important collection belonging 
to the late C. D. Rudd. The third lot realised ^756- It 
was Rosa Bonheur's Scottish Raid, 20 in. by 35J in. 
(engraved by C. G. Lewis). Other drawings included 
On the Downs, 1833, 12 in. by 17* in., ^892, and Loch 
Katrine, 183S, I2l in. by i6i in., ^504, both by Copley 


The Coiinoisscni' 



The Wood Sale 

The important collection belonging to Mr. R. M. Wood 
came up at Christie's on May 27th, realising a total of 
nearly ^25,200. The highest price 
was secured by a pair of Bow figures 
of " Summer and Autumn," 13 in. high, ^3,780. We are 
able to illustrate this pair by courtesy of Messrs. Stoner & 
Evans. A set often Chelsea figures of "Apollo and the 
Muses,'' by Roubilliac (impressed R), 15 in. high, ran up 
to ^{^2,625, and a shepherd and shepherdess, 13J in. high, 
from the Lord Arundel of Wardour and J. H. McLaren 
collections, ^1,522. Other notable pieces of Chelsea 
comprised a pair of groups of " Hercules and Omphale " 
and "Hercules and the Hydra,'' 13 in. high, ^378; a 
pair of candelabra with figures of a sportsman and lady, 
10 in. high, ^966 ; a figure of an owl on a tree trunk 
(raised anchor mark , 7 in. high, ^472 los. ; a pair of 

Chinese pheasants on tree trunks, 9:^ in. high, ^451 lOs.; 
••Autumn," 12J in. high, ;^3I5 ; a pair of figures of a lady 
and gentleman, 7 J in. high, ^388 los. ; "John Coan, 
English Dwarf," I2i in. high, ^386 los. ; a pair of cups, 
finely gilt, with garden scenes, etc., Willoughby Londen 
collection, ;£399 ; a dish, painted with an exotic bird, ii^ 
in. diam., ditto, ^430 los.; a pair of flat-shaped vases, 
painted with Teniers subjects, 6J in. high, Montague 
Guest collection, ^483 ; and an inkstand, Massey Main- 
waring collection, ^^420. ^304 was paid for a Longton 
Hall vase and cover and a pair of beakers, \i\ in. by 
Si in. high (illustrated in Longton Hall Porcelai?i, by 
W. Bemrose, Plate X.\II. ; and ^257 for a pair of 
Worcester shaped mugs, 5! in. high. 

[Further sale notes are unavoidably held over until 
next month.] 


Both Reynolds and Gainsborough were represented 
in the National Gallery, where, after all, it is becoming 

that our English masters should be 
Another Romney ^ ," , . , , , 

represented completely, by large 
for the 1 1 '• 1 i: " 

groups as well as single ngures. 

Romney, on the other hand, until 
just now, was shown almost exclusively in the vein in 
which, to tell the truth, it is easiest to show him. That 
he was a painter of charming, if somewhat boneless 
women, was ably demonstrated ; that he was capable of 

National Gallery 

fresh and honest interpretation and individual colour his 
admirable Mr. and Mrs. Lindoiv proved. To give him 
his due, moreover, his Mother and Cliild (i667). was 
evidence of true and tender insight. But the National 
Collection had nothing to indicate that Romney could 
paint the dignity and grace of manly youth, that he, could 
well compete with Reynolds and Gainsborough in doing 
justice to the characteristic comeliness and breeding of 
the late eighteenth-century English gentleman. The 
newly acquired and most important Bcaiiniont FainHy, 





The Connoisseur 

however, proves that Romney was well able to hold his 
own with such formidable rivals in the interpretation of 
that pleasant character. 

The Beaumont Family is a memorial of the family of 
Richard Beaumont, of Whitley Beaumont, Wakefield. 
By an accident of time, Romney had to introduce the un- 
satisfactory expedient of the portrait within a portrait to 
complete his group. Through a curious oversight in the 
publisheddescriptionsofthispictureinthe Royal Academy 
Old Masters Catalogue of 1910, and in Messrs. Ward 
and Roberts's Catalogue Raisonne of Romney's work, the 
significance of and excuse for the presence of a painted 
canvas within the picture were unexplained. The group 
was painted between 1776 and 1778. The people it was 
to depict were Richard Henry Beaumont (1749-1810), 
Charles (1750-1774), Thomas (1751-1782), John, Eliza- 
beth (1753-1814), their sister and her husband, Lieut. - 
General George Barnard (or Bernard), whom she married 
in 1774. Their places in the group are: — Thomas, in 
profile, on the left ; next him, Richard ; in the centre, 
leaning on his sister's chair, John ; Elizabeth is obvious, 
and her husband stands nearly full-face in the right 
background, holding the canvas on which Charles is re- 
presented. Of these, it will be seen at once, Charles had 
died two years before the picture was begun. Hence 
Romney's necessity to resort to an image of him other 
than one of his own created from his own vision. The 
author of the portrait which Romney copied is said by 
Roberts and McKay to be Romney himself. But this 
should not be taken too seriously. The picture is still in 
the family's possession. 

The period of Romne\'s work to which the Ecaumont 
Family belongs was his most successful and his best. 
He was just over forty. He had but recently returned 
from Italy, and the ball seemed fairly at his feet. Em- 
barrassments which had overcast his prospects were lifting; 
patronage from high quarters flowed in ; and enough of 
his earlier zest and freshness yet inspired him, between 
1776 and 1780, to give an edge and firmness to his colour, 
design, and form. The germ of his later manner is no doubt 
apparent in the exaggerated gesture of the sister, whose 
grief is of the stage. Though Romney had not yet fallen 
under its spell, we can see that he was predisposed to 
Emma Hart's genius for posing. 

The condition of this group is satisfactory and instruc- 
tive. Not only can we appreciate the crisp decision ot 
the painter's brushwork, his Sargent-like freedom of sig- 
nificant and summary interpretation — for example, in the 
right hand of the man in profile, on the left (Richard 
Beaumont) in his breeches and stockings — but also we 
can realise how high was his pitch of tone and colour. By 
this realisation we can infer how far we are from seeing 
the original effect of Reynolds's Three Graces. More- 
over, the present condition of Gainsborough's Baillie 
Family and Sir Joshua's Holy Family, both skilfully and 
soundly freed, within the last few years, of obscuring 
varnish, fortifies the belief that, were it possible to treat 
the Graces as successfully, Reynolds's reputation would 
be as much enhanced as Romney's and Gainsborough's 
have been by the revelation of their proper pitch. For 

ourselves, we class those whose taste runs to golden 
varnishes with those philistines who, for private preference 
or conscientious reasons, tamper with a text or touch up 
a picture to suit their personal taste. By now the craving 
for mellow, yellow pictures has become a habit, against 
which young painters periodically rebel, inveighing scorn- 
fully against old masters. But they would be juster to 
their dead brethren if they understood that in many cases 
the pitch aimed at by them was relatively as high as that 
of the Pre-Raphaelites or the New English •A.rt Club. 

Burlington Fine 
Arts Club: Flor- 
entine Painting 

The Burlington Fine .A.rts Club has had many interes- 
ting exhibitions, among which may be included that of 
last winter, but few of the level of 
the present in its fine selection and 
quality. It is not a large exhibi- 
tion which is here presented, but 
it is a very choice one. It has the initial advantage of 
being concerned with one of the most wonderful creative 
periods in the whole story of art — with Florentine painting 
in the years preceding 1500; and though that period is 
not here fully represented — that were, indeed, too much 
to expect — though the sculptors are absent, and, in paint- 
ing, Pesello's contemporaries, Domencio Yeneziano, Piero 
I'ollajuolo, and that fine Florentine painter Alessio Baldo- 
vinetti, we do get here a real insight into the character of 
Florentine ait in a group of very remarkable paintings. 

We commence, very properly, with Giotto, for Giotto 
Bondone is the initiator. His strong personality is funda- 
mental to Italian and, most of all, to Florentine art. He 
is represented here in Lady Jekyll's half-length figure of 
the Christ as Salvator Mu?uii, a refined and noble con- 
ception ; and also in the work of his followers, especially 
of Agnolo Gaddi, who appears here in works from two 
famous collections — those of Mr. R. H. Benson and Mr. 
Herbert Cook. 

Still more important is Masaccio, for this rare master, 
who stands on the threshold of the new movement in 
Florentine art, is here represented in the half-length of 
God the Father, lent by Mr. Ricketts and Mr. C. Shannon ; 
and after Masaccio we step forward into the two move- 
ments, both of which find their place here — the one purely 
devotional, in the art of Fra Angelico, and, less directly, 
of his pupil Benozzo Gozzoli ; the other naturalistic, 
realistic, almost scientific, in Pesellino, Piero di Cosinio, 
and Paolo Uccello. Seldom does the gentle Fra Angelico 
show such dramatic force as in his Legend of SS. Cosmo 
and Damiano, a masterpiece of his art, which formed 
part of a predella over the high altar of S. Marco, and is 
lent by the National Gallery of Ireland. And we have 
here another masterpiece of a monk painter in the mag- 
nificent " tondo " of The Adoration of the Magi, the 
earliest extant work of Fra Filippo, and which the late 
.Mr. Home justly described as "incomparable." 

But it is really the Florentine naturalists who amaze us 
here, most notably Uccello, and yet more Pesellino. 
For Pesellino here comes forward from an interesting 
painter of quite the second rank, far behind Botticelli, 
into the very first place, in such a wonderful creation as 
his little panel of the Virgin and Child with Saints, or bis 

Current Art Notes 

great Cassone panels of the Story O/ David. In the first- 
named of these, notably in the heads S. Anthony Abbot 
and S. Jerome, his work is as fine as that of a miniaturist, 
the colour clean and fresh, the drawings superb. In the 
second we have a wonderful series of dramatic episodes, 
grouped into a whole of such decorative beauty that at a 
little distance we forget the detail, lovely though it is — 
the heroic and inspired figure of young David with his 
sling, the group of knights with lances at rest, who recall 
Pisanello's fresco — to enjoy the beautiful colour-pattern 
inwoven with the gold beneath. 

A little before this we shall have come upon that 
Coronation of the Virgin by Lorenzo da Credi which 
belonged to the poet Samuel Rogers, who bought it in 
Rome, and hung it "at the foot of his bed, that he 
might see it on awaking in the morning" ; and both this 
lovely devotional painting, with its tranquil landscape, 
and the Pesellino panels of David, come from the col- 
lection of Lady Wantage, the latter having been in the 
hands of the famous Florentine family of the Pazzi, till 
purchased early in the last century by the Marchese 
Luigi Torregiani, whence they came from the Palazzo 
Torregiani into the collection of their present owner. 

Paolo Doni, called Uccello, has here a wonderful 
Hunt by Moonlight, which is fully on a level with his 
famous battle-pieces of the London, Louvre, and Uffizi 
galleries. Here, again, he shows his powers of observa- 
tion : against the close forest trees, behind, the foreground 
is filled with the figures of running huntsmen, and the 
hounds strain at the leash, the horses are pulled back on 
their haunches while the " view-hallo " is given, and 
the whole is alive with movement. 

Vet again, Piero di Cosimo, in his Battle of Centaurs 
and LapitAcr here, from Mr. Ricketts' collection, explains 
the secret of his place in contemporary art, far more than 
in his not very interesting Story of Perseus in the Uffizi, 
or Minerva and the Flute here exhibited. For this 
battle is as full of murderous realism as any work of 
PoUajuolo. On the right of the panel, Hercules, enter- 
ing the scene, is finishing off a centaur with his club, 
while the next group depicts an unfortunate lady grasping 
her lapith male friend by the neck, while a centaur holds 
her by the legs, and yet another lapith, coming to the 
rescue, pulls the centaur backwards, and is literally 
biting oft'his nose. In the centre beneath we come to an 
e.xquisite little scene of pity and tenderness, where a female 
centaur, like the Procris of our gallery, holds in her 
arms a w-ounded satyr. Nor must we overlook the lapith 
in the background, who has just pitched a centaur head- 
long over the cliff, and is sending a rock after him to 
" make assurance doubly sure." The whole scene is 
conceived with a sort of fury of passion, but with \ivid 
imagination and brilliant technical power. 

Botticelli appears here indirectly in The Marriage 
Feast of Nastagio degli Onesti, a large panel which M r. 
Home attributed to his design, and in a not very in- 
teresting or convincing Annunciation, lent by Glasgow. 
But the real triumph of the exhibition rests with the 
group of artists who represent the movement towards 
scientific study and analysis of nature. 

The International 

These last words bring \'errocchio's greatest pupil, 
Leonardo, into our thoughts ; and it is satisfactory to 
find that, though the fourth centenary of this master, 
which has received full attention in Italy, has had a faint 
response in England, at least this exhibition makes up 
a very choice selection of his drawings in the Writing 
Room, lent by His Majesty the King, with which is 
included the grand cartoon of the Virgin atid Child with 
S. Anne and the little S. John Baptist, lent by the 
President of the Royal Academy. 

This forms an added attraction to an already most 
attractive display, and makes us wonder if it is too late 
to hope that some representative selection from the 
wonderful Windsor drawings to be shown within our 
National Gallery and in the present year, might mark our 
national appreciation of Leonardo's genius in art and 
science.— Selwvn Brinton. 

The termination of the war appears hardly to have 
affected the foi-eign element in the International Society 
of Sculptors, Painters, and Gravers 
at the Grosvenor Gallery (New 
Bond Street). It is an unusually 
good exhibition, but its strength is derived from English 
sources, and the absence of all the contributions gathered 
from continental artists would not materially affect the 
success of the display. Mr. Ambrose McEvoy, as usual, 
is profusely represented. He shows ten portraits, all of 
them interesting, and most of them highly attractive. 
The most important is the group of Viscount Hinchin- 
brooke, the Hon. Drago Montagu, and Lady Faith 
Montagu, children of the Earl of Sandwich, attired in 
fancy costume, a feature adding picturesqueness to the 
work, but making it less convincing. The grouping ot 
the figures is easy and natural ; the colour, centred by the 
scarlet doublet of one of the boys and the black doublet 
of the other, is pleasing. But it is a pretty picture rather 
than a great work of art. The same criticism applies to 
Mr. McEvoy's other works : their paint is thin and 
wanting in depth, their handling unduly slight. And so, 
though one must own the charm of the prepossessing 
Airs. McCalmont and Daughter or the I^ady Helen 
WJiitaker, one is not quite convinced by them. Mrs. 
Annie L. Swynnerton paints with less allure, but is more 
sincere. Her laughing boy, John, son of the Hon. G. 
Lamhton, was delightfully natural and unsophisticated. 
Her Julv, a large group of three girls and a boy in a 
landscape, appeared at first sight like a spontaneous ex- 
pression of the gladness of youth and summer, so fresh 
and vivid was its coloration, so strong the feeling of 
joyousness transfusing the canvas. A closer inspection 
showed that the colour-scheme had been carefully thought 
out, the warm tones of the flesh being repeated in the 
clouds and the blue of the sky in the dress of one ot the 
girls and the boy's jersey, so that, despite the brightness 
of the work, its tones were thoroughly in unison. Mr. 
Glyn Philpot's Meeting of Antony and Cleopatia after 
the Battle of Actiuin would have pleased better under 
another title. The figures of the Roman triumvir and 
the Egyptian queen suggested neither the greatness ot 

The Coiiiioissciir 

the former nor the fascination of tlie latter. The picture 
made no literary and little intellectual appeal, but pos- 
sessed powerful, sensuous attraction in its gleaming flesh- 
tones and sumptuous colour. "Richly and powerfully 

resulted in singularly well - balanced and harmonious 
colour-schemes. A picture of a prepossessing girl, by 
Mr. William Strang, entitled The Messenger, was rather 
high-keyed in tone ; but one suspects that this is a failing 




painted, it arrested the eye without impressing the ima- 
gination. Mr. W. Nicholson also showed rich and sus- 
tained colour in his Flower-piece — pinks and peonies set 
against a blue curtain, the latter so deep and splendid in 
its tone as to pale the tints of the blossoms in front of it. 
Mr. A. J. Munnings showed his usual crisp and vigorous 
brushwork in all five of his pictures. Perhaps the best ot 
them was A Trooper in Full Marching Order, interesting 
as revealing the heavy load of paraphernalia borne by a 
cavalry horse on active service, and attractive by reason 
of its intelligent appreciation of the points of a good 
charger, expressed in artistic terms. The trio of works 
by Mrs. Laura Knight were all concerned with dancers. 
The Premiere Danscusc and Bejore ilie Mirror were two 
variants of a similar theme— a single figure attired in 
professional costume in each case being placed against 
a red background. Both in these and the larger work, 
entitled Maestro CecchettVs Dancing Class, the artist 
showed a pleasing reticence of colour, a delight for cool 
tones, in which greys and whites predominated, which 

the artist purposely cultivates, in the expectation that the 
effects of time will gradually reduce his pictures to the 
correct pitch. The picture shows a greater feeling for 
atmospheric truth than often characterises Mr. Strang's 
work, and the flesh-tones and general coloration of the 
picture, though bright, are well harmonised and attractive. 
The Marsh near Littlehamiton, a grey and green land- 
scape, by Mr. Peppercorn, was marked by his usual 
broad handling; and a view of Tetbury, by Mr. Oliver 
Hall, if somewhat monochromatic in colour, was distin- 
guished by its good composition and well-understood 
draughtsmanship and perspective. Mr. J. J. Shannon, 
in his Merman and the Maid, strayed into more imagina- 
tive ways than usual. The figures were well conceived 
and grouped, but would have gained had their setting 
been more simple, the flowers growing near the water's- 
edge hardly appearing apposite, and the flight of seagulls 
in the background giving the canvas a crowded appear- 
ance. Among the portraits not already mentioned may 
be singled out that ai Sergeant II'. L. Rayfield, I'.C, by 





Current Art Notes 

Mr. Harold Knight, which was manly and well charac- 
terised, and painted in a quiet and unobtrusive key of 
colour. A contrast to this was afforded by the aggres- 
siveness of Mr. W. B. E. Rankin's Mrs. Griffilhs and 
Children. It was strongly painted, but wanting in refine- 
ment and charm. Mr. Frederick Whiting had used the 
court suit oi Alderman Sir Alfred Bovver with consider- 
able decorative skill. The blacks of the silk and the 
white lace and ruffles set off the flesh-tones, and form a 
foil to the crimson sheriff's robes introduced in the back- 
ground. It is a dignified and attractive work. 

Thanks to the kindness of the Corporation of London, 
the Royal British ."Xrtists were provided with accommoda- 
tion for their 151st exhibition at 
The Royal Society ^^^^ Guildhall Galleries. The rooms 
of British Artists , ^ , , ■ 

lent for the purpose were ample in 

size and well lighted, but the exhibition, especially as re- 
gards the oil-paintings, was distinctly below the average. 
The drawings did not show the same falling-off Among 
the best were some of the architectural subjects. Mr. W. 
Harding Smith contributed a view of Christchurch Gate, 
Canterbury, in which the picturesque detail of the fine 
old portal was given with appreciative care ; Mr. Barry 
Pittar had a slighter and more broadly treated rendering 
of Chartres Cathedral, West Front, noteworth)- for its 
delicate colour and easy handling; and Mr. H. P. Weaver 
a water- colour of Lisieux, recalling memories of Prout, 
but treated with more pictorial feeling, and less as a 
coloured drawing than the work of that artist. A drawing 
of Hampton Court Palace by Mr. J. Frederick Wilson 
showed good colour, and another by Mr. W. T. M. 
Hawksworth of The Pulpit, St. Mildred's, Bread Street, 
was carefully drawn, and contained a quantity of well- 
studied detail. Mr. C. A. Hannaford made a departure 
from his usual style in his Christchurch Gate, Canterbury, 
and In Newlyn Harbour. The latter was painted en- 
tirely in shadow, and in the former only a small patch of 
direct sunlight was discernible on the interior of the 
arch. The artist had avoided the monotony of tone 
which would seem to be almost inseparable from such 
treatment by the use of rich and luminous colour, and 
produced two effective and pleasing works. 

Among the non-architectural drawings, Mr. Ford E. 
drone's Le Reposoir : Meeting the Procession at (2uiin- 
perte, Brittany, was a commendable work, well arranged, 
and showing good and truthful colour. Mr. Hirst 
Walker gave a TurnereSque impression of Whitby, 
gleaming with brilliant yet delicate tones of gold, blue, 
and red ; his Postman's Path, Egton Moor, was darker 
and more austere in tone, a strong and well-sustained 
rendering of moorland and cloud. Another impressionist 
effect was Mr. J. Littlejohn's Sussex Quarry, a drawing 
of a lofty chalk cliff overhanging a river, its gleaming 
white front crowned by green sward, above which was a 
narrow strip of bright blue sky, the whole colour-scheme 
being harmonious and well balanced. Mr. A. Carruthers 
Gould, who had adopted a more solid and finished style 
than usual, was represented by a trio of landscapes — 
Go7-se Biirning, On Merroiv Down, Sun-ey, and Exmoor 

Hills, all a little hot in colour, but bearing evidence of 
close and intelligent study of nature and breadth of out- 
look. A quiet-toned and attractive evening effect. The 
Canal, Lincobi, was contributed by Mr. Arthur Tucker ; 
another ol Summer Moonlight in the Lincoln Fens, light 
and delicate in colour, was by Mr. Charles I nee. 

Turning to the oil-paintings, Mr. E. Handley-Read had 
a strongly painted picture of The Ruins of Arras, broadly 
and sentiently handled, though a little over-blue in tone. 
Mr. Cowan Dobson's portrait oi Joseph Dobbie, Esq., 
M.P., was vigorous and well characterised, but would 
have gained if treated with more refinement. A presen- 
tation portrait ol John Emanuel, Esq., by Mr. Solomon 
J. Solomon, was finely and quietly painted, its effect 
being greatly aided by its artistic reticence of colour. 
Among the few pictures in the exhibition showing literary 
inspiration was Mr. A. G. Temple's well-conceived 
allegory illustrating Tennyson's lines, " Life and Thought 
have gone away side by side." The artist showed in the 
background of his picture the entrance to a stately 
Elizabethan mansion, with white draped nuns and priests 
coming down the broad terraced steps in slow procession, 
and mourners assembled in waiting to do honour to the 
young and queenly dead. In the foreground, represented 
by two beautiful crowned figures, are " Life " and 
"Thought," twin attributes of the human personality, the 
former bearing banner and trumpet and the latter a book, 
passing with lingering and half-reluctant steps from their 
earthly habitance and facing the unknown future with 
steadfast courage not unmingled with awe. The picture 
was realised with great care, the rendering of the figures 
and thp flowers in the foreground recalling some of the 
early work of the Pre-Raphaelites, a class of art to which 
the picture was closely allied in sentiment. Mr. Walter 
Blundell Thompson's " still-Hfe " piece showed good 
colour and free handling, while another " still-life " 
subject of dead birds and lemons, by the Hon. Walter 
James, recalled in its sincerity and simple, direct, and 
highly finished technique the work of the old Dutch 
masters. Among the landscapes, Mr. John Muirhead's 
Low Tide, Pont Avon, Mr. Hely Smith's pleasantly 
coloured In the Grip of Winter, and Miss Constance 
Bradshaw's broad and open Moorland Stream, all 
deserve appreciation. 

The sale to be held by Messrs. Sotheby on Tuesday, 
July 8th, will contain some items of especial interest. 
One of these comprises eighty-five 
A forthcoming ^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ gightvseven original de- 

Sale of Drawings ^^ ^^^ ^j^^ Kelmscott Chaucer, by 

and Pictures „.„..„ , . , „ .1 

Sir Edwin Burne-Jones, to be sold 

by order of his executors. These beautiful pencil-drawings 
were all made between 1892 and 1896, and were a labour 
of love on the part of the artist. They comprise what 
may be said to be the finest modern series of illustrations 
executed for any single book. A number of modern 
drawings from the collection of that discriminating con- 
noisseur, the late Judge Evans, are to be dispersed at the 
same sale, including examjiles by Charles Shannon, Walter 
Sickert, Conder, Muirhead Bone, Augustus John, Orpen, 


The Coiiiioisseiir 

Legros, and others, with oil-paintings by most of the 
foregoing and James Pryde, Glyn Philpot, Wilson Steer, 
etc. There is the drawing entitled Golden Water, by 
Rossetti, formerly belonging to Ruskin ; an interesting 
sketch for a self-portrait, by Rembrandt ; an early paint- 
ing of The Infant Christ, by \'an Dyck ; and one of 
the several versions by Sir Joshua Reynolds of his well- 
know-n Portrait of Lady Hamilton as a Bacchante. 

Except in a few instances, the differences between the 
early states of Rembrandt's etchings, though often largely 

r, , . affecting their monetary value, are 

Kembrandt r ... , , 

IT, I. J not of great artistic import, and thus 

ttchings and ° . . "^ ' 

TN .. , ^ . the selection of his works to be seen 

Durer Ungravings 

at Messrs. Colnaghi & Obach's Gal- 
leries (144, New Bond Street), all good impressions and 
generally confined to first and second state proofs, was 
practically as interesting as if all the latter had been 
transformed into the former. Not a few of the more 
desirable rarities were included. The Three Trees, gene- 
rally considered to be the finest of all Rembrandt's etched 
landscapes, was represented by a specially brilliant im- 
pression ; the fine Christ presented to the People, and its 
pendant Christ Crucified hei^vecn tivo Thieves, were both 
shown in rare first states. Of this pair it is certainly 
desirable to see early impressions, for Rembrandt so 
transformed the plates in their later states that they almost 
appear as new works. Other interesting examples included 
early proofs of The Death 
of the Virgin, the earliest 
plate in which the artist 
used dry-point to any 
considerable extent ; the 
Triumph of Mordecai, in 
w-hich he shows a su- 
preme maste ry of that 
method; the Gold 
Weigher, and many other 
of his more famous pro- 
ductions. Hung with the 
Rembrandts were a score 
or more of fine Diirer line 
engravings, such as the 
Adam and Ei'c, Large 
Fortune, Melancholia, 
and of his por- 
traits. The work of the 
two great black-and- 
white masters, each un- 
surpassed in his own 
sphere, hung congruously 
together, and formed an 
exhibition of great inter- 
est and educational value. 

Spring Exhibition 


Brighton Art Gallery 

Following its custom 
for the last ten years, the 


Spring Exhibition at the Fine Art Galleries, Brighton, 
was again devoted to work from a foreign country. This 
year were exhibited works by Mestrovic and his three 
principal artistic friends, Racki, Rosandic, and Krizman. 
The exhibition, though small as far as numbers were 
concerned, reached a particularly high artistic level. 
There were eleven sculptures by Toma Rosandic, the 
majority of which were in wood, including "Mother's 
Treasure" and "Mother and Child." In the centre of 
the first room was a massive group of Rosandic's, en- 
titled "Mother and her Hero Son," the modelling and 
pose of which puts him in the first rank of contemporary 
sculptors. Mirko Racki had ten canvases. He has ex- 
hibited with Mestrovic before. Sombre in colour and 
melancholy in subject, his paintings are still strong and 
powerful, interpreting as they do scenes from national bal- 
lads. Tomislav Krizman, who has a school of drawing 
and ornament at Zagreb, showed at Brighton for the first 
time in this country. His etchings are principally from 
Macedonia and Bosnia, and show great charm of compo- 
sition and strength in execution. In the same room were 
shown between seventy and eighty fine photographs by 
Marianovitch, dealing mainly with the Serbian retreat. 

The second room was entirely devoted to the works of 
Mestrovic himself, the majority being in plaster. These 
included the famous " Head of Milosh," the massive por- 
trait of Rodin, the well-known two-handled vase with a 
design of horsemen and bulls, and his vase design of 

dancers. The Kossovo 
medal was also shown, as 
well as certain Kossovo 
fragments which, with 
others, have recently been 
givenbythe sculptortothe 
Serbian nation. Mestrovic 
himself paid a visit to the 
exhibition with se\eral 
prominent Serbs in Lon- 
don on June 7th, and 
expressed himself as being 
well pleased with the ar- 
rangement and grouping 
of his exhibits. The cata- 
logue in connection with 
the exhibition was a very 
useful one, including as it 
does an interesting article 
on Serbian SouthernSlav) 
art, by Ernest H. R. Col- 
lings, who has done so 
much to make the work of 
the Serbian artists known 
in this country. The cata- 
logue also includes a 
number of notes ex- 
planatory of the various 
subjects, and a list of 
the books in the Brighton 
Library dealing with 
Serbian art. 


Current Art Notes 

Considering that embroidery played such an impor- 
tant part in the decorative history of Europe, it is natural 
that connoisseurs of it should be 
Antique numerous. We have yet to meet a 

Embroideries , , \ a „ci,<> 

man who has never heard ot the 

Bayeux tapestry, and we are quite certain that we never 
shall meet a collector unfamiliar with it. Unfortunately, 
the acquaintance ends there. The Bayeu,K tapestry can- 
not be collected, therefore the virtuoso sates his appetite 
with the no less admirable productions of later ages. 
The romance of the Stuarts has conferred a lustre on the 
stump-work of the period, and fine pieces are eagerly 
sought after. Some really e.xcellent examples are ex- 
hibited by Messrs. Debenham & Freebody (Wigmore 
Street), including a heraldic panel suggested to have 
connection with the great Lord Protector's daughter. 
Other items include Stuart pictures, a shaped casket, and 
an embroidered work-basket. Georgian silk needlework 
pictures are represented in a manner befitting their vogue, 
whilst the collector of samplers and bead-work will find 
plenty to arrest his fancy. 

The avowed purpose of Mr. Arthur Colyngton has 
been to essay a style by which he could impart move- 
ment to his cloud studies, without 
"Poems in introducing a figure blown by the 

Cloudland," by . , r . i ■ i i, i j .1 

^ ' ' wind. I n t h 1 s h e h a s h a d the 

Arthur Colyngton , ^ . j ui 

good fortune to attain considerable 

success. He is concerned, frankly, with the heavens, 
and does not trouble himself with topographical de- 
tails. If many of his scenes are sketchily treated, the 
choice may be attributed to the fleeting nature of his 
subjects. An inspection of the e.xhibition at the Greatorex 
Galleries (14, Grafton Street, W. i) proves that Mr. 
Colyngton owes much to Turner, especially in A Grey 
Dav at Portrusli. That the preference is only partial 
may be gathered from a comparison with Clouds of 
T/iiiiider, Toiii^ues of Pallid Flames, which, though 
daring and very "wet," is a trifle too theatrical to be 
happy. Generally speaking, Mr. Colyngton is seen at 
his best in such scenes as Passing^ Rai/i Clouds, wherein 
the pageantry of a sullen sky is treated with pronounced 

An interesting revival of the old English comedy, 
David Garrick, took place at the yEolian Hall (New 
Bond Street) on May i6th, 17th, 
and 19th, resulting in the realisation 
of a handsome sum towards the funds 
of St. Dunstan's Hostel. The title- 
role was ably filled by Mr. Alex. Maclean, whose pre- 
vious experience of the part enabled him to present a 
versatile and finished performance. He was supported 
by Miss Eva Thompson, who played "Ada Ingot " with 
considerable verve. As "Simon Ingot," Mr. Yeend 
King once again forsook the brush temporarily, and a 
Hogarthian atmosphere was created by Mr. Louis Silas 
in the part of "Smith," whilst Mr. Herbert H. Millett 
was at home in representing the taciturn " Browne." The 
remaining roles were supported by Miss Mary Palmer 

" David Garrick 
at the 
iEoIian Hall 

and Messrs. Cyril Roberts, Benington, Sydney Smith, 
and Upton. Mr. Henry Twyford fulfilled the office of 

Mr. George Sykes'S exhibition at Walker's Galleries 

(118, New Bond Street) shows that he is inspired quite 

• obviously by the Early English 

r^Geo?'e°s''kes ^'''"'°°'- ^" ^''"' *°"'^ °^ '''' '"'''^"^ 
" BY verge upon being traditional, as in 

Gathering Storm Clouds, with its whispers of Constable. 
It is difficult to say which atmospheric conditions aid Mr. 
Sykes to his zenith, although preference may be accorded 
to his studies of distant sunlight, such as in the River 
Wharf e, near Ilkley, and In Lower Wharfedale, on the 
one hand, and to his broadly treated views of ebbing tides, 
including On the Beach, Arnside, and Low Tide near 
Ulverston, on the other. These are the more interesting 
as they are free from the " worried " note which is obser- 
vable now and again in the artist's blottesque handling. 

Although Miss (Jarth displays some appreciation of 
dramatic possibilities, it cannot be said that her exhibition 

at the Maddox Street Galleries 
Paintings by Miss ^j^^jjo^ gtreet, W. i) is successful. 
M. F. Garth, etc. \ , , ' , ' • .1 

One of the gravest objections to her 

style is the lack of quality, which, allied to excessive tonal 
shade, proves that she has much to learn. This failing 
is apparent in a character study of ^4 Priest, which is, on 
the whole, the most interesting of Miss Garth's exhibits. 
Here we have forcible suggestion, but a dangerous dis- 
regard of chiaroscuro. Some of the most pleasing works 
in the galleries are provided by Mr. R. S. Glover, 
whose water-colours of Chelsea Reach and Henry VIII.'s 
Hunting-box, Chelsea, show a taste for the picturesque. 

The collection of Early English and other water-colours 
at Walker's Galleries (118, New Bond Street) loses nothing 

by the fact that a fair proportion of the 
Early English exhibits are slight sketches. Quite fre- 
Water-colours , . . . , j ^ 1 ^ .1 . 

quently it is in the accidental note that 

the true artist conies very near to concert pitch. This 
was especially evident in spnie charming drawings by J. 
Chisholme Gooden, including a beautiful sea-piece (sug- 
gesting Littlehampton as a venue) and The Hay Barge. 
The latter set one thinking of Edwin Hayes, whose sea- 
piece hung near by. A feature of the exhibition consisted 
in the presence of nineteen representative items by Row- 
landson, ranging from a fair-sized river scene, entitled 
Fishing, down to a tiny Smugglers, full of harmonious 
tones. Considerable merit was observable in an Ouse 
Bridge, York, which was distinguished by singular refine- 
ment. Of the five examples by W. R. Beverley, TJie 
Fishing Pool and The Ravine presented such an appear- 
ance of quasi-modernity as to seem remarkable amongst 
their compeers. David Roberts was represented by eight 
boldly treated views, whilst J. S. Cotman provided five 
scenes. Some sketches by John Thirtle were sufficiently 
suggestive of his brother-in-law's mannerisms as to re- 
awaken speculation about the number of his productions 
attributed to Cotman at the present time. David Cox, 


The Connoisseur 

de Wint, the T. M. Richardsons, Sandby, and \'arley 
were also in evidence, as was a small portrait of Jennv 
Lind, from the brush of Winterhalter, and a sanguine 
sketch of Fred Walker, by an unknown artist. 

The subdued decoration of the Mansard Gallery at 
Messrs. Heal & Sons (195, Tottenham Court Road) set 
p . . , off M. Marcel Jefferys' harmonious 

t-aintings by ^^^^^^ ^^ advantage. The series of 

Marcel Jefferys • »• , c 

' mipressionistic canvases chosen for 

exhibition afford a representative study of the artist's 
methods. Here and there a reminiscence of Conder is 
not at variance with a system of handling conveying a 
semi-textile illusion, which is by no means unpleasant. 
This is most noticeable in his portraits, which are rendered 
in broken patches of prismatic colour, rising to their 
highest point in the dramatic Teintes d' Orient The most 
important subject, Du Theatre des Singes, is managed 
capably as regards the moving crowd, but loses much 
through weak handling of the foreground. Amongst the 
sketches, a little Plage d'Ostende, with its study of an 
ebbing wave, merits attention. 

The Fine Art Society has countenanced an innovation 
by the exhibition at their galleries (148, New Bond Street) 
T (J'rt-rf ofsome tours-de-force from the 

Japanese bilk, ^ux. manufactories to the Imperial Court 
Velvet, and tm- r t ^ i . 1 • • j 

broidery Pictures fJ^P^"- As m.ght be anticipated, 
the pictures are somewhat tight in 
treatment, but many of them contrive interesting effects, 
as in the minuti;c of An Owl or the atmospheric Pagoda 
under Moonlight. It must be confessed that the Occi- 
dental subjects are often the least successful when judged 
from a pictorial standpoint, although, considering the 
difficulties besetting portrayal in non-plastic media, it is 
astonishing to what heights the craftsmen have attained. 

The comprehensive selection of drawings exhibited bv 
Mr. H. F. Waring at the Graves Galleries C6, Pall Mall') 
enables one to admire the firm and 
"Works by H. F. dexterous handling, which, aided by 
Waring, Tatton ^ deep sympathy for colour and 
Winter and ettect, has placed the artist in a high 

bamuel W. ^^^i- ^f contemporary aquarellists. 

Hancock Especial praise may be accorded to 

the numerous studies of sunlight breaking through clouds 
— an aspect of nature possessing considerable attraction 
for Mr. Waring. His water-colours need no bush, so 
that it might appear invidious to single out individual 
examples, although we are tempted to note the playing 
lights of Bury Church from the Railway ; Near Kemsin^, 
Kent; Low Tide, Bosham; and a sunny, little distant view 
o{ Bosham, as being characteristic of the painter in vary- 
ing veins. An interesting comparison is provided by a 
few of Mr. Tatton Winter's decorative landscapes. Two 
contrasting subjects, the ominous greyness and fitful 
gusts attending The Comim; Storm, and a bright Surrey 
Pastoral, are particularly prominent. Although it Is 
hardly fair to group the works of well-known men with 
those of a professed amateur, it must be confessed that 
we were agreeably surprised by the style of Mr. S. H. 
Hancock, the " postman artist." Considering that he has 
had no tuition, his performance is highly creditable. Mr. 
Hancock is seen at his best in his less studied country 
scenes, of which the harmonious tones and passino- 
shadows oi Near High Beech, a facile little On the Allot- 
ments, and a breezy Cornfield, claim most attention. As 

might be anticipated, Mr. Hancock has much to learn, 
notably in regard to the management of his shadows, 
which incline to blackness. Moreover, he will be well 
advised to leave the human figure alone. Landscape 
artists are born, but figure painters are created by their 
own especial muse. 

Re.\ders will recall a reproduction of the Cup of the 
Constable, in the Gold Room at the British Museum, which 
_ ( . ITT formed the subject of a coloured plate 

Challenge jj|^.|g_ ^^.^ (j-^ced the' history of this 

^ magnificent piece from 1391, when 

it was given by Jean, Due de Berri, to his nephew, 
Charles \T. of France. It is interesting to note that this 
relic provided the general design for the gold Ranelagh 
War Challenge Polo Cup, a replica of which, bearing the 
figure of Victory with the allied flags in enamel, has been 
presented to each winning member of the allied team. 
The generous donor prefers to remain anonymous, but it 
may be stated that the reproduction has been treated 
with the skill for which Messrs. Garrard & Co., Ltd., are 

The first annual lunch of the British Antique Dealers' 
.Association, held at the Caledonian Rooms, Holborn 

Restaurant, on May 30th, proved a 
The British great success, over 120 members and 

Antique Dealers' guests being present. The feature of 
Association the gathering was the speech of the 

President, Mr. J. Rochelle Thomas, 
who said that before finishing his year of office he desired 
to put the foundation of the proposed headquarters and 
club on a substantial basis. He advocated immediate 
action w-ith such good effect that over /4, 300 was sub- 
scribed on the spot towards the object. Speeches were 
made by Sir Montague Barlow, K. B.E., M.P.; Mr. R. C. 
Witt, F.S.A., Hon. Sec. National .\rts Collections Fund ; 
Mr. C. Reginald Grundy, editor of The Co.n'noisseur ; 
Mr. George Harris, Mr. P. A. S. Phillips, Mr. Cyril 
Andrade, and Mr. Harry Simmons. The club, on the lines 
at present projected, should prove of great social and 
educational value to members of the association. One 
of the suggested features is a Fine Art Library ; and 
Mr. George Stoner, in addition to a subscription, has 
promised his own library as a nucleus. 

The Executive Committee of the British School at 
Rome has recently received from an anonymous source 
an endowment of a scholarship in 
A Rome Scholar- engraving, value ^250 per annum, 
ship in Engraving tenable for three years at the 
British School at Rome, to be 
oftered annually for competition. The first competition 
is to be held early in 1920, and will be conducted by the 
newly appointed Facultyof Engraving of the school, which 
includes Sir Frank Short, R.A. (Chairman), Mr. Muirhead 
Bone (Hon. Sec), and Mr. Frank Brangwyn, R.A. The 
term " engraving " includes for the time being — line 
engraving, etching, soft ground and dry-point etching, 
mezzotint, aquatint, stipple, wood engraving, and litho- 
graphy. The candidates must be British subjects under 
thirty years of age on the ist July of the year in which the 
competition is held. 

Full particulars can be obtained from the Honorary 
General Secretary, The British School at Rome, 54, 
X'ictoria Street, S. W. i. 


Murray Marks was perhaps less a dealer than a 
connoisseur of the things he dealt in — "furniture, leather, 
tapestry, armour, carving, enamels, 
stuft'i, Sevres, Dresden, Oriental and 
Nankin porcelain." He bought and 
sold other beautiful objects besides, 
but these were the only ones enume- 
rated on his trade card, and it speaks 
volumes for the unique position he 
occupied that the design for this card was the joint work 
of three great artists — Rossetti, Whistler, and William 
Morris. The trio were among his wide circle of friends. 

" Murray Marks 
and his Friends,' 
by Dr. G. C. 
(John Lane 
I2S. 6d. net) 

whole circle within the scope of his book, and tells many 
interesting facts — many of which have not hitherto ap- 
peared in print — about each member of it, as well as 
giving the story of Marks' career. His father, Emanuel 
Marks van Galen, Dutch by birth and English by naturali- 
sation, set up in London as a curio-dealer in the early 
part of the nineteenth century. He dropped his Dutch 
surname, and pursued a moderately successful career, 
being able to afford his children good educations, but 
neither accumulating riches nor attaining high standing 
in the world of art. The son, when he entered the family 
business, speedily showed that he possessed greater ambi- 

ata special private view of 
Sir Hemy Thompsons collection of 
31ue and White Nankm. porcelain 
on Tuesday evening April 30 _r: 





which also included Burne- Jones, Frederick Sandys, 
Ruskin, Leighton, Millais, Swinburne, Simeon Solomon, 
F. R. Leyland, and numerous other people of artistic or 
literary importance. Dr. Williamson has brought the 

tions than Mr. Marks, senior ; he suggested that either 
the business should be put under his direction or that he 
should be allowed to set up for himself The father 
refused permission for either alternative, l)ut, during one 


The Coiiiioissem' 

of his absences 
on the Conti- 
nent, Murray 
opened an esta- 
bUshment of his 
own, and by the 
time Mr. Marks 
returned it was 
already financi- 
ally successful. 
From that time 
forward the 
career of M ur- 
ray Marks was 
singularly suc- 
cessful and un- 
eventful. M e n 
of genius and 
taste gathered 
round him, feel- 
ing implicit con- 
fidence in his 
judgment and 
integrity. His 
clientele wid- 
ened until there 
was hardly a 
great collection 
ill London which 
did not include 
im portant ob- 
jects that had 
passed through 
his hands. He 
formed one of 
that important 
artistic circle of 
which Whistler, Rossetti, Swinburne, and Morris were 
among the principal figures. To some extent he acted 
as Rossetti's banker and honorary agent; and Dr. William- 
son is thus enabled to give many interesting details 
concerning the history of some of the artist's principal 
works. Marks commissioned and largely inspired the 
well-known picture La Bella Mano, lending Rossetti 
many of the still-life objects included in this sumptuous 
painting. The author rightly conjectures that The Annun- 
ciation, referred to in a letter from Rossetti in 1874, was 
the Ecce Ancilli Domini, then in the possession of Mr. 
J. Heugh, and now in the Tate Gallery ; but a little 
research w'ould have placed the matter beyond doubt. 
There is no difficulty in explaining how this work and 
The Two Mothers came into the market in 1874, for they 
were both included in the Heugh collection, which was 
sold during that year. Messrs. Agnew' purchased both 
pictures, the former for ;£38S los. and the latter for 
^152 5s. Rossetti gave commissions of ^350 and /J50 
respectively to secure them, and appears to have been 
annoyed that Marks did not, on his own initiative, make 
an advance on the former commission. One fancies that 
Dr. Williamson is in error in stating that Rossetti's larger 


picture of Dan- 
te's Dream was 
ever in the pos- 
session of Mr. 
Graham. It was 
by him, but 
proved too large ' 
for the position 
in which it was 
intended to 
hang, so the 
artist painted 
the smaller 
version for 
him, and sold 
the original 
direct to the 
Cor [joration of 
Liverpool. Dr. 
gives an interes- 
ting account of 
the genesis of 
the celebrated 
Whistler room, 
painted for Mr. 
Leyland, while 
his story of that 
plausible fili- 
bu ster Charles 
Augustus How- 
ell is highly 
Chapters are de- 
voted to Burne- 
Jones, Sandys, 
Simeon Solomon, and other well-known personages, all 
containing new items of information concerning them, 
and altogether the volume forms an important addition 
to the artistic history of the nineteenth century, written 
in a lively, engaging style, and brimful of interest. The 
illustrations are exceptionally good, many of them being 
from drawings and pictures not hitherto reproduced. 

To talk of Slav art a few years ago was to speak of 
a thing which had no individual existence ; for though 
Russian painters and sculptors had 
practised and produced work 
marked by respectable technical 
ability, it was without the stamp of 
nationality. Any other continental 
nation might have given it birth; there 
was nothing in it that made it distinctively Slav in the same 
way as are the literary works of Tolstoi or Dostoevsky. 
Before the war there were signs of an awakening. The 
designs for the Russian ballet were purely Slav in their 
conception, and showed that in this sphere at least 
Russians could hold their own with any nation ; but the 
greatest and most original outpouring of the Slav artistic 



" Ivan Mestrovic 
a Monograph " 
(Williams and 
£2 2s. net) 


The Connoisseur Bookshelf 

spirit came, not from the Russians, but from the Jugo- 
slavs in the form of the sculpture of Ivan Mestrovic. His 
work is now well known in England. Some of his finest 
pieces have been presented to the \"ictoria and Albert 
-Museum ; others have been on view in London and else- 
where. It is marked by that strangeness, that unlikeness 
to the normal, equally a mark of the true originality of 
genius and of that pseudo-originality which finds its out- 
come in unmeaning and foolish eccentricity. When so 
much of the latter is passing current, it is perhaps well 
that we should have authoritative testimony to the value 
of Mestrovic's work, and this is afforded in an interesting 
and profusely illustrated monograph on the artist, con- 
taining critical eulogies on his work and career from the 
pens of Sir John Lavery, M. Curcin, Count Ivo \'ojnovic, 
Mr. James Bone, Prof. Bogdan Popovic, Mr. Ernest 
H. R. Collins, and Dr. R. W. Seton Watson. Perhaps 
the most interesting contribution is M. Curcin's story of 
the artist, one of the most romantic and fascinating 
records of the early life of an artistic genius that has ever 
been written. Mestrovic, the son of a Dalmatian peasant, 
received less encouragement to pursue his destined career 
than falls to the lot of most great men. His father, an 
amateur mason, who decorated his erections with his own 
carvings, taught the boy a little, but generally he appears 
to have worked instinctively cutting wood and soft stones 
into all sorts of shapes while he tended the flocks as a 

■ At fifteen he was apprenticed to a master mason at 
Spalato. The boy, however, already knew more about 
sculpture than his teacher, and in a few months he set oft 
for \'ienna, where he succeeded in obtaining a few lessons 
from Professor Konig. When the term holidays came 
he had to go home again, and on his return to \'ienna, 
practically penniless, he found that the professor had left 
the city. This time, after various hardships, he succeeded 
in obtaining admission to the Vienna Academy, and 
though his troubles were by no means over, they were 
generally of the kind inseparable from the career of the 
young student of genius who has to support himself while 
i3eing taught, and whose originality is an artistic crime in 
the eyes of pedantic professors. Since then Mestrovic's 
work has taken Europe by storm. Of modern sculptors, 
only Rodin can be compared to him for power and 
originality, and even Rodin's work is not so fresh or 
vivid, for Mestrovic has behind him the spirit of the 
J ugo-Slav nationality — a spirit that, during the last few 
centuries, has given birth to some of the most heroic 
deeds of history, and is now for the first time finding 
adequate artistic expression. The monograph on Mes- 
trovic is worthy of its theme. The numerous and finely 
executed illustrations give a superb impression of the 
range and power of his artistic genius. The list of his 
works is full, including every example that he has exhi- 
bited, with particulars as to when and where they were 
executed, while the excellent bibliography compiled by 
Mr. Ernest H. R. Collins gives every reference of any 
importance to the artist that has appeared in the English 
or foreign press. One can foresee that there will be 
many books published on Mestrovic, for the revelation 
of his genius is one of the greatest events in modern 
art, constituting the beginning of a new epoch ; but the 
present sumptuous volume will always command an 
unique place among them as the first authoritative ex- 
position of the sculptor's aims and achievements and 
their connection with the renaissance of the Jugo-Slav 
spirit of nationality. 

" A Catalogue of Early Printed Books," illustrated 
with Woodcuts. 7s. 6d. net. 

■A Catalogue of Rare and Valuable Books," etc. 
IS. net. (Bernard Quaritch) 

The Catalogue of Early Printed Books issued by 
Messrs. Quaritch & Co. (ii, Grafton Street), besides con- 
taining an exceptionally interesting list of illustrated in- 
cunabula and early sixteenth-century books, is compiled in 
such a scholarly manner, and the illustrations are so good 
and numerous, that it forms a work of great educational 
value, which should be of utility to librarians and others 
engaged in compiling descriptions of similar volumes. 
Tlie block books enumerated are not numerous, but they 
include such rare examples as a copy of the first issue of 
the Biblia Paupcruin, published about 1450 at Bruges, 
accepted as the earliest, and perhaps the most celebrated, 
of block books, and copies of what are generally known 
as the fourth issue (f. 1455-65; and fifth issue (c. 1460) of 
the ApOi-alypsis S. Joaniiis, both with the plates and with 
the original colourings. Among manuscripts, in the style 
of block books, is a fifteenth-century vellum Biblia Pau- 
perum, embellished with fifty-three pen-and-ink designs. 
The books with woodcuts enumerated consist of nearly 400 
specimens. Those issued in Germany and Holland form 
the most numerous section, the items ranging in date 
between 1476 and i 596. The Italian and French sections 
are also strong. Most of the books catalogued are highly 
scarce, and a number of them are unique. 

.A second catalogue, issued by the same firm, is of more 
universal interest, containing nearly 2,000 entries refer- 
ring to rare and useful books on the Fine .Arts, Genealogy, 
Bibliography, English, European and Oriental Literature, 
the History and Geography of all five Continents, Natural 
History, Music, Numismata, Occult Sciences, and Topo- 
graphy. The prices range from twopence to ^.^'is. the 
former being appended to one of the excellent hand-books 
issued from the Victoria and Albert Museum, for which 
Messrs. (Juantch hold an agency. The art section is especi- 
ally rich^in marked catalogues of well-known sales, and 
illustrated cataloguesof famous collections and exhibitions. 

The \aluable work on Old Bristol Pottnics, on which 
Mr. W. J. Pountney has been engaged for the last ten 
years, is now practically complete, 
Forthcoming ^nd ^vill shortly be ready for print- 

Work on Bristol j„g_ i{ ^^,\\\ Vie prefiiced with short 
and Brislington forewords bv Mr. R. L. Hobson 
Potteries ^^j j^j^ Bernard Rackham, who 

have taken keen interest in the work in excavation and 
research by Mr. Pountney. The latter has gathered a 
large number of historica4 facts from old deeds, wills, 
church and city registers, and some from leases in Bristol 
Cathedral, bes'ides conducting numerous excavations on 
the site of the old kilns of Bristol and Brislington. All 
other available resources of information have been ran- 
sacked, and the result will be a book of great value and 
authority. It is proposed to issue the work in a volume 
of 500 pages in royal Svo, containing 100 illustrations in 
colour and black-and-white. Owing to the expenses 
attendant on the publication of such an elaborate work, 
it cannot be undertaken without guarantee of adequate 
support, and it is requested that intending subscribers 
should send in their names as soon as possible. The 
book is to be issued bv Messrs. J. W. Arrowsraith, Ltd., 
of Bristol, and will be priced at ^^2 2s. to advance sub- 
scribers and ^2 I2S. 6d. on publication. 




Enquiries should be made on the Enquiry Coupon. 
See Advertising Pas-es. 

Modern Wax Portraits. — We published a note in our 
April issue describing some cliaracteristics of the modern wax 
portraits flooding the maricet. Our remarks elicited an interest- 
ing letter from "C. B.," some extracts from which are given below. 

" It may interest both you and your expert to know that, six 
years and more ago, wax portraits similar to those described by 
you, mounted on black glass and inserted in old oval frame-, 
were turned out in considerable numbers in Liverpool for sale 
in London. They were, I understood, produced to order, and 
included the usual popular figures both male and female, but 
his" favourites were Nelson, Howe, Napoleon, George IIL, and 
Wellington. He used blue, black, yellow, and flesh — and, of 
course, gold and white ; scarlet, crimson, and green he avoided, 
and I never remember seeing any military busts, other than 
Wellington, made by him. He never forged signatures, however, 
and if they appear on any of his work, they must have been 
added. He always initialled and dated his work on the back 
of the wax. In one case, he informed me, he identified twenty- 
five waxes as his own work in a private collection of about sixty 
pieces. He left Liverpool, and was, I understand, killed in 

It is only fair to add that such pieces would not be sold know- 
ingly as antiques by any reputable London firm. 

Studies by Sir D. MacNee. — 62,502 (Colchester). The 
two unfinished studies of nude female figures sold at Christie's, 
Nov. 24th, 1916, were the work of Sir Daniel MacNee, P. R.,S.A. 
(1806-1SS2). Superficially, they presented a striking resem- 
blance to Etty's handling, but the colour was muddy, and the 
drawing somewhat clumsy. 

Stumbels, Watciimaker. — 62,529 (Durham). Britten 
mentions a London watchmaker named B. Stumbels, who 
flourished i/na 1760. 

Waterloo Medal.— 62,532 (Southampton). As described, 
we should estimate the saleroom value of your medal as being 
about /'5 under ordinary conditions. 

Chippendale Chairs.— 82,547 (Ilford). We should ad- 
vise you to .end a photograph for an approximate valuation. 
Chairs of this type have b-en selling at extraordinary prices. 

NOTE. — Will correspondents kindly see that their letters 
bear the reference number allotted to them. 

Heraldic Correspondence 

Readers of The Connoisseur who desire to take 
advantage of the opportunities offered herein should 
address all letters on the subject to the manager of 
the Heraldic Department, i, Duke Street, St. James's, 
London, S.VV.i. 

Only replies that may be considered to be of general 
interest will be published in these columns. Those 
of a directly personal character, or in cases where the 
applicant may prefer a private answer, will be dealt 
with by post. 

Readers who desire to have pedigrees traced, the 
accuracy of armorial bearings enquired into, or other- 
wise to make use of the department, will be charged 
fees according to the amount of work involved. 
Particulars will be supplied on application. 

When asking information respecting genealogy or 
heraldry, it is desirable that the fullest details, so 
far as they may be already known to the applicant, 
should be set forth. 

Warner. — There is a memorial to Thomas Warner in Stanley 
Kings Church, near Stroud, Gloucestershire. It is as follows : — 

In memory of Thomas, 

ye son of John Warner, 

of this parish who died 

June the 10, 1732, aged 

57 years. 

Also Mary, ye daughter of John Warner, 

and wife of Christopher Kowles, 

died Dec' ye nth, 1740, 

aged 68 years. 

-Mu-N Arms. — The arms of Mun are — Per chev. fleury counter 
fleury sa. and or., in chief three bezants, and in base a tower of 
the first. Crest — A cubit arm erect in armour ppr. ,the gauntlet 
grasping a lion's jainb. erased gu. The grant was made the 
20 August, 1562, to John Mun, of Hackney, co. Middlesex, and 
the ]^edigree given below is contained in tiie grant. Before you 
can use these arms, however, it would be necessary to prove 
your descent from the grantee. 

of = 

William Mun, 
Monthall, co. 
Essex, gent. 

William Mun, of 
Margaretting, co. 
Essex, gent., son 
and heir. 

William Mun, of 
Finchley, co. 
Middlesex, gent., 
son and heir. 

John Mun, of 
Hackney, co. 
Middlesex, gent., 
son and heir. 

Registered for transmission to Canada and Newfoundland at Magazine Post Rates. Printed by Bemrose & Sons Ltd., 133, High 
Holborn, London. W.C.I, and Derby, and published by the Proprietor, W. Claude Johnson, at 1, DUKE STREET, ST. JAIVIES'S, 
LONDON, S.W.I, England. Subscriptions— Inland 30/., Foreign 31/., to Canada 26/-, per annum. Published the 1st of each month. 
Published by Gordon & Gotch, in Australia and New Zealand: by The Central News Agency, in South Africa; by Higginbotham & Co., 
in Bombay and Calcutta: and by The International News Co.. in LJ.S.A. 



Auc.usT, 1919. 


Salopian China 

Part I. 

Probably no china has, until recent years, 
been so neglected as Salopian, although the pro- 
ductions of the Salopian or Caughley factory during 
its best period (1772-99) may be classed with the 
finer specimens made at Worcester and other manu- 
factories of old English china. Collectors in general 
are acquainted with it only as existent in scattered 
and single pieces, very few representative collections 
having been 
brought to- 
gether. The 
majority of Salo- 
pian pieces are 
unmarked, and 
many are mis- 
taken for Wor- 
cester, largely 
owing to simila- 
rity in pattern 
and design. It is 
hoped, therefore, 
that these few 
articles on the 
Salopian china 
works, and the 
connection of the 
Turner family 
therewith, may 
be h el pful to 
those who are 
interested. Very 
little has been 
written on the 
subject, and the 
theories here 
advanced, espe- 
cially as regards 
the early produc- 
tions of the fac- 
tory, are not put 
forward as final, 
bu t merely as 

Vol. LIV.— No. 216. 


By Clifton Roberts 

reasonable deductions arrived at from a careful examina- 
tion of specimens and a perusal of such documentary 
evidence as is in existence. I have sometimes been 
asked whether Caughley china is the same as Salopian, 
and it may be helpful to explain at once that Caughley 
is merely the name of the estate on which the factory 
was situated, and Salopian the county of origin. 
Caughley, in Shropshire, is situated near Broseley, 

on a hill about a 
mile from and 
overlooking the 
valley of the 
Severn, as it flows 
towards Bridg- 
north. Works 
appear to have 
been established 
there about the 
middle of the 
eighteenth cen- 
tury ( I 7 5 I ). on 
the estate of a 
Mr. Browne, who 
lived at Caugh- 
ley Hall. A lease 
of these works 
for a term of 
sixty-four years 
was, in 1754, 
granted to Mr. 
Gallimore, a re- 
lation of Mr. 
Browne. Mr.Gal- 
limore appears 
to have carried 
on the works 
until Mr.Thomas 
Turner, who had 
married his 
daughter, as- 
sumed control in 
1772. Thomas 



The Coiiiioissciti' 


Turner was in many ways a remarkable man, and 
is entitled to be included among the celebrated 
potters of the eighteenth century. His influence is 
clearly shown in the excellence of the productions at 
Caughley between 1772, the date of his taking over 
the management, and the sale of the factory to Coal- 
port in 1799. Thomas Turner was a skilful artist 
and designer, and himself engraved a number of the 

copperplates used for transfer-printing at Caughley. 
His early experience in the various processes relating 
to porcelain manufacture was gained at Worcester, 
where he was a pupil of the celebrated Robert Han- 
cock. After he came to reside at Caughley, Turner 
was made a county magistrate for Shropshire and a 
freeman of the city of Worcester and the boroughs of 
Wenlock and Bridgnorth. He also established and 



TJic Connoisseur 

became chair- 
m a n of the 
Court of Equity 
for the three 
counties. An 
illustration is 
here given of a 
memorial silver 
cup presented 
after his death, 
in 1809, to his 
widow, by the 
of O 1 d b u r y 

Thomas Tur- 
n e r was the 
son of the 
Rev. Richard 
Turner, LL.D., 
HaU, Oxford, 
Rector of Cum- 
berton in 1752, 
Vicar of Elmley 
Castle and Nor- 
ton in 1754, 
and Chaplain 
to the Countess 
of \V i g t o u n . 
Dr. Turner was 
the author of 
several works on trigonometry, astronomy, history, 
etc., and was also a teacher of geometry and philos- 
ophy at Worcester in 1765. He died on April 12th, 
1791, and was buried at Norton-juxta-Kempsey, near 
Worcester. Dr. Turner married Sarah Greene, only 
sister of James Greene, barristerat-law, of Burford, 
near Tenbury, co. Worcester. Mrs. Turner died at 
Broseley in the year iSoi, aged eighty-si.>c, and was 
buried at Norton. 

There were three sons (Thomas, Edward, Richard) 
and two daughters (Elizabeth and Sarah) of this 
marriage. Richard Turner, who was born in 1753, 
was, like his father, the author of learned works. He 
married the widow of Colonel Farrer, and died at Bath 
in I 788. Edward became a general in the army in 
India, where he died in 1790. Thomas Turner, the 
manager of the Caughley works from 1772, was born 
in 1749, and in 1783 married Dorothy Gallimore, a 
niece of Mr. Browne, of Caughley Place. Mrs. Dorothy 
Turner died in 1793. There were two children of 
this marriage, who died in infancy. Thomas Turner 
married, secondly, in 1796, Mary, daughter of Thomas 


Milner, of Dot- 
hill, widow of 
Henry Alsop, 
Esq. There 
were two chil- 
dren — George 
Thomas, who 
tor, and died at 
without issue, 
in 1869 : and 
C a t h e r i n e 
Georgina Ceci- 
lia, who married 
John Jacob 
Smith, of St. 
James's Priory, 
There was issue 
Hubert Smith, 
Esq. , of St . 
Bridgnorth, the 
lineal and only 
of the main 
line of the Tur- 
ner family. 
Turner married 
Abraham Wyke, of Broseley, co. Salop ; and Sarah 
married, in 1775, \\'illiam Hancock Roberts, D.D., 
Vicar of St. Clement's, Worcester, afterwards Rector 
of Broadwas, co. \V'orcester, and Minor Canon of 
Worcester Cathedral. He died in 1S14, and was 
buried at Broadwas. 

In discussing the productions of the Caughley 
works, I propose to deal with the subject in two 
periods. Firstly, the period from 1751 to 1772, and 
secondly, the period from 1772 — the date on which 
Turner assumed control — to 1779, on which date, as 
I have already stated, the factory was sold to Coalport. 

In the early years of the factory the ware produced 
was not far removed from earthenware, but it rapidly 
assumed a finer and more transparent character. About 
1756 the works had attained a considerable degree of 
excellence, as shown by an example bearing that date, 
which gives satisfactory evidence of the quality of the 
china produced at that time. Several writers have 
stated that earthenware was produced at Caughley 


Salopian China 

during this 
no reliable evi- 
dence in sup- 
port of the as- 
sertion has at 
present been 
A\hy I think 
this error has 
arisen is be- 
cause the cres- 
c e n t mark, 
which is a re- 
c o g n i s e d 
is sometimes 
found on pot- 
tery pieces 
bearing designs 
rather similar 
to Caughley de- 
signs: but I 
think this can 
be explained 
by the fa c t 
that the cres- 
cent mark was 
used by other 
factories, no- 
tably Short- 
hose iS: Co., 
who made both pottery and porcelain. The mark 
Turner impressed, which is the mark used by Turner 
the potter, of Lane End, who is not known to have 
made porcelain, is also sometiaies confused with 
Turner of Caughley. Turner of Caughley never 
stamped his name on his productions. This mark, 
previously cited as a Caughley mark in earlier editions, 
is now in the latest edition of Chaffers' Marks and 
Monograrns on Potteiy and Porcelain, page 768, ap- 
parently withdrawn. It seems to me reasonable to 
suppose that if pottery was made at Caughley, speci- 
mens bearing the other recognised Caughley marks 
would have come under the ob.servation of collectors. 
The reason for the establishment of works at 
Caughley would appear to have been largely due to 
the abundance of material necessary for the produc- 
tion of porcelain, obtainable locally at trifling cost. It 
must be remembered that about this time (1750-60) 
the experiments of Dr. Wall at \\'orcester had begun 
to attract considerable attention, and that, in conse- 
quence, the productions of the \\'orcester factory were 
in considerable demand. To Worcester coal and 


Other material 
had to be con- 
veyed at great 
cost, whilst at 
Caughley they 
were ready at 
hand. Mr. Je- 
w i 1 1, in his 
Ceramic Art in 
Great Britai/i, 
says : " In the 
early years of 
the m a n ufac- 
tory, the two 
works, Caugh- 
ley and Worces- 
ter, seem to 
have been 
closely connec- 
ted, and to have 
worked 'in- 
and-in,' if I 
may be allowed 
the use of so 
unscientific an 
and I believe, 
w i t h ample 
reason, that a 
great propor- 
tion o t the 
printed goods 
bearing the Worcester mark were printed at Caughley. 
Indeed, it is known that the ware was sent up 
from Worcester by barge to be printed at Caughley, 
and returned when finished by the same mode of 
conveyance. I have closely examined the style ot 
engraving and the patterns of a large number of 
examples, and I am clearly of opinion that they are 
the work of the same hands." It is my opinion, and 
I give it subject to correction, that Caughley was in 
these early days practically a branch of the Worcester 
works, used almost entirely for printing porcelain for 
Worcester, and that the output for the local trade in 
Shropshire was not large. It must be remembered 
that printing on porcelain was then a secret process, 
and that Caughley was situated in a retired spot where 
facilities existed for keeping the workmen from im- 
parting the secret to those interested in the process. 
Every possible precaution appears to have been taken 
at Caughley to ensure secrecy ; and the workmen — 
the engravers and printers — were locked up and kept 
apart from everyone else. The early patterns were, 
I think, either actual Worcester patterns or closely 


The Connoisseur 




resembling them, and were principally confined to blue 177 ^ — 1799- 

flowers, birds, or imitations of the Chinese porcelain In 1772 Mr. Turner succeeded his father-in-law. 


on a white ground. As in the case of Worcester, both Mr. Gallimore, and immediately set about enlarging 
painted and printed decoration was used. and improving the works. In 1775 we read : " The 


Salopian China 


porcelain manufactory erected near Bridgnorth, in this 
county, is now quite completed, and the proprietors 
have received and completed orders to a very large 
amount. Lately we saw some of their productions, 

which, in colour and fineness, are truly elegant and 
beautiful, and have the bright and lively white of the 
so much extolled Oriental." An illustration of these 
works from an original drawing is here given. The 


The Conuoisscin' 

works were built in the form of a quadrangle, the 
main building being three stories in height, the re- 
maining buildings two stories. An entrance gateway, 
surmounted by an inscribed stone, led through the 

were bought "at public sale," and consisted of "jugs," 
" bakings," "china dishes," and "other sundry pieces." 
The lots were " put up at half-price " at the sale. In 
1795 ^^''- Turner's manager was one Thomas Rlase, 


main building. The kilns seem to have been of large 
size. Mr. Jewitt says : " Mr. Turner had a partner 
named Shaw. They had a warehouse in London, 
and, as was usual in those days with other works, had 
periodical sales by auction of their goods." In my own 
possession is a bill of this firm, dated January 24th, 
1794, and headed "Salopian China Warehouse. 
Bought of Turner & Shaw." The lots in this bill 

and I have a letter of his, dated February 20th in that 
year, concerning a painter named \\'ithers, at that 
time employed there, but who had wiongfuUy left his 
employment at the Derby china works, where he was 
" Mr. Deusbury's articled servant." 

[The illustrations are from the author's collection 
unless otherwise stated.] 





Pewter Baluster Measures 

By Howard Herschel Cotterell, F.R.Hist.S., etc., of Walsall 

yet to be discovered, an almost universal trade custom 
not to mark tliem. 

One must turn to the late Air. Ingleby Wood's 

By many collectors of old pewter, the measures 
which form the subject of these notes have always 
lieen regarded as desirable on account of their being 
essentially British in form, pleasing to the eye, and 
quite apart from anything made in any other country, 
some of the earlier types being amongst those pieces 
most eagerly sought after. As with most things in 
pewter, difficulties encumber the path of the student, 
the particular difficulties in the present case being ; — 

(a) The inexplicable but almost universal absence 

of makers' marks, arising from which is 

(b) The consequent difficulty of fixing definite 

dates for the various types. 

(c) Their capacity. 

(d) The question of the nationality of various speci- 

mens, whether English or Scottish. 

Difficulties, however, may, in many cases, be over- 
come by serious effort, and it is hoped that much 
light is thrown on /', c, and (/ in these notes. The 
absence of makers' marks has, up to the present, 
declined to yield an answer satisfactory to the theories 
advanced. It is not enough to say that through the 
constant usage to which these measures were un- 
doubtedly subjected, and their equally constant scour- 
ing, the marks have been worn away. The entire 
wearing away of a mark is a much more difficult 
matter than might be supposed to be the case even 
when considering a comparatively soft melal like 
pewter ; and further, it is generally on the earliest 
types, or those which have lived through the greatest 
number of years of scourings, that the most perfect 
marks are found. No, I think the theory of the marks 
being worn away must be abandoned. 

No reason can be assigned for makers refraining 
from striking their touches on this particular form of 
vessel, for one looks for it with confidence upon nearly 
all its contemporaries, and usually with success. One 
can, however, but conclude that it was, for some reason 

Scottish Pewterware and Pewterers for the only serious 
attempt at throwing light on the baluster measure, 
and one is left to conjecture how much further he 
might have carried the subject but for his regretted 
and untimely death. 

At p. 131 of this work Mr. Wood affirms that 
"measures of this form were common from earliest 
times in both England and Scotland." 

Of the comparatively few marked specimens which 
are in existence, one cannot call to mind a single 
example which suggests anything but English origin ; 
except in the " embryo shell " and " ball " thumb- 
pieces, which are types peculiar to Scotland in the 
later period ; and one is tempted to doubt if the 
baluster was made in Scotland at all until the latter 
half of the eighteenth century — a doubt which is 
shared by that careful student of these matters, Mr. 
Richard Davison. 

In the case of the unmarked specimens, one is left 
to determine this by testing their capacity (see later), 
and here again all the evidence is against their having 
been made in Scotland until the later date referred 
to. That this type of vessel may have strayed beyond 
the border into Scotland in earlier years is more than 
probable, and I should welcome correspondence with 
anyone who can be helpful in enabling me to settle 
the point whether they were actually ;«i7(/c there before 
the middle of the eighteenth century. The evolution 
of the form of these measures from that of the old 
leathern vessel known as the " black-jack " seems to 
find almost universal acceptance, and the idea loses 
nothing by a comparison of the two, for which pur- 
pose they are here illustrated side by side from 
specimens in the possession of Mr. Walter Churcher 
(Nos. i. and ii.). 

That the reader may be familiar with the terms 


The Connoisseur 

used to describe the various parts of these measures, 
a diagram (No. iii.) is given ; — 

I. Is the //'(/ attachment \s\\\c\\ secures the lid to the 

No. 1 

the perfectly circular flat lid with usually one or more 
circles cut into it in the turning process, and which 
circles vary in width in different specimens and sizes 



No. III. 


from a narrow incised line to quite a wide but shallow 
" gutter " (No. xix.). This feature of the flat, circular 
lid occurs on no other kind of British measure, and is 
not to be confounded with the Channel Islands and 
Continental quasi-heart-shaped flat lids, illustrations 
of which, for comparison only, are given in Nos. iv. 
and v., from pieces lent by Mr. A. E. Kimbell for the 

No. II. 
thumbpiece, of which, indeed, it may be said to be a 

2. Is the tJiiimhpiecc itself. 

3. Is the handle terminal. 

4. Is the itrut, cast in a piece with the handle, 
between which and the body of the vessel it inter- 
venes, and is usually of more pronounced proportions 
in the later types and quite absent in the earliest. 

The height in all cases is taken to the lip. 

One of the distinguishing points of the baluster is 

purpose. These latter occasionally bear the marks of 
London makers ; but this opens up a question which 
does not concern English baluster measures. 

With these few general remarks, one may pass on 
to consider the various types known to collectors, the 
illustrations in all cases, except where other ownership 
is indicated, being taken from specimens in my own 

First, shown in Nos. vi.-xi., are the various types 
of lid-attachments and thumbpieces referred to in 
these notes. 

A careful study of these types, with the illustrations 
of the complete pieces, will at once make it apparent 
that there is no lack of diversity. They are shown as 


Pewter Baluster Measures 

Nos. VI., VU.. VIII,, IX. (2, I.\./', X., XI. 

nearly in rotation of age as is possible where two types 
overlap to any considerable extent, as in the case of 
Nos. vii. and viii., and are described in the same order 
as shown above. 

No. vi.jis known as the wedge-shape ; No. vii. as the 

No. XII. 
hammer-head ; No. viii. as the hud ; Nos. \\.a and i.xV' 
as the double-volute -. No. x. as the embryo shell ; and 
No. xi. as the ball. The wedge-shape is well illustrated 

in Nos. xii. and xiii., which latter shows the severed 
lid from this measure. This fine piece, some 6 in. 
in height, was some years ago refused by so many 
English collectors at a price which was then considered 
high, that it eventually found a sympathetic home 
abroad, to the lasting shame of those who turned it 
down. How many of us would not now pay a con- 
siderably enhanced price for the possession of such a 
treasure. Covered with a wonderful patina, which 
gave the false impression of its having been gilded, it 
was, as is shown by the device in three of the marks, 
tempus Henry VHI., and unique. Speaking of this 
type, the late Mr. Ingleby Wood says : "The earliest 

No. XIII. 

types of these measures date from the latter part of 
the sixteenth century," but this specimen tends to ante- 
date that time by at least half a century. The marks 


The Coinioisseur 

are, of course, pre-touch plate, and are those of an 
unknown maker. The illustration shows in a marked 
way the flattened curves of the body, peculiar to these 
earlier examples ; curves which tended to increase in 
fullness with each succeeding type. 

Nos. xiv., XV., and xvi. show four fine specimens 
of the next or hammer-head type. Those in No. xiv. 
are in Mr. Walter Churcher's collection, and that 
in No. .\v. in Mr. Cooke's. The smaller of Mr. 
Churcher's is 4^ in. high, with no maker's mark, the 
larger being 5^ in. high, and is 
marked on the rim, both mea- 
sures having the owners' initials 
H.E.H., which are struck three 
times on the lid of the larger one, 
and once on the handle. Mr. 
Cooke's piece is 4y% in. high, and 
unmarked; the fine gallon shown 
in No. xvi. being i i^in. high, with ' 

no marks. Mr. Ingleby Wood 

ascribes the period 1650-1740 to this type, but 1 
should feel safer by putting the figures back by at least 
a quarter of a century, and I doubt very much if 
many were made after the close of the seventeenth 

The next type, illustrated in Nos. xvii., xviii., and 
xix., is variously styled the Inid, the fer?! frond, or the 
wheatear thumbpiece, each of which seems to find 
an appropriateness in certain examples, but the hud, 
which in a certain sense may be said to embrace the 
others, is perhaps the best of the three. Apparently 

No. XIV. 

this type was unknown to Mr. Ingleby Wood, tor he 
does not so much as mention it. 

The heights of the three examples in No. xvii. are 

-the smallest. 

in. ; the centre one, s in. : and 

time when this type was first used, it is impossible to 
speak with certainty, but it was superseded in the 
first half of the eighteenth century by what has come 
to be known as the double-volute and fleur-de-lys type, 

Nos. XV. AND .XVI. 

of which I speak later. Mr. Masse, at p. 153 of 
Chafs on Old Fewter, and in other of his works, 
illustrates a measure of this type which has in the 
marks all the semblance of an early Tudor piece 
(Henry VIII.), but its characteristics — fullness of 
body, strut, splayed-out foot, and the very thumbpiece 
itself — all point to a date some century and a half 
later. Apart from this specimen, one would have little 
hesitation in putting the dates of this type down as 
circa 1650-1740, or more or less coeval with Mr. 
Ingleby Wood's dates for the last type. 

A singularly fine example of this appears in Nos. xviii. 
and xix. This little gem, 5^ in. high, is in Mr. 
Richard Davison's collection, and has the early feature 

the largest, 7 in. The latter has touch No. 297 
(first London touch -plate) on the lip-rim. Of the 

No. XVII. 

of the handle soldered direct on to the body of the 
vessel, and is marked on the lid with a Tudor rose 

Pewter Baluster Measures 

crowned and the maker's tomb, R.T., in a diamond. 
Following this type, and by far the most frequently 
met with to-day, is the double-volute variety, which 
seems to have been in more or less general use for 
upwards of a century, i.e., from early in the eighteenth 
to well on into the nineteenth century. 

No. XX. shows one of the earliest of this type ; one 

feature by no means displeasing in some specimens 
but lai'king the simple appeal of its prototype, and 


might almost call it a transition piece, for with the 
new thumbpiece and lid-attachment is found the 
plain, flat handle terminal of the preceding type, which 
so soon afterwards developed into the bulbous ending 
so plainly shown in the next illustration. This piece is 
of " pint " capacity, 5 j in. high, and unmarked, except 
for W.R. crowned on lid. It is of fine metal, in beau- 
tiful preservation, and was made when good, honest 
work was of more account than superfluous display. It 
stands to-day to bear witness to its unknown maker's 

No. xxi. shows a set of six of the later ones of the 

No. XX. 

doiihle-vohite type, including (second from left) a rare 
" two-glass " size. It will be noted that all these pieces 
have the bulbous terminal already referred to — a 

No. XXI. 
indicative of that period when ornamentation was 
considered necessary to please the taste of a public 
which hitherto had found satisfaction in pure outline 
and line craftsmanship. The heights of these six 
pieces are 2\\ in., 3I in., 3f\ in., 4 in., i,W in., and 
6-g in. In the larger sizes the fleur-de-lys attachment 
is in outline, as shown in No. ix.rt, and in the three 
smaller ones it is embossed on a diamond, as in ix./', 
whilst the end of the strut, which is soldered on to the 
body of the vessel, ends in another diamond-shaped 
piece in all sizes. This feature is well shown in Mr. 
(Jhurcher's fine gallon of this type, No. ii. Attention 
may be called to the tilt of the thunibpieces of these 
last two types, for whereas in the bud variety it leans 
forward over the lid, in the double-volute it leans back- 
wards over the handle. In some instances this tilt 
is very apparent, but one feels safe in saying that it 
is always present in some degree in the directions 

The last of the series of lidded balusters are 
shown in Nos. xxii. and xxiii. The one illustrated in 
No. xxii. is what Mr. Ingleby Wood has so aptly des- 
cribed as the embryo shell thumbpiece, and which so 
soon afterwards was to develop into a shell on the 
Scotch pear-shaped measures of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. No, xxiii. shows the /'«// thumbpiece. A set of 


either of these measures in later years consisted of six 
or more sizes. Mr. Wood ascribes to these types the 
date 1 700-1826, and having no proof to the contrary, 

The Cfliiiioisse/ir 

I cannot gainsay his opinion, though I have never seen 
an example of either of a date anything hke so early 
as 1700. The two pieces illustrated as examples are 
4 in. and 3f in. high respectively, and bear in raised 
cast letters on the insides of the lids the name of the 
maker and the date, in three straight 
rows. They are of Imperial capacity, kinniburgh 
as opposed to all the other speci- & son 

mens of lidded balusters illustrated 1826 

in this article, which are of the old 
English wine standard (see end). They differ also 
from the English ones in having a bead cast on the 
under-side of the lids, which, fitting into the lip of 
the measures, prevents their working about from side 
to side, a decidedly practical addition, saving much 
wear on the hinges. These last two types are found 
in both the Imperial and Scots standard sizes. It will 
be noted that the simplicity of the earlier types is 
manifested in these two late Scottish pieces, a testi- 
mony to the conservative nature of the race. The 
handles are thinner and lighter in weight and the 
strut longer and thinner, but the main characteristics 
remain. No words can convey the same amount of 
information as may be gleaned from a careful and 
intelligent study of the illustrations, which have been 
chosen with much care, each specially emphasising 
the points alluded to. 

There are, of course, other variations met with from 
time to time, some very beautiful, others decidedly the 
reverse ; but, so far as one can gather, the above types 
represent what are known amongst collectors as the 
recognised varieties. There is one other which might 

No. XXIV. 

perhaps be added to the number, but of which so few- 
examples are known that it is quite impossible iojix 
a date for it in the absence of makers' marks. A 

line specimen of the type in question is illustrated in 
No. xxiv., from the collection of Major John Richard- 
son, D.S.O. From its slender body, the absence of a 
strut, flatness of its curves, and its general "bearing," 
one feels tempted to assign to it an early date, but in 
the absence of evidence that date cannot be fixed. 
It is 7|;i in. high, and old English wine standard, 
quart capacity. 

Turning from the lidded to the lidless varieties, one 
finds in No. xxv. a type which seems to be more or 
less peculiar to the Aberdeen district. It has, invari- 
ably, the hinge part cast in a piece with the handle, 
but this has never been slotted to receive the part 
attached to the lid, a feature found also in Tappit-hen 
and other types of measures from the same district. 

No. XXV. 

The one illustrated is of Imperial gill capacity, 3f in 

Nos. xxvi. and xxvii. show the ordinary types of 
baluster measures without lids, and No. xxviii. a 
measure which has been converted from the old wine 
standard to the Imperial, by the addition of a band of 
metal about h in. wide to the lip, a device which, 
judging from the several pieces I have seen, would 
seem to be more or less peculiar to the Suffolk district. 


There is no evidence that balusters were in use, or 
in regular use, in Ireland, but a comparison of the 
Irish " Noggin " shaped measure in No. xxix., with 

Pewter Baluster Measures 

any of the foregoing types, will at once suggest more 
than a strong family likeness. 

Having now studied, as well as niav be in a short 

No. XXIX. 

article, their outward form, we turn to the considera- 
tion oi the capacities of baluster measures, a point which 
has been the subject of much speculation and obser- 
vation, coupled with splashings about in pails of water 
in various places, a process which does not always 
make one a welcome visitor on such errands ! But 
my friends have been very considerate, and I have 
come through scathless ! One feels safe in believing 
that a baluster measure of any antiquity, with the 
capacity stamped upon it, has yet to be found. If 
any reader of these notes knows of such an one and 
will correct me on this or any other point, he will have 
earned, and may accept in advance, my gratitude : 
for all the knowledge of any subject, even such a side 
issue as that under notice, is not stored in one mind 
alone, and it is more than possible that many details 
can be added which, so far, I have hunted for in 
vain. One of the first questions one had to settle was, 
are they measures of capacity at all, or merely a useful 
series of covered vessels of convenient sizes. This 
latter idea was soon abandoned in view of the fact 
that each one bears a certain proportion in size to the 
others. Having then assured one's self that thev were 

used as measures, one first tested them in comparison 
with the present Imperial standard, but it soon became 
evident that they persistently refused to acknowledge 
even a nodding acquaintance with anything so modern, 
so the old Scots standard was next introduced, and 
by filling them to the bottom of the lip, as indicated 
by the arrow, they appeared roughly to coincide, and 
the problem seemed solved ; but, this was the 'ivrong 
method, for they should be tested when roughly 

Finally, it fell to the lot of Mr. Richard Davison to 
solve the problem, which solution is that they corre- 
spond to the old English ivine standard, and it may 

not be out of place to give here the comparison be- 
tween the present Imperial, the old English wine, and 
the old Scots standards in fluid ounces : — 







S w 

-CI ) 
Standard j' 

I do 






— 5 

2"5 fluid oz. 

Old English 1 
Wine Standard ) 







— 4''5 

2'07 ,. 

Old Scots 1 
Standard f 







7-5 3'75 


From this table it will be seen that the Scots gallon, 
quart, and pint were three times the size of the cor- 
respondingly named sizes of our present Imperial 
standard. An application of one or other of these 
standards should at once settle the query as to whether 
any particular specimen is of English or Scottish origin, 
remembering always that the measure should be roughly 
full to the brim. 

My sincere thanks are 'expressed to Messrs. Walter 
G. Churcher and Richard Davison for the photographs 
they have taken specially for these notes, and the 
copyright of which is strictly reserved to the writer ; 
also Captain H. E. May for much useful criticism ; 
and to Mr. A. E. Kimbell for the use of his photo- 
graphs (\os. xii. and xiii.), and to all who have lent 
their treasures for reproduction. I have also to thank 
Mr. Churcher for the subjoined list of known balusters 
of gallon capacity, and should be glad of a note of 
any further examples in this rare size. 

Charbonnier, Churcher, Cooke, Cotterell, Davison, 
Hudson, and Tomson Collections, one example each ; 
South Kensington Museum, and Custom House, Lon- 
don, two examples each. 



Voltaire, Painted by Latour 

It was a happy coincidence which recently 
attracted my attention to a portrait of VoUaire (No. i. ), 
which, until quite lately, was in the collection of Lord 
Carnarvon. According to tradition, the portrait, bear- 
ing the Latin inscription, "Voltaire qui nil molitur 
inepte," had been given by Voltaire himself to Lord 
Chesterfield, who, as we know, befriended the distin- 
guished exile during his stay in England. When I 
closely exa- 
mined the por- 
trait,it recalled 
to me the art 
of Latour, and 
proved that I 
was not mis- 
taken. In his 
admirable bio- 
graphy — one 
of a series of 
Les Grands 
A r t i s t e s — 
Maurice Tour- 
neux dwells on 
the fact that 
the oldest en- 
graving after a 
portraitof Vol- 
t a i r e by La- 
tour, painted 
about 1731 or 
earlier, bears 
the date 1785 
— i.e., seven 
years after his 
death. "The 



By Louise M. Richter 

portrait itself," he continues, "which has, unfortu- 
nately, disappeared, has come down to us through an 
engraving of Langlois." A glance at the illustrations 
cannot leave us in any doubt that this portrait hitherto 
reported "as disappeared" has now been traced. 

The first question which must occupy us is : When 
and where did \'oltaire meet Latour and commis- 
sion him with his portrait ? The most convincing, 

and at the 
same time 
most attrac- 
tive, supposi- 
tion is that 
the great writ- 
e r and the 
must have met 
in England. 
\\'e have seen 
above that the 
time when this 
portrait was 
supposed to 
have been exe- 
cuted is only 
According to 
opinion, we 
must look for 
it between 
\'oltaire's so- 
journ in Eng- 
land and that 
which he made 
LORD Carnarvon's collectio.n immediately 




/ 'olfnlre, Painted by Latour 

afterwards at Rouen, during the time when his History 
of Charles XII. was being printed. 

Now, there is a story recorded again and again 
by the biographers of Latour, including Chamfleury, 
Tourneux, and Henry Lapauze, that the young Latour, 
whd lived at Cambrai during the pompous Congress 
known as " La Paix des Dames," which was held in 
that town in 1724, was invited by the English Ambas- 
sador, whose portrait he had painted, to come to 
London, and even to be his guest. Improbable as 
this may appear to us, with our present notions of the 
aloofness of an Ambassador, there remains the in- 
controvertible fact that Latour really was in London 
about the same period as Voltaire. Moreover, as 
an additional proof there exists, as M. Jules Hachet 
was the first to point out, a copy made by Latour, 
when in England, of Murillo's Drinking Boy, now at 
the National Gallery. 

Here it is interesting to state that this very copy 
by Latour after the great Spanish painter, which is 
at the Museum of Saint Quentin, passed until recently 
as a self-portrait of the artist, painted in his youth ; 
until M. Hachet pointed to the mistake. And now 
we find ourselves faced with the question as to where 
Latour saw the Drinking Boy, which so much attracted 
him as to induce him to make a copy of it. We may 
suppose that he must have seen it in the collection of 
some amateur before it passed into the possession of 
lohn Staniford Beckett, who in 1SS9 bequeathed the 
picture to the National Gallery. 

Lord Bolingbroke, the brilliant writer and states- 
man, with whom Voltaire became intimate when the 
former had been secretary to the Pretender in France, 
was back in England at the time. He it was, we may 
presume, who introduced Voltaire, who had already 
acquired celebrity, to Lord Chesterfield, the Harveys, 
Pope, Swift, and other eminent persons. Moreover, 
Voltaire's acquaintance with the Count de Morville, 
the intimate of the Walpoles, gave him the entree to 
the great \Vhig party. 

It was in one of these houses, no doubt, more pro- 
bably at Lord Chesterfield's, that Voltaire met Latour, 
the protege of the Ambassador — his compatriot — 


giving him, there and then the commission for his por- 
trait, which, according to tradition, he subsequently 
presented to his friend Lord Chesterfield. Francois 
Arouet de Voltaire, to give him his full name, is re- 
presented in the portrait under discussion at the age 
of about thirty-five ; he is wearing a greyish blue coat 
embroidered with gold braid, showing four bright 
buttons in front. His left hand appears hidden away 
in his coat, an attitude repeatedly met with in 
Latour's portraits ; round the neck is a white ribbon 
ending in a large lace jabot in front. According to 
the custom of his time, Voltaire is wearing a longish 
dark wig. It is a portrait of the young and arduous 
\'oltaire, who had been twice imprisoned at the 
Bastille ; once for denouncing the intrigues of the 
Regent, brother of Louis XIV., and again for answer- 
ing, not without a satirical note of his own, to a 
forbearing scion of the house of Rouen, who called 
him ti parvenu, that there was itne Aristoeratie d esprit 
to which he — Fran<;ois Arouet — belonged. 

It is, moreover, the Voltaire who had written behind 
prison walls his famous (Edipus, and who, when 
released, came to England, where he presently wrote 
down his impressions of a country he so greatly 
admired, in his famous Letters on the English — ol all 
letters in the world, perhaps those which had the most 
comprehensive influence on the human mind ; therein 
showing the contrasts between English liberty, political 
and intellectual, and French despotism at the time of 
Louis XIV. It is the Voltaire of that period that 
Latour has brought befoVe us in this portrait, with 
absolute truth. Very different from the painting of 
Largilliere, who much rather represented him as the 
courtier who frequented the court of King Stanislas 
at Luneville and Frederick the Great at Potsdam. 
Only the extraordinary brilliancy of the eyes are alike 
in both these portrait.s — a characteristic which Latour 
accentuated again in his wondrous mask of the well- 
known Strauss-Voltaire. The most familiar of the Vol- 
taire effigies has always been Houdond's statue at the 
Theatre Franqais in Paris, and a bust by the same 
sculptor, representing the philosopher in his old age, 
"not unamiable, shrewd, with penetrating eyes and 

T/ie Connoisseur 

mocking lips." This was, however, executed after 
his lifetime. 

There certainly is a peculiar charm in contemplating 

Latour, " to embellish nature, but, on the contrary, 
reproduced her with all her irregularities of the mouth 
and eyes." It is this system, such as we find it in 

Latoiir phijcit\ 

[Lattgiois scttipsit 

the portrait of Voltaire, painted by so kindred a spirit 
as Latour, who in his quality of painter, as his famous 
sitter in the realm of literature, endeavoured to free 
himself from all academical restrictions, striving after 
freedom also in the domain of art. We know that 
Latour did not pursue the beaten track of a Boucher, 
but rather felt attracted by the realism of the Clouets 
and the Dumoustiers, who were not appreciated at 
their full value in the eighteenth century. He refused, 
as Diderot, the sireat art-critic of his time, tells us of 

nature herself, that Latour knew how to reproduce, 
thus giving extraordinary life and truth to his portraits. 
The portrait under discussion is painted in oil, a 
fact which lends it a particular interest — being a proof 
that he must have painted it in those early days spent 
in England, before he had left off this medium, 
chiefly, as we are told, on account of his health. And 
here we must note that on his return to France he 
is known to have declared himself before his com- 
patriots to be an English painter. That the art of 


Voltaire, Painted by La four 

Hogarth had had a certain influence upon him cannot 
be altogether denied. 

According to Mariette, encouraged by Rosalba Car- 
rieras' success, Latour, when settling down in his own 
country again, advertised himself as a painter of por- 
traits in pastel, who did not fatigue his models by long 
sittings and who did them a bon marche. It is with 
these somewhat hasty remarks that the author of the 
Abcdario characterises the a-uvre of Latour, evidently 
little thinking at the lime that some ten years later 
he would be the peintre a la 7node in France, com- 
missioned with the portrait of Madame de Pompadour, 
for which he received 25,000 francs, after having asked 
48,000 francs. How great his vogue was can still be 
realised to-day at the elegant salle Favaque in the 
Musee of Saint Quentin, where we see the haiile elite 
of the eighteenth century painted by him, from 
Louis XV., Marie Leczinska, the Dauphin Louis, 
down to the famous Abbe Hubert, D'Alembert, the 
artist Restout, Mademoiselle Marie Fell, his lifelong 
friend ; Madame Favart, the famous comedienne ; and 
many others. 

Latour, unlike his pupil Ducreux, never made a 
list of the portraits he painted, nor did he date or sign 
them. But fortunately, as we have shown with our 
illustrations, there exist engravings after his chief 
works, and it is by means of them that we have been 
able to identify our portrait, which until now could 
no longer be traced. There is, in the first place, as 
we have seen, the engraving by Langlois (No. ii.), 
after our portrait made in 1783, about six years after 
A'oltaire's death, and inscribed " De La Tour pinxit." 
-\nd, moreover, there appeared recently in an art 
journal ( Monatshefte fiir Kunstivissenschaft)^ to which 
I received access through the courtesy of Mr. Campbell 
Dodgson, the Director of the Print Room at the British 
Museum, another engraving by Geullard, evidently 
also after our portrait of Voltaire. This engraving 
(No. iii.), of which there is likewise an e.xample at 
the Print Room, is described in the article above 
mentioned as follows : " Arouet de \'oltaire, after a 
portrait by Latour, which has apparently disappeared. 
He is represented half length, without hands, turned 

to the right ; the expressive eyes face the spectator ; 
he wears a coat embroidered with braid and buttons 
in front : a lace jabot with a white ribbon round his 
neck, and a long dark wig." A description which 
entirely coincides with our portrait. There is yet 
another engraving by Figuet, which, in the opinion 
of Mr. Campbell Dodgson, goes back to the same 
original, but which slightly varies, inasmuch as the 
engraver, according to his well-known habit, wished to 
improve the original in introducing a hand holding a 
book, thus destroying the attitude so characteristic of 
Latour for its simplicity. 

It would be beyond the scope of our article to 
dwell any longer on this portrait of Voltaire and the 
artist who created it, since we hope to have suc- 
ceeded in establishing its identity. But we would 
like still to point out that the twentieth century, as 
did the eighteenth century before it, recognises per- 
haps still more the high merits of these two great 

Two letters which I quote below show us, moreover, 
that Voltaire and Latour were friends. " I sigh with 
impatience," writes Latour to Voltaire, "before taking 
part in so wonderful a spectacle (referring to one of 
the famous writer's dramas), to be able to embrace 
M. de Voltaire, and to thank him again for all the 
services he has rendered to mankind ; indeed, more 
than all the philosophers together have done, to 
justice, to Humanity, and in becoming the efficacious 
Protector of the unfortunate, such as the CaJas, the 
Siren,. and all the others who have had need for his 
aid against injustice that others have done to them or 
have desired to do." Voltaire's reply is in his well- 
known refined and eloquent style : " I am enchanted 
that you love philosophy. .And you are right ; who- 
so adorns nature must and ought to understand it. 
I embrace you, my dear Latour, without ceremonies 
— such are not made for those who cultivate the 

Not long ago, a statue of bronze was raised to 
Latour at Saint Quentin. Another tribute to his me- 
mory, though not without the usual tinge of sarcasm so 
characteristic of the eighteenth century, are Diderot's 


The Connoisseur 

lines : " Un coup de I'aile du temps, ne laissera rien 
qui justifie a la reputation de La Tour ; La poussiere 
precieuse s'en ira de dessus la toile nioitie dispersee 
dans les aires moitie attachee au longues plumes 
duvieux Saturne — La Tour memento qui pulveris est 
in pulverem revertis. . . ." 

We are told that Latour in his old age much 

tormented himself to find means of making his pastels 
more permanent, trying to rid them of their only 
serious flaw — that fragile blemish — of being so easily 

Our portrait of Voltaire, having been painted in 
oil before Latour had taken to pastel, suffers under 
no such disadvantage. 


Ni' ii Pti/t.i- en ot"i6pfi 

;., .:^r»iutfafnm,Tiinn:ifrfVitira'M.TiwiJ0!v;i4i[mBMnflWBmn,Tf-mfl'af'' 



The Small Collector 

Part I. 

The humble collector ot ancient and charm- 
ing possessions needs, besides some Uttle learning — 
leisure, energy, and imagination. " Old stuff " is 
increasingly rare ; that is to say, at the present time it 
passes into hands more prone than those of yesterday 
to have, to hold, or to sell out of the country : so that 
it costs more. Price is the last thing to interest 
the antiquarian or true lover of beautiful furniture. 
He has a feeling that it is indelicate to compound 
the abstractions of aesthetics and finance. This 
attitude may appear a'little highfalutin and precious, 
but it is the ideal attitude. 

A commercial magnate assured me not long ago 
that there was no separate item of furniture in his 
bedroom that was worth less than — I forget what, but 
something of a very impressive intention. I suppose 

By Bohun Lynch 

this sort of thing is common enough in more senses 
of the word than one. Another, when I asked him 
if he had enjoyed any luck at some sale or other, 
said that he had bought a few colour-prints. " What 
were they?" I asked. "Oh, nothing much — fiver or 
so each." No mention, you will observe, of artist, or 
period, or tone, or workmanship ; just — a fiver or so. 
That disposed of the matter. Why, the reader will 
ask, should mention be made of such things ? The 
reason is painfully adequate. It is mainly due to the 
purse-pride and eagerness for the Right Thing of 
such people that prices during the last few years, 
without considering the war, have risen so disas- 
trously for the poorer enthusiasts. Hundreds of 
people who do not know, and do not want to know, 
the differences between the characteristics of the most 


TJie Connoisseur 

diverse periods 
in English cab- 
i n e t-m akin g, 
buy what is, or 
what they be- 
lieve to be, old 
furni ture, be- 
cause, like cer- 
tain lap-dogs, 
scents, clothes, 
and residential 
districts, it is 
the Right 
Thing; and 
never because 
it is beautiful. 
So that in the 
end, after all, 
price does en- 
ter very heavily 
into the calcu- 
lations of the 
humble collec- 

In the ensu- 
ing observa- 
tions I may be 
permitted from 
time to time to 
mention the 
snialln ess of 
cost in order to 
illustrate, from 
the collector's 
point of vi ew, 
the excellence 
of the good old 
days, when the 
heavier, the 
more b e m i r- 
rored, the more 
useless a 
"piece" might 
be, the more it 
was admired. 
There is more 
than ever need 
to-day to em- 
phas ise the 
craze that pos- 
sesses people 
for buying 
things that are 
old irrespec- 
tive of their 
beauty. Into so 

No. 11. 


curiously vicious a circle has this led, that Victorian 
mahogany, the reaction against which was one of the 
mainsprings of the original " taste " for collecting old 
o.xk and mahogany of a better period, has come to be 
collected in its turn for its age. 

Fortunately, the love of what is beautiful as well as 
old is not exclusively modern, and the present genera- 
tion of enthusiasts in some, if comoaratively rare, 


cases owes not 
only the taste 
for but the act- 
ual possession 
of what comes 
under the very 
general head- 
ing of "anti- 
ques " to the 
fondness of its 
forebears. The 
rectangular cup 
and saucer of 
Chinese porce- 
lain in No. i. 
was searched 
out, bargained 
for, and bought 
in 1869 by a 
little girl of fif- 
teen. With all 
our latter-day 
con tempt for 
Victorian taste, 
show m e t h e 
flapper of the 
moment cap- 
able and willing 
in a like man- 
ner. The Chin- 
ese jar in the 
centre of this 
group came 
from the fam- 
ous collection 
of the late 
Canon S i b - 
thorpe. The 
four small cups 
and saucers are 
of Lowestoft. 
But when the 
small collector 
comes to the 
gre at Quest 
nowadays, he is 
beset b y diffi- 
culties. Grant- 
ed the uncom- 
mon taste and 
the knowledge, 
the hunter of 
1869, and then 
onwards for 
many happy 


years, had to exercise not one-tenth of the perspica- 
city required in the year of grace 191 9. -"^t any but 
the most obscure auction-rooms he can but be an 
interested though embittered spectator. He sees thirty 
or forty guineas readily bid for such an example ot 
the Queen Anne period as illustrated by No. ii. — 
a walnut double chest of drawers procured from a 
dealer thirty years ago for two pounds. This chest-on- 

The Small Collector 

chest is original 

throughout with 

the exception of 

the feet and 

brass furniture, 

and in excellent 

condition. The 

grain of the wal- 
nut-wood is ex- 
ceptionally bold, 

and though 


of the design 

are c o m m o n 

enough, a con- 
vincing copy of 

the chest as it 


with regard to 

the grain of the 

wood, will not 

easily be found. 

The same diffi- 
culty applies to 

the usual shops 

throughout the 

provinces. Then, 

since people 

have taken to 

scouring the re- 
moter country 

districts in motor 

cars, the result 

has been two- 
fold. Lonely 
widows in moor- 
land cottages 
have asked for 
pint pewter beer 
mugs, marked 
V. R . , prices 
which, if associ- 
ated with a per- 
fectly genuine 
T a pp it -h en, 
would bring 
blushes to the 
cheek of Mon- 
sieur Chose of 
Wigmore Street ; 
and dealers have, 
as is well known, 
distributed the 
more glaring of 
their forgeries 
in inaccessible 
hamlets, where 
the cynical, if 
r u s t i c, m i d d 1 e- 
raan guilefully 

displays the coffer or bread cupboard of his 

No ; the humble collector must keep his eyes open, 
must make enquiries for something he does not want 




which may lead 
h i m to so m e - 
thing that he 
does. He must 
hunt high and 
low (very low 
sometimes) and 
must spend time, 
if not money, in 
his search. Occa- 
s i o n a 1 1 y he 
comes by his 
possession s in 
the oddest ways. 
The clock in 
No. iii., for ex- 
ample, belonged, 
with certain 
other delectable, 
if " cottagey," 
goods, to a very 
old woman who 
lived, tittingly 
enough, under 
the stone - faced 
gableofan Eliza- 
bethan alms- 
house. The col- 
lector cast covet- 
ous eyes and 
wished to buy ; 
the old lady pre- 
ferred to die in 
her accustomed 
s u r r o u n d i n gs. 
But a bargain 
was struck. The 
collector paid 
then for the 
things w h i c h 
were to come to 
him at the old 
lady's It 
was an admirable 
plan, but not one 
to CO m m end 
itself to the un- 
trustful and com- 
mercial connois- 
seur of to-day. 

This clock is 
of the thirty-hour 
kind, made by 
B. Downs, of 
Mansfield. From 
the recognised 
sources, I am 
unable to find 
any record of 
Mr. Downs ; but 

the well-worn brass-work and the locking-plate, taken 
in conjunction with the design of the case mdicate 
the first half of the eighteenth century. An exact 
copy of this clock-case made to-day would not have 


The Connoissciiy 

the same effect. There is 
the colour, and also the 
signs of wear and tear, the 
softening of fine edges, the 
appearance of long use, 
which yet do not bring the 
whole short of that state 
called good condition. At 
II a.m. on the nth Novem- 
ber last, this clock, in an 
access of zeal, struck eigh- 
teen. Previous to the Armis- 
tice its behaviour had been 
normal. The plainly pan- 
nelled chair, one of a pair 
bought from a dealer, is of 
about the same period. 
These chairs are in perfect 

My acquaintance of the 
five -pound colour-prints 
could, no doubt, go into 
Christie's and, outbidding 
the dealers, procure a room- 
ful of fine things and have 
them removed in a pantech- 
nicon. He could, and most 
likely would, employ some 
pundit of the trade to 
furnish him his house 
carte blanche. He would 
then have the pleasure of 
entertaining his friends 
and cataloguing his 
possessions by their 
price. I don't under- 
estimate his pleasure : 
but is it comparable to 
that of the owner of 
No. iv. ? Talking to a 
farmer's wife one day, 
she nodced a chair, 
shapeless, very dis- 
reputably covered with 
an old curtain, stand- 
ing in a corner. .She 
had seen it before 
many times : only to- 
day a little of its cover- 
ing near the ground 
was caught up, expos- 
ing a few inches of 
turned leg and the sug- 
gestion of a stretcher. 
These were of un- 
polished oak. Knowing 
the farmer's wnfe and 
the Heedlessness for 
guile, the collector 
found by plain ques- 
tions that the chair 
had "always" been 

in the house, but 
that, its two back legs 

being missing, it had 



Stood for some time now in 
the dairy, propped up, out 
of the way. It was of no 
use. She could have it and 
welcome. There was some 
trivial monetary adjust- 
ment. On the floor of a 
barn the first covering was 
stripped off: beneath that 
was chintz — old, dirty, 
firmly tacked— then Ameri- 
can leather, then chintz 
again and sackcloth and 
wadding. Layer by layer 
it was palled away — gene- 
rations of it — and at length 
the chair stood for one mo- 
ment naked and unencum- 
bered. Then everything 
about it seemed to give at 
once, and it fell flat upon 
the boards. ... the panel 
was split, the back legs, 
part of the seat and two of 
the stretchers were gone. 
The oaken arms iiad been 
replaced with elm many 
years before, and were now 
little better than tinder. 
The new owner had, fortu- 
nately, a little of very old 
oak from various sources, 
stored for such work. 
This, together with the 
remains of the chair, 
was handed over to a 
capable joiner, with 
the result as seen. 

That result is not 
first-rate — the n e c e s- 
sary restoration was 
too extensive for that. 
But the essentials are 
original and pleasing 
— the simply carved 
rails, the turned legs 
and supports to the 
arms. And whereas 
we have seen that tiie 
pleasure of our gentle- 
man mentioned above 
is single, if complete, 
the pleasures in this 
chair are manifold. 
There was the thrill 
of the detective, de- 
ducing most of what 
was actually found 
from two inches of oak 
leg ; the excitement of 
the unwrapping, and 
the hope and fear. 
And then added to 
the sentimental re- 
flection of many years 



From the pointing at the Prado, Madrid 


The Small Collccto)' 

that it was a 
first discov- 
ery, remains 
best of all the 
chair itself, 
useful, orna- 
mental, of its 
kind comfort- 
able. It dates 
from the late 
sixteenth or 
early seven- 
teenth cen- 
tury. It was 
taken from a 
church. There 
is a distinctly 
about its size 
and pro por- 
tions. A very 
similar chair 
may b e seen 
at St. Albans. 
patience and 
another and 
not so desir- 
able a charac- 
teristic of the 
detective is 
prone to be 
absorbed by 
the humble 
c o 1 1 e c t o r — • 
suspicion. No. \'I. — welsh dresser 

And suspicion in collecting antiquities is a disease 
only to be cured by seasoned knowledge. No. v. is a 
Bide-box bought in the most prosaic manner, at an 
uninteresting— that is to say, a fair and moderate- 
cost, by a small collector from a usual dealer. But he 
nearly let it go by, because the dealer brought him 
away from his 
ordered display 
to see it in the 
confusion of 
t h e adjoining 
workshop. The 
french polisher 
(he was that 
sort of dealer) 
kept his rags in 
the box, and it 
stood in an 
obscure corner. 
Immediatel y 
t h e customer 
built an edifice 
of guile on this 
simple and per- 
fectly straight- 

ciRCA 1700 

taining a heavy 
amateur collector 
any box of about 
frequently carved 
holding linen or 
carpenter's tools. 


forward foun- 
dation. The 
dealer i n- 
structed the 
polisher to 
keep dirty 
rags there, 
did he? He 
never let it be 
dusted ; per- 
haps he en- 
couraged a 
spider or two 
. . . and then 
the box was 
lifted up, like 
a new baby, 
to be looked 
at, and hap- 
pily suspicion 
fled. There 
was no ques- 
tion of know- 
ledge on that 
occasion : it 
was sheer 
pleasure in 
the thing, on 
its merits, as 
it was. This 
box probably 
dates from 
about A.D. 
1600. I call it 
a Bi ble-box 
because of its 
depth, which 
would be suit- 
able for con- 
thickly bound family Bible. The 
is, however, far too prone to name 
that size a Bible-box ; whereas very 
boxes of that sort were made for 
a nunjber of small books, or even 
'I'he small table on which the 
box stands hap- 
pened to be of 
the right size, 
and, though in 
itself negli- 
gible, serves its 
turn. It was 
from various 
pieces of old 
wood, which, 
without serious 
faking, hap- 
pened to agree 
in colour with 
each other and 
with the Bible- 
HER BY BONFiLs This box lias 


The Connoisseur 

one blemish, 
which can, in 
a measure, be 
rectified. The 
lid when first 
seen was split in 
two pieces. The 
dealer (again be- 
ing of that sort), 
without waiting 
for instructions, 
had these pieces 
nicely planed up 
and joined. Con- 
sequently the 
edge of the lid, 
as seen in the 
comes flush with 
the front of the 
box, when it 
should project 
three parts of an 
inch or so. 

The dresser 
(No. V i . ) was 
bought simply 
fro m a dealer 
without sus- 
picion and with- 
out romance. As 
origi n a 1 1 y seen 
by the collector, 
and as bought by 
the dealer, the 
cornice and sides 
above the c u p- 
boards had been 

sawn away, prob- ^'°- VIII. -chimney-piece 

ably to fit into some lowalcove or space beneath 
a beam. These have been restored, the frieze 
being an old one from another dresser. Like 
many things of its kind, it is frankly of the 
farmhouse order, but the wood is beautifully 
grained, the colour rich. The carpenter's 
rough attempt at cabriole legs is to be 
noticed, as well as the doors of the cup- 
boards and the manner in which the shelves 
are set back. The angles of the whole thing 
are, as someone once put it, faultlessly faulty. 
It came originally from that one-time treasure- 
townof ancient oak, Shrewsbury, and probably 
dates from the reign of William and Mary. 

The pewter plates form an instance of sheer 
good luck. That on the lower shelf was for 
many years an alms-dish, ousted, at a change 
of incumbent, by bags. In respect of the others, 
the collector learned from an old maid-servant 
that she had seen pewter plates in a certain 
north-country cottage. She would write about 
it. In the nick of time the letter saved the 
plates from being sold for their metal value 
to a "man who went round with a cart." 
They all bear the London mark — a bear's 
gamb issuing from a ducal coronet and the 

No. I.K.— 


word LONDON 

beneath an X 
crowned. There 
are also four 
small "touches" 
— a chevron en- 
grailed between 
three leopards' 
heads erased ; a 
bear's gamb issu- 
ing from a ducal 
coronet; a lion's 
head erased; and 
the initials S.D. 
In his book on 
pewter marks, 
Ch ristopher 
Markham men- 
tions a plate in 
his own coUec- 
t i o n with the 
same touches 
and t h e initials 
T.D. I am un- 
able to trace 
S.D., but pre- 
sumably he 
"touched" his 
pewter about the 
year 1610. 

The pistols 
(No. vii.) have 
no known his- 
tory, being un- 
explained gifts 
to the collector. 
Brass b e 1 1- 
mouthed pistols 
of that si ze — 
nine inches long— are not common. This one 
was made by Bond, of London. The other 
is of steel, by a Frenchman, Bonfils, and is 
peculiar in carrying the hammer and cap- 
nipple at the side. 

Some years ago there was a finely carved 
four-poster oak bedstead taken from a house in 
Derbyshire. It had been built, probably in 
the sixteenth century, crooked to fit a crooked 
room. That bed is broken up now. Part 
of its heavy under-frame gave arms to No. iv. 
Two chimney-pieces in different parts of the 
country owe most of their forged and com- 
promised existence to it. No. viii. is one of 
them. Thedesign,thoughsimple, might easily 
be improved in the direction of traditional 

What No. ix. was originally intended to be 
it is impossible for me to say. Its oddness is 
at least as obvious as its ugliness, and there 
is a vorticist poet who thinks the world of it. 
Some village carpenter may have tried his 
clumsy hand at carving — it is impossible to 
say. Anyhow, this image or doll was found 
nailed to the under-frame of the bed men- 
tioned above. 


The Coiiitoisscur 

Notes and Queries 

[The Editor invites the assistance of readers of THE CONNOiSSEUR who may be able to impart the information required by Correspondents. ] 

Unidentified Paintincs (Nos. 306 and 307). 

Dear Sir, — I sliall be glad lo receive any remarks 
or suggestions as to tlie authorsiiip, etc., of tliese pic- 
tures ttiat may occur to readers. 

Yours faittifully, "Collector." 

RoBiiRT Roe. 
Dear Sir, — I am compiling a memoir of my 
grandfather, Robert Roe (1793-18S0), of Cambridge, 
who practised as an engraver and miniature painter. 
I understand that he received some instruction in the 
latter art from one of the Wagemans. Any details of 
his life and connections, or particulars of his work, 
will be greatly appreciated. 

Yours faithfully, F. Gordon Roe. 

Unidentified Portrait (No. 48, August, 1913). 
Sir, — In August, 1913, you published for me a 
reproduction of a photograph of a picture which I 
had recently bought. Unfortunately the [)hotograph, 
I found out after- 
wards, was a 
"touched-up" one. 
The picture, when I 
purchased it, was in 
a contemporaneous 
frame, but this was 
too worm-eaten and 
battered to beof use. 
By a coincidence, a 
few months after you 
had printed my let- 
ter, I was shown into 
the dining-room of a 
patient, and facing 
me was a third copy 
of the picture. This, 
too, was in a seven- 
t e en t h - cen t u ry 
frame. Its owner 
told me it had been 
brought from York- 
shire to Hammer- 
smith in 1804, and 
that th ere was no 
history attached to 
it. He then tokl 
me of the Bodleian 
copy. He added 



that the Oxford picture was " woolly '' in its texture. 
I then wrote to my friend, \lx. Falconer Madaii, 
Bodley's Librarian, and he kindly put nie in touch 
with the cataloguer of the O.xford portraits, Mrs. R. L. 
Poole, and she was good enough to send me the 
following note : " Many names have been suggested 
for this portrait. To the present cataloguer it seems 
to bear most resemblance to one of Henry Jermyn, 
Earl of St. Albans, as a young man, and ascribed to 
Van Dyck, at Rusbrooke. This is reproduced as a 
frontispiece to the History of St. James's Si/ua/r, by 
A. T. Dasent, 1895. I owe this suggestion to Mr. 
T. W. Jackson. In the character of the face, the 
features, growth of hair, and the dress, there are points 
of likeness, but the Rusbrooke picture exhibits a 
man certainly some years younger than the Bodleian 
head. This head is probably the picture bought with 
one of Elizabeth, Princess Palatine, for 9s. at Thomas 
Rawlinson's sale in 1734 (Rawl. MS., C. 937, fol. 100, 
and Catalogue of Sales, Cryves 808), and given to 

the gallery by Dr. 
Rawlinson in that 
year as one of Lucius 
Carey, Lord Falk- 
land, the identity 
being, no doubt, 
based upon the 
similarity itdisplays, 
e s p e c i a 1 1 y i n the 
slashed dress, with 
the Falkland in the 
Clarendon Gallery." 
I, too, thought the 
picture was that of 
Falkland, but this 
one squints, and so 
do the other copies, 
and Lord Falkland 
did not, if his recog- 
nised portraits are 
correct. I have com- 
pared it with the 
1 ) u 1 w i c h Gallery 
picture of Lord 
Pembroke, but it is 
not he. SirKenelm 
Digby, whose pic- 
ture at Windsor, in 
the same k ind of 


The Comtoissc/ir 

dress, which was 
the ordinary court 
costume of about 
1 63 0-40 (see frontis- 
piece to Life, by 
one of his descend- 
ants), would have 
been too old for 
this portrait, and, 
on comparison, I do 
not find the likeness 
which the Rev. W. 
F. John Timbrell 
sees. The nearest I 
have yet arrived at 
is that of Colonel 
Cavendish, the 
young officer w h o 
was killed at Gains- 
borough in 1643. I 
am of opinion that 
my picture is the 
original, but that 
the other two are 
contem poraneous 
copies o r replicas. 
Both mine and my 
friend's were on the 
old stretchers, but I '^°7* u.nidentified pain 

had to have mine relined and a partly new stretcher 
made. — Yours truly, F.William Cock, M.D., F.S.A. 

Stuart Portraits. 
Dear Sir, — Can any readers of The Connoisseur 
help me in tracing the history and present whereabouts 
of the two following pictures ? 

1. Prince James Edward Stuart, witJi his sister 
Princess Louise Marie, as children, chasifig a butterfly 
m tlie gardens at St. Germaiiis. This picture is alluded 
to by Agnes Strickland in her Life of Mary of Modena, 
and she states that a print of it was then in the pos- 
session of Mr. Kirkpatrick Sharpe. In an edition of 
the Letters of Elizabeth Charlotte, Duchess of Orleans, 
published by Chapman & Hall in 1889, the editor de- 
scribes the picture, and states categorically that it was 
then in the "small gallery at Versailles." 1 have recently 
made enquiries about it of the Curator of the Versailles 
Picture Gallery, who informs me that the picture is quite 
unknown to him. Nor does the Print Room at the Brit- 
ish Museum either possess or know of any print of it. 

2. Prince James Edward Stuart, represented alle- 
gorically as an angel, leading by the hand his sister, the 
Princess Louise. I have picked up a reproduction 
of this picture, on the back of which is pasted the 

following: "The Old 
Pretender and his 
sister Louisa, by 
Felix Simon Belle 
(now published for 
the first time). This 
remarkable picture, 
painted in 1699 by 
Belle ... was 
recently discovered 
rolled up and neg- 
lected in an old 
house in Tangier. 
It was rescued by 
an English resident, 
who stretched the 
canvas on a frame 
and sent it to Eng- 
land, where its full 
interest and beauty 
were revealed by 
skilful cleaners. 
The picture carries 
lightly its 200 
years," etc. — Yours 
faithfully, (Miss) 
Margaret R . 


Unidentified Painting (No. 2S7, Sept., 1918). 

Sir, — -Re the above and a letter from a correspon- 
dent in your November issue. Having read different 
authors on the life of Thomas Gainsborough, I am of 
opinion that this portrait is the long-lost picture of 
Philip Thicknesse, who, being an author himself, wrote 
a sketch of the life and paintings of Gainsborough in 
1788, saying he sent back his portrait to that artist 
with a note requesting him to blot out his face for 
ever. Seemingly Gainsborough had not done this, 
but only painted out the objectionable parts, which 
made it appear as an unfinished picture. At the sales 
of Gainsborough's and Gainsborough-Dupont's pic- 
tures at Christie's in 1797, 1874, and 1892, there 
were a great many unfinished pictures by these artists 
exposed for sale, especially in the year 1797, but 
unfortunately no record of these can be found. Now, 
the owner describes the picture, after being restored, 
as a beautiful picture of "landscape and violin," 
which still strengthens my opinion that this is the 
picture of Philip Thicknesse, done before the artist 
left Bath. One has just got to look at the portrait of 
Admiral Vernon and compare the two together to 
recognise the work of the great artist in the Bath 
period. Now, regarding the word "Fume," the owner 

Notes and Oueries 

says the background 
was roughly done, 
which set me thinking 
I need not look for 
the word in Heraldry, 
so I looked up a com- 
prehensive diction- 
ar)-, and the defini- 
tion of the word by 
Bacon corresponds 
with the tempera- 
ment of Ciains bor- 
ough when he painted 
Philip Thicknesse's 
portrait. Th e nude 
girl — two bare feet 
and legs — which form 
part of the coat of 
arn'.s, is an invention 
of the great artist re- 
garding the subject. 
Perhaps you may 
have some comments 
to make on my de- 
ductions. —I am, Sir, 
yours respectfully, A. 
Gray, Cpl.,No.9396, 
S.A. Infantry. 

[In printing the 
above letter, we shoukl 
wish to recommend a 
further perusal of the 
Rev. W. F. John Tim- 
brell's theory to our cor- 
respondent. — Ed.] 

Portrait (No. 30S). 
Dear Sir, — I should 
be glad if any of your 
readers could assist me 
in ascertaining the iden- 
tity of the person por- 
trayed. The portrait, 
which I think is un- 
bears in the top right- 
hand corner the date 
1620, and in the opposite 
corner, "Aetat : suae 47." 
The man portrayed has 
a very florid complexion, 
with fairly dark hair and 
beard, just beginning to 



22 t 

turn grey. The doub- 
let is of a silver grey 
shade ornamented in 
red and gold, whilst 
the cross-belt is of 
gold cord. The gene- 
ral c o 1 o u r i n g and 
handling of the doub- 
letand crossbelt bears 
a close resemblance 
to that of a picture 
which I believe is in 
the Wallace collec- 
tion, and is known as 
Child with Parrot. — 
A. Cholmley Coch- 

Painting (No. 309). 
Dear Sir, — I am 
enclosing a photo- 
graph of an oil paint- 
ing which has been in 
our family possession 
probably more than 
150 years. It is a pic- 
ture of a w^oman sit- 
ting in a cave, holding 
a crucifix in her hand, 
with a white scarf. On the 
flat part of a ruck, which 
serves as a table, stands 
an open book, an urn, and 
two carrots (?). Thereof 
of the cave is dug stone, 
and boughs and trees 
are seen from the open 
space. The colour of 
the wrapper is blue, and 
the woman's hair is fair. 
The size of the canvas 
is 71 by 88 cms., and 
coarsely woven. From 
certain places the paint 
is partially fallen. The 
trame on which the can- 
vas is fixed is of oak, 
and on it is written in 
black letters, " Guido." 
Perhaps some of your 
readers can assist me 
regarding it. — Wiurs, 
K. Aghjayan ( Beirut). 

The Connoiss 


Problems in Identification 

As it is now over twelve years since The CON- 
NOISSEUR inaugurated a section devoted entirely to the 
identification of works of art, it is felt that some form of 
report on the progress made is due to readers. The 
problem of how to ascertain the history of a canvas is 
often difficult. In many cases, the only method is to 
accord the work the fullest publicity in appropriate circles. 
Let us consider the imaginary instance of an ancestral 
portrait belonging to a family, which, though belonging 
perhaps to a class which has been termed the "backbone 
of Britain," has not left sufficient individual mark on 
national history for its members to be recognised readily. 
In a case like this, the experts are helpless. They can 
attribute the painting to a definite hand, but shake their 
heads over the identity of the sitter. This is where 
Notes .^nd Queries comes in. .A. typical success 
achieved by means ot a reproduction in its pages oc- 
curred in September, 1911, when a Portrait of a Lady 
{No. i) appeared. This was identified later by a de- 
scendant as representing Henrietta Freston, of Wichen- 
don, who married Robert Brettingham, of Norwich, circa 
1760, and died in 1795. 

Now and again, lack of comparisons and other reasons 
cause a natural hesitation on the part of correspond- 
ents, but even here valuable evidence has been elicited 
indirectly. The interesting little miniature reproduced 
in November, 1908, called forth a letter from Prince 
Frederick Duleep Singh, who established ,a provisional 
association between the portrait and the Earl of Craven. 
A later letter, from the Director of the National Museum, 
Stockholm, placed the work as having emanated most 
conceivably from the brush of Pierre Signac, who was 
court painter to Queen Christine, daughter of Gustavus 
Adolphus the Great, in 1646. In this connection The 
Connoisseur tenders its thanks to the numerous corre- 
spondents who have placed their eradite knowledge so 
readily at the disposal of enquirers. 

Although this section has been confined almost entirely 
to portraits, landscapes, and genre paintings, occasional 
excursions into other branches of the fine arts have been 
attempted with success, as with the curious snuffbox 
found at Messines (Sept., 1916), which elicited a re- 
markable train of reasoning from the Rev. W. F. John 

The following list comprises a very curtailed selection 
of the most important identifications which have taken 
place up to the time of writing : — 

A Gentleman, identified as John, Maiquis of Montherraer, 

d. 1770. 
A Gentleman, identified by a descendant as a "long lost" 

portrait of Sir .\nlhony Deane, friend of Pepys. 
A Mansion, identified as ttie residence of the founder of Hope's 

banking house at Amsterdam. 
Christ feeding the Multitude, identified as a copy of a work 

hanging in a church in Spain. 
A Gentleman, identified as Sir John Lewis, of Ledston. 

A Gentleman, identified as Herr von Santander, Gouveneur 

von Antwerpen. A Van Dyck subject. 
A Knight of Malta, identified provisionally as Manoel Pinto 

de Fonseca (Grand Master of the Knights of MaUa, 

A Gentleman, identified as Fra Paolo Sarpi. 
A Lady, identified as Princess Ann, daughter of George II. 
Triptych, identified as belonging to the Catalan school, fifteenth 

century. Possibly by a pupil or imitator of Luis Bocrassa. 
A Lady, attributed to Landseer, identified as Mrs. Arthur Shirley, 

>ur Wardropp, by Inskipp. 
A Lady, identified as Virginia, wife of Edgar Allen Poe. 
A Lady sitting by a Cross, identified as Catherine Hayes in the 

character of " Alice " in " Roberto il Diavolo." 
Biblical Subject, identified as the Penitent Magdalen, in the 

style of G. Schalcken. 
An Ecclesiastic, identified as Cardinal Ganganelli. 
St. Barbara, identified as a fine original primitive Flemish work 

of the fifteenth century, after the manner of Hans Memlinc. 
Interior with Figures, identified as being by Willem de 

Poorter, fl. drca 1635-45. 
A Lady, identified with the family of Chorley of Chorley, co. 

An Ecclesiastic, identified as Cardinal Leopold de Medici 

A Lady, identified with the family of Ashton of HelTorston 

A Queen, identified as representing the tradition of Cleopatra 

melting the pearl in the cup of vinegar. 
Miniature of a Nobleman, identified as James III., the Old 

Engraving, Portrait of a Lady, identified as a scarce impression 

after the painting by Sir Charles Eastlake, R.A., of " Lucy, 

wife of Henry Louis Wickham, of Binsted Wick." 
A Lady, identified as Elizabeth, daughter of Samuel Banner, 

of Birmingham, married, as his third wife, to Richard 

Croft, 1710. 
Illuminated Genealogical Tree, suggested to have connection 

with Thomas Lyte. 
Battle Piece, suggested to be by Filip Lemke (171 1), Swedish 

court painter. 
A Gentleman, identified as Jules H. Forget (i779)- A copy, 

specially painted for a branch of the family by Thos. 

Hargreaves, of Liverpool, ci^ca 1S20, after an original. 
Marble Figure, identified as Jeypore work, representing a 

Figure in Stained Glass, identified as representing Laurence 

Tucher, Canon of Ratisbon, 14S7, a member of the famous 

family of Nuremburg. 
Classical Subject, identified as Diana and Actreon, after Filippo 

Lauri (1623-94). 
A Lady, identified as Louise de Kerouaille, Duchess of Ports- 
A Lady, identified as .\delaide, Duchess of Clarence {Queen 

Adelaide), in costume worn at George IV.'s Coronation. 

Possibly by Sir G. Hayter. 
Jliniature of a Lady, identified as a copy after a work by 

Heiarich Friederich Fiiger, from the Figdor collection. 
A Gentleman, identified as being probably Charles Eustace, ot 

Robertstown, died iSoo. 

BUke's Chest 

The interest of a museum does not depend upon 
its size or the multitude of its contents, but upon the 
associations, artistic, scientific, or 
historical, attached to them. In the 
two latter respects the Royal United Service Museum 
stands at almost an unique level. Of great historic in- 
terest in itself as the only portion surviving of the Royal 
Palace of \Vhitehall and the scene of the execution 
of Charles the First, it is filled with relics recalling 
poignant memories of the great sailors and soldiers 
who have helped to make the British Empire what it 
is. A recent addition to the collection forms one of 
its most interesting and beautiful items. This is the 

sea chest of Robert Blake, lately presented l)y the 
executors of the Rev. N. H. C. Ruddock, whose 
mother was a direct descendant of one of Admiral 
Blake's brothers. The chest, which is probably of 
Spanish origin, is of great artistic attraction. It is 
covered with stamped black leather diapered over 
with gold, while the inside, beautifully decorated, is 
fitted up as a cabinet, and has several interesting 
locks. Blake in all probability used this well-secured 
chest for his most private papers. It would stand in 
his cabin where he could keep it under his eye, and 
his gaze must often have rested upon it on that last 
voyage when, fresh from his crowning victory at Santa 



The Connoisseur 

blake's chest 


Cruz, his ships, laden with the spoils of war, set out 
for England for the last time. Wasted and enfeebled 
with disease, his strength gave way before he com- 
pleted the voyage, and he died August 7th, 1657, just 
as his squadron was coming in sight of Plymouth 
Hoe. The chest, filled with his private papers and 
documents, may not improbably have been the last 
object on which his dying gaze was fi.xed. It is a 
precious and intimate relic of one who ranks with 
Nelson and Drake as the most heroic and enterprising 
of English admirals. 

The beautifully situated village of Buxted has two 

popular claims on local importance — its deer, and 

_, „, , , the erstwhile inhabitation of 

1 he Churches of ti 1 u u u tt 1 u 1 

_ . _ Ralph Hogge, whom Hohnshed 

Quxted, Sussex , • ^".u r i r »i 

acclauns as the founder 01 the 

first iron cannon in England. The picturesque old 
church, with its bucolic details, houses a huge 
thirteenth -century coffer, possessing a coped lid, 
arcaded front, and carved with two small whorls on 
each upright. Of equal interest is a beautiful brass 
in memory of Britellus Avenel, wherein a demi-figure 
of the quondam rector appears in a quatrefoil, form- 
ing the head of a floriated cross. Unfortunately, the 
legend, which appears on a fillet surrounding the 
design, is defective at the very place where the date 
occurred. Boutell (who illustrates it on page 116 of 
his Afoiuimenta/ S/a/>s and Brasses, 1S4J) estimates 
it at circa 1375, but Mr. J- S. M. Ward (Brasses, 
Cambridge University Press, 1912) places it at 1408. 
There are other features, including furniture, in the 
building which merit attention. 

Some antiquaries never trouble to enter a modern 
church in search of the picturesque. This is a 
mistake, as the more recent fanes sometimes house 
curious relics. The church of St. Mary's, Buxted, 
which stands high on the hillside, is a case in 

It was founded some thirty odd years ago by the 
late Rev. A. D. Wagner, a figure of considerable 
note in this part of Sussex, and contains an inter- 
esting little painting on copper, said to have come 
from Ghent. It depicts a nun kneeling before the 
^Madonna and Child, whilst on a scroll beneath ap- 
pears the remains of a Flemish inscription, with the 
date 1636. Some other antique school pictures 
are also hung in the church, whilst a creditable 
altar-piece has been painted by the present vicar on 
the lines of an Immaculate Conception, by MuriUo. — 

The pair of old Sheffield plate candlesticks here 
illustrated are of historical interest, having belonged 
to George Washington, first Presi- 
Wash.ngtons ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ United States, and 
Candlesticks having come from his home. Mount 

\'ernon, where he settled as a country gentleman 
after the American War of Independence. Both 
candlesticks are in an excellent state of preservation, 
and were purchased by the authorities of the National 
Museum at Washington, with other " Washington " 
relics, from the Lewis heirs, in the year 1S78. The 
decorative features indicate that they were made 
between about 17S0 and the date of Washington's 
death in 1799. 







A Daughter of Canute 

The little church of 
Boshani, Sussex, enjoys 
the privilege of represen- 
tation on the Bayeux 
tapestry, but its history 
does not commence with 
it. The Roman bases 
and capitals of the chan- 
cel arch, much larger 
than the Early Norman 
clustered columns asso- 
ciated with them, form 
an undoubted link with 
the legionaries. The dis- 
puted suggestion that it 
was on Bosham beach 
that Canutecommanded 
the waves to retire, may 
have had its origin in 
the burial in the church 
of a daughter of the 
Danish king. A news- 
paper cutting of August, 
1865, tells how "some 
excavations were made 
in order to lay bare the 
bases of the columns 
supporting the chancel 
arch, which are on a 
much lower level than 
those of the arcade sepa- 
rating the nave from 
the aisles. In laying 
bare these bases it was 
thought advisable to ex- 
tend the excavations a 
little, for it was just in 
front of this arch that 
tradition has uniformly 
stated that the youthful 
daughter of the Danish 
King Canute was buried. 
Just below the level of the 
old floor a slab of stone 
was discovered 
and soon it was found, as 
had already been conjectured, that this stone covered 
a small stone coffin. Every care was taken, and the 
coffin was afterwards opened in the presence of the 
Rev. Henry .Mitchell, F.S.A. (the Vicar of Bosham), 
his son, Henry Codwin Mitchell, Mr.CSturgess Jones 
(surgeon, of Chichester), and Mr. Edgar J. Varley, an 
artist of some note. As soon as the lid, which was 
seven inches thick, was raised, the form of the child 
could be distinctly seen. The figure was 3 ft. 9 in. in 
height. . . . The hands had been placed by the 
side of the body ; the bones, although reduced to a 
white dust, could be very clearly traced. The inside 
measurement of the coffin was 4 ft. 3 in. by i4i in. in 
width at the breast, 13 in. at the head, and 10 in. at 
the foot. No jewellery or anything of the sort was 
found." The discovery has been commemorated by 
a flat stone, inscribed : " To the Glory of God/And 


in memory of/a Daugh- 
ter of King Canute/who 
died early in the i ith 
century/Aged about 8 
years/ Whose remains 
lie enclosed in a/Stone 
Coffin beneath this 
spot. /Placed by the 
Children of/the Parish, 
August, 1906." Beside 
this is a modern en- 
caustic tile bearing a 
raven on a yellow 

The Romance of 

Ai'.vkT from its tradi- 
tions of Canute, Bosham 
Church possesses note- 
worthy features. Fore- 
most amongst these is 
the famous coffer, des- 
cribed and illustrated 
in these pages by Mr. 
Fred Roe, R.I. (vol. xliv., 
p. 124). 

There is one other 
piece of antique wood- 
work, however; a fif- 
teenth-century stall end, 
carved with an angel 
holding what looks like 
a crown of thorns. The 
fourteenth-century tomb 
with a recumbent female 
effigy beneath a pillared 
canopy in the north wall 
of the chancel has been 
associated with the me- 
mory of Canute's daugh- 
ter, but there is no evi- 
denc e that it was a 
memorial erected in a 
later age. When I exa- 
mined it, the image was 
in a badly mutilated 
state. A fold of drapery was loose, and readily remov- 
able by a vandal. 

The story of the liell of Bosham is one of the most 
interesting legends of the county. Some Danish 
marauders descended upon the district and pillaged 
a monastery, carrying off its big bell in their boat. 
As soon as the coast was clear, the monks rang the 
remaining bells, whereupon their stolen companion, 
after joining in the peal of its own accord, sank 
through the bottom of the boat miraculously and was 
lost in the depths, where it is still said to sound. I 
prefer to picture the bell, if it existed in fact, as 
belonging to the Celtic type. Such things were often 
highly reverenced and attributed with miracnilous 
powers. This belief might be sufficient to act both 
as a motive for the theft and as a basis of the sub- 
sequent legend. — Criticus. 


The Comioissciir 


Pictures and 

At Christie's, on May 2nd, the demand for Birket 
Foster's work found scope in no less than eleven ex- 
amples, of which On the Thames at 
Greenwich: Sunset, 1878, 26 in. by 
36 in., ran up to ^1,680, whilst the 
remainder realised sums varying between ;^48 6s. and 
^399. The Interior of Milan Cathedral, by Louis Haghe, 
1861, 4j in. by 36 in., made £01^. J. F. Lewis was re- 
presented by a Street in Cairo, 1880, ui in. by 21 in., 
^388 los., a.nAA Frank Encampment in the Desert, 1856, 
25 J in. by 53 in., ^378 ; S. Prout by The Interior of S. 
Paul's, Caen, 28J in. by 21 in., /157 los.;and De Windt 
by Deriuentwater, 23* in. by 39 in., ^1735 ; View of Bray, 
10 in. by 30 in., ^997 los. ; and The Hayfield, 9 in. by 
26? in., ^682 los. Amongst the paintings, Rosa Bon- 
heur's Morning in the Hij^hlands, 1S97, 22^ in. by 39 in. 
(engraved by C. G. Lewis), £672 ; J. F. Lewis's fine 
Bezestein Bazaar of El Khan Khalil, Cairo, 1872, 45 in. 
by 34 in., ^966; and Albert Moore's Sisters, 34 in. by 
165 in., £2,')'), were comprised in the most noteworthy 
lots. Some drawings from another property included 
Turner's Lucerne from the Halls, 12 in. by 18 in., 
^2,730, and Copley Fielding's Loch Lomond, 9 in. by 
12J in., ^241 los.; whilst Birket Foster's Turnberry 
Castle, Ayrshire, 1882, 23J in. by 353 in., netted 
^682 IDS. May 5th was an uneventful day at Christie's. 
A few pictures from the late Hon. J. I. Fellows' property 
were of interest, including // Bucentoro : the i\Iarriage of 
the Adriatic, by Guardi', 34 in. by 50 in., ^367 los. ; and 
Corked, by W. Dendy Sadler, 254 in. by 23J in., ^420. 

The late Mr. Richard Manley Foster's collection led 
off at King Street on the 9th. There was the inevitable 
plethora of Birket Fosters, all small works, which varied 
between ^^63 los. for At the Stile, 5 in. by 65 in., and 
^294 for A Cottage Tea Party, 8 in. by 1 1 in. ^667 was 
bid for Turner's Hythe, Kent, 5i in. by 9 in., an en- 
graving by G. Cooke being included in the lot. The 
dominance of Birket Foster was felt in the picture sec- 
tion when The Ford, 66J in. by 40 in., ran up to ^588 ; 
whilst succeeding items included A Hussar on Horse- 
hack, by Meissonier, panel, 8 in. by 4i in., ^231 ; The 
Gipsies' Camp, by G. Morland, panel, I7i in. by 23 J in., 
;/;262 los.; Irish Stew, by Erskine Nicol, 1851, 175 in. 
by 23J in., ^262 los. ; and IVear Thorpe Common, by J. 
Stark, panel, I7i in. by 26 in., ^336. The miscellaneous 
properties included some choice drawings, the most attrac- 
tive being Stamford, by Turner, 1829, iii in. by 16J in., 
the original of the plate in England and Wales, which 
ran up to ^1,050. Langharne Castle, \2\ in. by iSJ in., 
another of the same series, realised ^i, 102 los. ; whereas 
the vignette of New Abbey, Dumfries, went for ;/|3i5 ; 
whilst A Hilly River Scene, with an angler, by C. 
Fielding, 20 in. by 30^ in., netted /;357. Of the few re- 
maining oil paintings we may mention A View in the Isle 
of Wight, by G. Morland, iiA in. by 14J in., ^204 15s. 
Certain pictures from Hassop Hall, Bakewell, were 
disposed of with some effect by Messrs. Hampton and 

Sons on April 29th and the two following days. Two 
examples by Baptiste, Vases of Flowers, 52 in. by 39^ in. 
and 30 in. by 26 in., realised ^472 los. and £210 los. 
respectively. A pastel portrait of Rt. Hon. Lady Mary 
Radcliffe, wife of Francis Eyre, by F. Cotes, 24 in. by 
18 in., was knocked down for ^220 los.; whilst an In- 
terior of a Larder, with dead game, etc. , and serving- 
maid, by .Snayers, 63 in. by 118 in., went for ^210. 

Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge provided one 
of the most exciting incidents of the May sales on the 5th. 
Catalogued as a "self-portrait" by Nicholas Berghem, 
as was suggested by a label on the reverse, the canvas, 
37 in. by 29 in., was knocked down for ^1,200, after an 
exciting contest. It is thought that the picture may be 
a forgotten Franz Hals. 

The drawings which formed part of Major Misa's 
property at King Street on May 12th were distinguished 
mainly by the presence of two vignettes by Turner, The 
Garden (frontispiece to Moore's Epicurean), £1^1 5s., 
and Bellerophon (engraved in Scott's Life of Napoleon), 
£\0'^ \ and also Birket Foster's Young Gleaners at a Stile, 
3oi in. by 26^ in., ^525. The drawings sold on the i6th 
included A Common Scene, \>y iK. Mauve, 14 in. by I7i in., 
^231. The pictures belonging to the late P. I). Strange 
comprised two works by E. de Blaas, 1890, On the 
Balcony: Venice, 50J in. by 33 in., ^336, and A Tiff, 
36 in. by 25J in., ^225 15s.; two by E. M. Wimperis, 
IVorsley Date, 28J in. by 49 in., ;^8oS los., and Cliang- 
ing Pastures : Mill Lane, Yorkshire, 1894, 23i in. \i\ 
35i in., £630; Felling Timber, by G. Cole, 3! in. by 
43i in-i .£220 los. ; Summer E^'ening in the Channel, by 
H. Moore, 29* in. by 43^ in., ^294 ; Portrait of William, 
jth Lord Belhaven, by A. Nasmyth, 45 in. by 33^ in., 
^682 I OS. ; and Portrait of the Countess of Northumber- 
land, by Philip van Dyck, 23 in. by 19^ in., ;^409 los. 
From other sources came A Rii'er Scene, by C. F. Dau- 
bigny, 1867, panel, 14 in. by 24 in., ^1,470; Landscape, 
by Corot, panel, 1I5 in. by 12J in., ^^388 los. ; and 
Landscape, by Harpignies, 18S9, panel, 15J in. by 12 in., 
-£215 5s. 

The Marchioness of Graham's collection 01 sporting 
pictures came up at Christie's on the following day. The 
first important lot was a pair of paintings of Partridge 
and Pheasant Shooting, by J. Barenger, 23J in. by 36 in., 
which was knocked down for ^^3 ' 5 ; being closely followed 
by A Wedding Party, by Debucourt, panel, 16J in. by 
21 J in., ^420, The feature of the day was supplied by 
the presence of 32 lots, all comprising works by the 
Herring family, the highest amount, ^346 los. , being 
secured by a Portrait of Caravan, Winner of the Ascot 
Cup, 1S3Q, by J. F. Herring, sen., 1839, panel, 20 in. by 
29I in. .\ Still-life subject of dead game, with f?-uit and 
sculptured vase in a garden, a boy and dog to right, by 
J. Weenix, signed and dated 1705, 47 in. by 63 in., ran 
up to i;535 los. 

The name of Turner was freely represented on the 26th, 
when Miss Norton's View at Godesberg, on the Lower 


/// the Sale Room 

Rhine, ~\ in. by 12 in., from the Farnley Hall collection, 
made £^io. Several other drawings were included in the 
property of the late Richard Norton, of Boston, U.S.A., 
including The Wood Walk at Farnley Hall, 11 in. by 
ijiin., ^399; The Valley of St. Gotkard, <)'m.h\ ii\m., 
^,"609; and ^SY. Gothard, g in. by 13 in., L. H. Hodson 
collection, ^231. 

Some interesting drawings belonging to the late Vis- 
countess Canterbury came up on the 30th, including 
Portraits of Anna Maria and Juliana Kelt, 35J in. by 
41 in., £'},(}'] los., and Portrait of Mrs. T/ioiiias Kelt, 
30 in. by 24^ in., ^336, both by Opie ; and a Portrait of 
Charles, ist Viscount of Canterbury, when a young man, 
by Hoppner, 30 in. by 25 in., .£388 los. Major-General 
G. F. Dawnay provided three portraits in oils by Beechey : 
Mrs. Earle, 93 in. by 56 in., .^{^31 5 ; Gillies Earle, her 
husband, 48 in. by 38^ in., ^199 los. ; and William, 
their eldest son, signed with initials, and dated 1796, 
29 in. by 24 in., ^525. The miscellanea were led by 
An Old Lady Asleep, by X. Maes, 31 in. by 25* in., 
^2,026 los. ; Mrs. Vere, by N. Dance, 49J in. by 39! in., 
£j3&i ; Returning from the Hunt { Peter Beckford's Fox 
Hunt), by Y. Sartorius, 385 in. by 48^ in., ^546 ; 
Elizabeth and Rebecca, daughters of Robert Dinividdie, 
of Virginia, by A. Ramsay, 56 in. by 46 in., ^546; A 
Gentleman, by Goya, 26 in. by 21 1 in., .£483: The 
Old Berkeley Hunt, by J. Benson, 181 1, 29^ in. by 
39 ''■>■> -£357 ; Thomas Miller, of Edinburgh, by Raeburn, 
31 in. by 25 in., £zbz 15s.; The Earl of Hyndford, by 
the same, 28 in. by 225 in., ^210; a pair o{ Flo-ioers 
and Fruit, by \V. \'an Aelst, 1677, 23 in. by 19 in., 
^294 ; and Capt. George, Lord Edgcuinbe, by Reynolds, 
48J in. by 39! in., ^273. Belonging to the late Hon. 
Mrs. F. Baring, a View of Whitehall, at the Horse 
Guardi, by W. Marlow, 43 in. by 71 in., secured ^'315 ; 
The Death, by Sartorius, 28J in. by 35:^ in., /430 10s.; 
and a set of four (three on panel j of Ladies and Dancer, 
in Gardens, by J. Schall, 12 in. by gj in., £^46. 

The remaining works of Sir E. Burne-Jones were sold 
at Christie's on June 5th. Many of the sketches were 
quite slight, and realisedcorrespondingamounts. Amongst 
the water-colours. The Fall of Lucifer, 97 in. by 46J in., 
made ^735- A few unfinished oil-paintings fetched 
notable sums, especially a design for The Garden of Pan, 
60 in. by 73 in., ^^651 ; The Romance of the Rose, 61 in. 
by 120 in., ^,"472 ; design for Avalon, a pair, 72 in. by 
-I •"•! ^399: The Fountain of Youth (monochrome), 
72 in. by 110 in., ^273; Venus Discordia, 46 in. by 
82 in., ^231 ; and Venus Concordia, 50 in. by 82 in., 
^210. A black-and-white drawing o{ David instructing 
Solomon about tJie Building of the Temple, 76 in. by 74 in., 
sold for ^315. The day's total amounted to ^18,295. 

A LARGE collection of Baxter and Le Blond prints 

was offered by Messrs. Puttick & Simpson on March 

„ , 20th. Prices varied from a few shil- 

ilngravings and ,. , . • , ^ ~. 

Etchings ''"°^ "P '° ^^^ ^-° P^''' ^""^ ^^" 

Parting Look (C. L. 363). Aselection 

ot miscellaneous engravings heralded April 2nd, when 

£H 125. was paid for a volume of 26 lithographs. Boys' 

Original Viezvs in London j £7?, 15s. for The Rapacious 
Steward, or Unfortunate Tenant, by Gillbank, after 
Bigg, mezzotint, in colours ; and ^50 Ss. for the pair, 
A Vegetable Market and A Poultry Market, by W. 
Ward, after J. Ward, mezzotints. 

Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson and Hodge secured 
;i^2,343 8s. for the late Wilson Crewdson collection of 
Japanese colour-prints on March 26th and two following 
days. The majority of items did not realise out-of-the- 
way prices, but mention may be made of An Oiran of 
the Kybho Period, by Kiyomasu, ^77 ; A Woman as 
Daruma, by Harunobu, ^114; and Two Lovers, by the 
same, £-jb. 

A well-known work was represented at the same rooms 
on April 1st, in Boydell's Shakcspcai-e Gallery, consisting 
of 90 plates with large margins, which was knocked down 
for £()?,. A set of 72 coloured lithographs by M. Gaucia, 
after E. Hull, The Costumes of the British Army, with 
an original wrapper, secured /^i 10 ; and 52 ditto, by J. H. 
Lynch, after M. A. Hayes, Spooner's " Military Land- 
scape " series, .£150. The total realised by the sale was 
well over ^2,000. 

On the preceding day a varied collection came up at 
King Street. The first plates to arouse competition were 
You7ig Cottagers and Young Foresters, by J. Daniel, 
after R. Livesay, ^94 103. They were printed in colours, 
as were also the pair of The Squire's Door and The 
Farmer's Door, by B. Duterreau, after G. Morland, 
£27^ ; /nsidc a Country Ale-house, after (",. Morland, 
and Outside a Country Ale-house, after J. Ward, both by 
W. Ward, £;257 5s.: The Last Litter and The Hard 
Bargain, by the same, after Morland, ^178 los. ; Morn- 
ing, or Higglers preparing for Market, and Evening, 
or the Post-boy's Return, by D. Orme, after the same, 
^210; Saturday Morning: the favourite chickens going 
to Market, by T. Burke, after Bigg, £bo 8s. ; The Supper, 
or the Return f I om Market, and the companion, by J. 
Grozer, after Singleton, ^65 2s. ; The Castle in Danger 
a.nd How smooth, hrotlicr : feel again .' by Gaugain, after 
Hamilton, ^52 10s.; The Squire's Door, by Duterreau, 
afterMorland, ^84 ; Disarming Cupid a.n6.AttiringVenus, 
by J. Baldrey, after Zucchi, £^7 15s.; Lord Nelson, by 
W. Barnard, after Abbott, £6^ 2s. ; Playing at Dominoes 
and Playing with a Monkey, by S. W. Reynolds, after 
Morland, ^5o8s. ; and The Young Sailors and The Little 
Volunteer, by J. Young, after R. M. Page, /50 8s. The 
following were mezzotints: — Lady Taylor, by W. Dickin- 
son, after Sir J. Reynolds, first state, ^84 ; Master 
Lambton, by S. Cousins, after Lawrence, first state, 
^126; and To the Society of Goffers, Blackheath, by 
\'. Green, after L. F. Abbott, £^\. 

.\n interesting print sale took place at Leicester Square 
on May 8th, when Messrs. Puttick & Simpson obtained 
the following prices :—77/£' Rt. Hon. Charles James Fox, 
by J. Jones, after Sir J. Reynolds, mezzotint, ^88 4s. ; 
Miss Kemble, by and after the same, mezzotint, ^58 16s.; 
Contemplation, by W. Ward, after G. Morland, mezzo- 
tint, ^42 ; a pair of proofs before letters of Le Depart 
du Courier and Le Retour du Beauvarlet, after !•". 
Boucher, ^56 14s.; and a second state of Lady Hamilton 


The Connoisseur 

as a Bacchante, by J. R. Smith, after Reynolds, mezzo- 
tint, ;£47 5s. 

The King Street sale of the 6th commenced with some 
engravings printed in colours, prominent amongst which 
were Crossing the Brook, by W. Say, after H. Thompson, 
^250 ; The Countess of Spencer, by Bartolozzi, after Rey- 
nolds, ^152 5s.; the pair, Morning, or the Fisherman's 
Departure, and Evening, or the Fisherman's Return, by 
\V. Ward, after R. Corbould, ^99 15s.; the pair, A Visit 
to the Child at Nurse and 
A Visit to the Boarding 
School, by the same, after 
Morland, £S0A \ The Last 
Litter, by and after the 
same, £,Zb 2s. ; Juvenile 
Navigators, by and after 
the same, ^52 los. ; In- 
dustry, by C. Knight, 
after the same, £\^':>\ 
Rustic Conversation, by 
S. W. Reynolds, after 
J. Ward, £bZ 5s.; Mrs. 
Jordan as the Country 
Girl, by J. Ogbourne, 
after Romney, ^50 Ss. ; 
William Long, by C. 
Hunt, after J. Loder, 
£-jl los. ; Miss Farren, 
by Bartolozzi, after Law- 
rence, ^199 los. ; and the 
pair. The Shipwrecked 
Sailor Boy and The Prosperous Sailors Return, by 
D. Orme, after W. R. Bigg, ^57 15s- 

Amongst the mezzotints, a first state of The Cower 
Family, by J. R. Smith, after Romney, made £84 ; the 
pair, A Tarty Angling a.nd The Angler's Repast, by J. 
Keating, after Morland, ^183 15s.; and the pair, Dulce 
Domum and Black Monday, by J. Jones, after Bigg, 
^54 I2S. Some etchings commanded favourable prices. 
Of those by D. Y. Cameron, most was made by The 
Mosque Doorway {K. 413), ^94 los.; CraigievariK. 402), 
/92 8s. ; North Porch, Harjieur (R. 360), £%% 43. ; The 
Palace Doorway (R. 225), ^94 los. ; and Ben Ledi, which 
went up to ^220 los. Sir F. S. Haden was represented 
by a second state of A Sunset in Ireland (H. 51), 
^141 5s.; and Zorn by En Omnibus, ^378 ; Mona (the 
Artists mother), £162 15s.; and Skeri Ktilla, /105. 

At Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge's, on the 
19th, ^59 was paid for the pair, A Visit to the Child at 
Nurse (open letter prooO and A Visit to the Boarding 
School, by W. Ward, after Morland ; whilst on the 26th 
an etching by Muirhead Bone, Piccadilly Circus at Night 
in War Time, made £76 ; and of four from Whistler's 
graver, belonging to Mr. Stanhope Forbes, R..-\., The 
Balcony (W. 177) secured ;i{;i2o; Nocturne Salute 
(W. 199), ^98; San Giorgio (W. 167), ^84 ; and The 
Smithy (W. 197), /30. From another source, Whistler's 
lithograph of The Little Nude made ^40. 

^52 was paid at Messrs. Puttick & Simpson's on June 
5th for the mezzotint, The Ladies Waldegrave, by \'. 

rniprENDALE side-taele 

Green, after Reynolds ; whilst £()0 was bid at Messrs. 
Robinson, Fisher & Harding's for Nutting and the com- 
panion, a pair of oval stipples in colours. 

Thp; vogue in Chippendale, which has been especially 

noticeable lately, caused considerable interest in a set of 

twelve mahogany ladder-back chairs, 

Furniture ^^.,^-^,^ realised £<)2S, at King Street on 

.\pril 3rd. They formed part of the property of a lady of 

title, as did also a pair of 
Chippendale mahogany 
knee-hole commodes, 
4 ft. 2 in. wide, ^252. Sir 
Ratan Tata's collection 
included a suite of tapes- 
try fu rniture, 5 pieces, 
^546 ; and a French i6th 
century walnut cabinet, 
from the collection of the 
Due de Dino, ^325 los. 
Queen Anne walnut-wood 
furniture formed a dis- 
tinct section on April 8th, 
when a number of pieces 
realised average amounts, 
the outstanding lot being 
a corner arm-chair on 
cabriole legs, carved 
with shells, which made 
/220 IDS. .\curiositvtook 


the lorm of a table, the 
side of which was formed of a dole-cupboard, pierced with 
three panels of Gothic tracery, 4 ft. 6 in. wide, from 
Lilleshall Abbey, which was knocked down for ^168. 

Although Messrs. Puttick & Simpson confined their 
attentions mainly to objets d'art on the nth, they found 
time to include a few choice pieces of furniture, prominent 
amongst which were a Chippendale mahogany cabinet, 
65 in. wide, ^63 ; a Chippendale mahogany knee-hole 
writing-table, 31 in. wide, £bZ 5s.; a Sheraton satinwood 
inlaid winged bookcase, 75 in. wide, £\2b ; and a Queen 
.-\nne walnut elbow-chair, /81 i8s. 

.\n upright cabinet from Warwick Castle, said to have 
been presented to Louis XIV. by James II., attracted 
considerable attention at Christie's on May 1st. Some- 
what resembling a shrine, it enclosed an elaborate ivory 
carving of the apotheosis of the unfortunate Stuart. The 
measurements were 81 in. high, 36 in. wide, whilst the 
highest bid reached ^525. 

At a successful sale held by Messrs. Ward & Chowen, 
of Tavistock, during that month, a set of si.K Chippendale 
chairs, in the " Gothick " taste, secured no less than 
/i,o25. We are able to illustrate a Chippendale side- 
table, which was a notable feature at Messrs. Hankinson's 
Auction Mart, Bournemouth, on the 7th. The highest 
bid amounted to £\']0. £\o^ was bid for a ()ueen Anne 
walnut bureau bookcase amongst other representative 
prices. In the course of dispersing the contents of Weald 
Manor, Bampton, Messrs. Innocent & Son, of Lechlade, 
received /120 for a set of twelve Hepplewhite chairs 

/// the Sale Room 


and £,\AO for an inlaid walnut cabinet of the 17th cen- 
tury. Messrs. Puttick cS: Simpson secured ^115 los. for 
a Sheraton mahogany china cabinet, with glass doors in 
the upper part, 61 in. wide, on the 9th, whilst a satinwood 
cabinet of the same period, 46 in. wide, went up to /^2io. 
The property of the late Capt. H. G. Smith came under 
the hammer at Messrs. Robinson, Fisher & Harding's on 
the 14th, when ^105 purchased a 3-foot Chrnese lacquer 
cabinet on stand. 

Three Chippendale mahogany " Chinese " chairs made 
yii26 at Christie's on the 15th; a Sheraton cabinet of 
satin- and hare-wood, 4 ft. wide, £2^2 5s. ; a Sheraton 
mahogany cabinet, with glazed doors in the upper part, 
8 ft. wide, ^347 los. ; a pair of Sheraton marqueterie 
side-tables, 52 in. wide, ^399 ; a Hepplewhite mahog- 
any winged bookcase, 9 ft. wide, £1^7 los. ; a clock, by 
Jacob Massy, Leicester Fields, London, in lacquer case, 
10 ft. 9 in. high, ^189 ; and an English lacquer cabinet on 
stand, 3 ft. 6 in. wide, ^168. ^493 los. was paid for a 
Persian carpet, with a design after the famous Ardebil 
carpet in the Victoria and Albert Museum, 41 ft. 2 in. by 
28 ft. 8 in., and ^231 for an English iSth century carpet, 
10 ft. 9 in. by g ft. 8 in. 

Sever.\L interesting pieces went at "per oz. " on 
.March 5th at King Street, prominent lots being the circu- 
lar salver, by Paul Lamerie, 1735, Si in. 
diam. (140Z. I3dwt.), 390s.; an embossed 
beaker, 3:[ in. high, 169S, m.m. a waterfowl in dotted 
circle 1,2 02. iS dwt. ), 370s.; a pair of octagonal tazze en- 
graved with Chinese figures, 7i in. diam., 1685, m.m. IL 
with fleur-de-lys and two pellets in a heart 124 oz. 
7 dwt.), 3203. ; a plain octagonal cup, 3i in. high, 4 in. 
diam., by David King, Dublin, 171 7 (5 oz. 3 dwt.), 6205.; 
a plain goblet on baluster stem and round foot, 7^ in. high, 
1623, m.m. TB with boar's head below (8 oz. 5 dwt.), 
430s.; and a plain goblet, ditto, 6i in. high, 1655 19 oz. 
10 dwt.), 470s. 

Silver sold well during April. Mr. Henry Peech's col- 
lection, on the 14th, included such items as a silver-gilt 
goblet, 8 in. high, 1606, m.m. AB monogram (9 oz. 
17 dwt.}, 890S. per oz. ; a chalice and paten, 74 in. high, 
I 569, m.m. bunch of grapes (9 oz. 4 dwt.), 400s. ; a circular 
sweetmeat dish, 5^ in. diam., by W. Maunday, 1631 (30Z. 
4 dwt.), 540s.; a pair of sconces, by John Stockar, 1701 
(30 oz. 7 dwt.), 320s. 

During May, Debenham, StorrX: Sons, Ltd., sold many 
lots of old English plate, when the following were some 
of the more important prices realised: — A George 111. 
taper-stick, at 64s. peroz. ; a set of George I. muffineers 
on George IIL stand(22 0z. lodwt.) at 65s.; a C^eorge 111. 
silver claret jug (23 oz. 15 dwt. ) at 30s.; a 6-inch George 111. 
silver taper-stick ,8 oz. ) at 35s. ; a pair of plain George 1 1. 
sauce boats (21 oz. ) at 28s.; a silver George III. pen-tray 
at 35s.; two old silver apostle spoons, ^48; an 18-inch 
George III. beaded edge waiter, 1778 (56 oz.), at 25s. 
per oz. ; a spiral fluted George III. muffineer at 34s.; and 
a two-handled porringer, Charles II., 1684, at 273s. 

On the 22nd, the same firm secured /^34 for a silver 


medal issued by the city of Philadelphia in commemora- 
tion of the destruction of Kittanning by Col. Armstrong, 
1756. Although jewellery is not often quoted in these 
pages, we cannot refuse a brief reference to Messrs. 
Debenham & Storr's sales of May 29th and 30th, when the 
prices realised included ^4,900 for a necklace of 85 pearls, 
/i,39o for a rope of 151 pearls, ^1,510 for a single-stone 
emerald ring, and /^i, 350 for a necklet of 60 stones. 

Messrs. Knight, Frank & Rutley offered some inte- 
resting silver on the 2nd. A gadroon dinner service of 
60 pieces, by Eliza Godfrey, Jno. le Sage, Ben. Godfrey, 
etc. (1,441 oz. 16 dwt.), period 1728- 1802, realised 
^1,431; a George II. pierced o\al cake-basket in the 
Chinese taste (34 oz. 18 dwt.;, .£100 3s. lid.; a he.xa- 
gonal coffee-pot, Dublin, 1742 ,42 oz. 15 dwt. gross), 
^417 ; a circular paten engraved with the royal arms 
and the seal, 3J in. high, 13 in. diam., Dublin, 1730 
(38 oz. 16 dwt.), £291 ; and a pair of early (Georgian 
pillar candlesticks, gj in. high, £2ob 3s. 

A MOST interesting sale of glass was held by Messrs. 
Sotheby, Wilkinson &. Hodge on April 28th and tw-o 

following days. Commencing with Mr. H. 

Martin Gibbs's collection of wine-glasses, a 
noticeable feature lay in the prices realised by some of 
the specimens. Two examples with blue and yellow twist 
stems and straight-sided bowls, engraved round the lips 
with vines, 6 in. high, realised ^61 and ^51 respectively; 
whilst a wine-glass with yellow and opaque twist stem 
and plain ogee bowl, 6 in. high, made ^52 ; a pair with 
air-twist single-knopped baluster stems and plain collars, 
75 in. high, ^^35 ; and four drawn plain tear stem, the 
bowls engraved with A. G. R. cipher surrounded by 
flowers, and a vine-leaf on the lips, 6| in. high, varied 
betw-een ^16 los. and ^20 apiece. It is thought that 
the engraving on these last-mentioned vases may be of 
a later date than the glasses themselves. From another 
source came a taper-stick on double-knopped baluster 
stem with tears and dome foot, 4i in. high, ^40 ; a Bristol 
glass tea-bottle, painted with birds, flowers, and "Bohea," 
with enamel and pinchbeck cover, /^i8 los. ; and a goblet 
with drawn tear stem, 10 in. high, £\6. Two Jacobite 
glasses of 1740, engraved with the rose, made ^59 and 
/;39 respectively; and a collection of 134 Monteith punch 
glasses, ^^200. 

MlN'l.^TURE collectors displayed considerable interest 
towards the Thorold collection, which was offered at 
King Street on April 2nd. A trio 
by John Smart was especially 
noteworthy, consisting of portraits of 
Mr. and Mrs. Peter Bcckford, dated 1779 and 1782, and 
oi Mrs. Rigby, 1778, on paper, which went for ^204 15s., 
/^I78 los., and ^^141 15s. respectively. Other items in- 
cluded a Gentleman, probably Pitt, by Cosway, ^99 15s.; 
tlie second Lord Rivers., by the same, ^136 los. ; Frances, 
daughter of Sir T. Rumbold, after-wards M?-s. Hall Rigby, 
by G. Engleheart, ^84 ; and a Lady., possibly Mrs. Rigby, 
by Mrs. Mee, £(il. 

Miniatures and 
Objets d'Art 

The first of the two exhibitions of war memorials to 

the Fallen, organised under the auspices of the Royal 

Acadeiny War Memorials Committee, 

War Memorials ^^,^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ genem\ public at 

the X'ictoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington, on 
July 8th, and will be reviewed in our September issue. 

These exhibitions are being designed, not with the 
purpose of sup- 
plying material 
which might 
actually serve as 
memorials, but 
in order to pro- 
vide suggestions 
which may be 
of assistance to 
artists and the 
public who are 
interested in 
their promotion 
or execut io n. 
The exhibition 
in the museum is 
arranged in two 
sections : in the 
East Hall are 
designs, and 
pho tographs 
chosen from the 
museum collec- 
tions, which may 
be regarded as 
offering suitable 
suggestions ; in 
the West Hall 
will be fo u n d 
designs and 
models for me- 
morials, which 
have either re- 
cently been 
executed by liv- 
ing artists or 
are now in hand. portrait of Shakespeare 

Without pretending to have done more than'gather 

together some choice specimens of the ancient Oriental 

arts, the proprietors of the Leicester 

'^"^.'^"' ^"^ Galleries f Leicester Square) have suc- 

oi the hast , , . , ,. , ■ , ■ 

ceeded m assemblmg an eclectic exlii- 

bition. The preponderance of the Chinese and Indian 
schools is not sufficiently marked to make it appear un- 
due, whilst the 
selection of 
items from the 
Nearer East is 
influenced by a 
careful process 
of elimination. 
The scarcity, 
outside m u- 
seums, of really 
decorative re- 
mains from 
.•\ s s y r i a and 
Babylonia, may 
be accepted as 
the reason for 
their non-repre- 
sentation, but, 
on the other 
hand, promi- 
nent positions 
are accorded to 
some charming 
relics of ancient 
Egypt. .A. fine 
funeral stele in 
hard limestone, 
carved with the 
ing to Osiris, 
I sis, and Neph- 
ihys, is charac- 
terised by the 
Greek feeling 
which o V e r- 
spread the 
country from 
AT THE WALKER GALLERIES the twenty-sixth 


Current Art Notes 

dynasty and onwards, but is, perhaps, less marked by 
the genuine spirit animating a smaller stele attributed to 
the interesting period of the twenty-jecond dynasty. 

head of a man wearing a close beard, which shows all 
the characteristics of the archaicism of the sixth century 
B.C. The Indian sculptures maintain a high level. \'ery 


whose founder was the Libyan - descended Shishak. 
Cheek-by-jowl with these, a Ptolemaic incavo-relief of 
Sekhet catches the eye, and competes with another ver- 
sion, the reticence of which, combined with the carelessly 
scattered hieroglyphics, confirms a theory that it is a 
trial-piece of a sculptor belonging to the Saite school. 
A case contains a remnant of a royal figure, described 
in the catalogue as holding a stele. This employment of 
the word would appear to be based on its wider meaning 
of an upright post bearing an inscription, since it is not 
represented in the gravestone form. Most probably it is 
a support for some vanished feature (the position of the 
arms suggests bearing an offering rather than anything 
else). The inscription on it contains the cartouches of 
(Ra-men-Kheper) sa-Ra (Tehuti-mes-Heq-Uast ), a vari- 
ant of the style of Thothmes HI. [circa 1600 B.C., 
Brugscli), who has been termed the "Alexander the 
threat of Egyptian History." 

The gem of the collection, however, is a beautiful 
Greek fragment in high and undercut relief representing 
a helmeted warrior pursuing some amazon, since lost in 
the limbo of time. Alive and vigorous, this splendid 
waif from the metopes of Tarentum carries lightly a 
longevity which had its birth in the third century n. c, 
and possesses all the inspiration lacking in an Ale.xandrian 
statuette of Ceres or a draped male torso of the second 
century A.D., which, in spite of its bold outline, is typical 
Roman art of the hard-and-fast type. Another and rarer 
exhibit than either of the two last-named is the Cypriote 


admirable is the slightly ironic royal head of the Kushfin 
period, and a red-sandstone fragment, possibly represent- 
ing Siva, of the same dynasty. At once animated and 
dignified, the deity seems on the point of lowering his 
raised arms. Turning to the ceramic section, there are 
some good Persian types, and a dainty little Chinese lady 
in painted terra-cotta of the T'ang dynasty, which might 
almost be termed quasi-Mestrovic, had the Serb executed 
anything ever so wistful. The Ming period is personified 
principally by polychrome figures of a strenuous-looking 
tlute-player and a pair of Dogs of Foh, which are cata- 
logued literally, if somewhat obscurely, as "chimeras." 

Works by Walter 
Bayes : " London 
in the '40's," 
by T. S. Boys 

As there has been ample opportunity of late to examine 
Mr. Bayes' large-scale work, it was interesting to turn 
to the exhibition at the Leicester 
Galleries (Leicester Square), where 
some of his less pretentious 
conceptions have been attracting 
attention. On the w-hole, one 
is inclined to wonder whether Mr. Bayes is altogether 
sincere in his outlook, especially as some of his smaller 
canvases are imbued with a feeling for quality and tech- 
nique lacking to his more mannered moments. This is 
very noticeable in certain beach and bathing scenes, of 
which the truthful While Parasol strikes a firm note, 
echoed less strongly in Across the Beach, the Brave 
Bather, and the Timid Bather ; but even some of these 
are marred by a free employment of the particularly 

The Connoisseur 

virulent green affected by the artist. On the other hand, interest than any of the so-called pictorial portraits of him. 

it is difficult to take seriously such subjects as Tapage The latter have been reinforced by an oil-paintiny On 




Noclurne, or the bird's-eye views, in which everything is 
sacrificed to sensationalism. 

It was a relief in many ways to pass on to the series of 
lithographs of London by Thomas Shotter Boys (1803- 
1874), an engraver meriting far more popular attention 
than has been bestowed on him. Published in 1S43, the 
scenes are treated in a broad manner, which was surely 
inherited from Bonington, whose pupil Boys was. Local 
colour and picturesque details are preserved, whilst the 
figures are put in beautifully. Very interesting are Tem- 
ple Bar, from the Strand; The Tomer and Mint, from 
Great Toiver Hill, with an artist sketching in the fore- 
ground ; and Piccadilly, looking Eastward, with a knot 
of spectators following the course of two balloons. 

A newly dis- 
covered Portrait 
of Shakespeare 

Probably there are over a hundred pictures which are 
claimed to be contemporary portraits of Shakespeare, 
but though it is possible that some 
of these may be genuine, there are 
only tw'O likenesses of the poet 
which can be established as 
authentic by evidence that would be accepted in a court 
of law. One of these is the bust in Stratford-on-Avon 
church, and the other is the engraving by Martin 
Droeshout, prefixed to the first folio. Both these works 
were accepted as likenesses of Shakespeare by people 
actually acquainted with him, and though neither can be 
regarded as a fine work of art, they possess a far greater 

panel, now on view at the Walker Galleries (New Bond 
Street). It is not altogether a new discovery, for an 
illustration of it was reproduced in an edition of Shake- 
speare issued about seventy or eighty years ago, since 
when it has apparently been lost sight of, to reappear 
again in a private house in Kent. The picture, obviously, 
is intended as a portrait of Shakespeare. It closely re- 
sembles the Droeshout engraving, but represents him at 
a somewhat later period, forming as it were a connecting- 
link between the engraving and the Stratford bust. The 
panel is contained in an old frame, probably dating from 
the time of Elizabeth : but one would scarcely like to 
accept the picture itself as belonging to the same period 
without the production of strong expert evidence to that 
effect, the technique appearing to be of a somewhat later 
date. It is, however, an old and highly interesting 
portrait, possessing greater claims for respect than the 
large majority of the alleged likenesses of Shakespeare, 
and it is possible that careful investigation might result 
in its authenticity being established. 

There has been lately on view in London an inter- 
esting stained-glass window presented by the Duke of 
Connaught to St. Bartholomew's 
Church, Ottawa, as a memorial to 
those members of his Canadian 
staff who lost their lives in the war. The window is the 
work of Miss W. M. Geddes, a young Irish artist, who 

An Irish 
Memorial Window 



[/■Aulo Mansell 

Current Art Notes 



both designed and painted 
it. It contains three 
Hghts, and shows a fallen 
warrior being welcomed 
by soldier saints, cham- 
pions, and angels. The 
warrior is shown in the 
left light, armed and 
wrapped in a crimson 
cloak, with a broken spear 
in his hand. He is being 
led forward by Saint 
Raphael, the guardian of 
travellers, and Saint 
Gabriel, the Angel of 
the Resurrection. Be- 
hind the warrior is the 
.Angel of Death, withacup 

in his hand, and above him the .A.ngel of Peace. In the 
middle light, meeting them, are Saints Longius. Sebastian, 
and .Martin with banners in their hands, and above them 
Saint .Michael with a sceptre and a sword ; and in the right- 
Iiand light are Saint Edmimd, Joan of Arc, and Saint 
Louis, with banners, and Saint George on horseback. In 
the background of all three lights are knights of King 
Arthur on horseback, while in the traceries above are 
.•\ngels of Peace and War, and in the bases of the windows 
the representation of a procession of mourners. The 
design is original and well conceived, the figures being 
composed with admirable decorative balance and the 
coloration rich and harmonious. The window was e.\e- 
cuted at Miss Purser's Glass Works, Dublin. These 
works, of which Miss Purser is the honorary manager, are 
conducted on behalf of an association of glass and mosaic 
artists established a number of years ago, with a view to 
the production of work of a high artistic character. (Jne 
of their rules is that each window shall be the work of 
a single artist, who is responsible for the design and 
the selection and painting of the glass, which ensures a 
homogeneity of feeling and execution rarely attained by 
the employment of different workers on the same piece. 
Before the war the Association had an arduous struggle 
for success against the competition of vulgar and inartistic 
glass produced in Munich factories, but in spite of this 
they executed commissions in most of the important 
churches of all denominations in Ireland as well as in 
England and abroad, and their successes in these and 
more recent works show that the capacity for beautiful 
decorative work which so distinguished Irish artists 
during the Middle .A.ges still exists and requires only 
adequate opportunity for its triumphant revival. 

To those who enjoy old sporting pictures, the collection 
of racing paintings on view at Ackermann's Galleries 

^,, D ■ f'57a, New Bond Street) will be of 

Old Racing . , . 

Pictures exceptional interest. It consists of 

eighteen canvases, painted between 
the years 1790 and 1827 for that fine old sportsman, 
Christopher Wilson, one of the fathers of the English turf, 
who must have had a nice appreciation of art as well as 

HEMY, R...\. 

sport, for he selected two 
of the best artists of 
their kind, John N. Sar- 
torius and Ben Marshall, 
to execute his behests, 
and induced them to 
produce work of un- 
usually high quality. 
J. N. Sartorius is repre- 
sented with sixteen exam- 
ples, all highly finished 
and painted with a careful 
rendering of the acces- 
sories not often shown in 
the rank and file of his 
works passing through the 
sale-room. He followed in 
the old traditions of horse 
painting, which required that the steeds in swift movement 
should be represented with rocking-horse action. Despite 
this conventionalism, which dominated English racing art 
from the days of Wootton until the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century, his pictures present some of the famous 
horses of the classic days of the English turf with a spirit 
and verisimilitude leaving little to be desired. The earli- 
est of the pictures shows the unbeaten Eclipse, a horse 
who was never seriously extended in any of his races, 
and who is perhaps the most famous stallion who ever 
trod the English turf. The picture shows the horse— a 
chestnut with a white stocking on his off hind leg — stand- 
ing with his jockey, in red and white (the colours of Mr. 
O'Kelly, his owner). There are several canvases re- 
presenting the finishes of hard-run races — Creeper beat- 
ing Dragon in lygi; Lurcher beating Kitt Carr and 
Ormond, i/QJs and Dungannon beating Rockingham 
in the same year, works spirited in their execution, and 
of historic interest. But the latter description applies 
equally to all of them, for what can be of greater interest 
to the devotees of the English turf than these authentic 
contemporary portraits of famous horses of bygone 
times, ancestors of the great racehorses of to-day ? The 
pictures by Sartorius show him at his best. The back- 
grounds are painted with a care and an appreciative 
knowledge of foliage and woodland rarely exemplified in 
his work ; but in sheer artistry they are easily surpassed 
by the two examples by Ben .Marshall, Mameluke and 
Wizard. The former horse, a beautifully groomed 
chestnut, held by his groom, with a stable - boy in 
attendance, is shown against an open background of 
blue-grey sky and sunburnt heath, finely put in, but in 
its simplicity affording no conflicting interest to the horse 
and figures in the foreground. These are superbly 
painted, being set down with the ease, certainty, and 
directness that mark the work of a great artist. Wizard 
is represented standing in front of his stable, with several 
figures. Like the other picture, it is painted with con- 
vincing verisimilitude, every detail being realised, yet the 
whole being kept broad in feeling, and handled with 
largeness and strength. These two pictures aftbrd con- 
clusive evidence that Marshall was one of the greatest 

The Connoisseur 

English artists 
of his time, 
and in his tech- 
nical - ability 
the equal of 
any .contem- 
porary painter 
of sporting 

"Life": A 
facsimile re- 
production in 
colours from 
the picture 
by the late 
C . Napier 
Hemy, R.A. 
(A limited 
issue at £5 5s. 
British Fine 
Art Publish- 
ing Co.) 

Before the 
war a very 
large propor- 
t i o n o f t h e 
h i g h - c 1 a s s 
process and 
ph o t o gravure 
published in 
this country 
were made 
in Germany. 
There was no 
necessity for 
this. English 
work, as w a s 
exemplified in 
plates issued 
by The Con- 
noisseur and 
the few other 
publishers who 

tabooed foreign productions, was not one whit inferior 
to German, and the preference so often given to the 
latter must be ascribed not to merit, but to the enter- 
prise of German travellers, and to the powerful support 
given to them by their own government. Even the 
"All Highest" himself did not disdain to take a hand 
in the matter, and, when other methods failed, would 
write autograph letters to the owners of famous col- 
lections asking as a personal favour that their contents 
might be placed at the disposal of German firms for 
reproduction. In the midst of the war the British Fine 
Art Company, in which many leading English firms 
possess an interest, was started to work in that artistic 
sphere, which had been so largely left in the hands of the 
Germans, and publish reproductions in colour and black- 

- Biiii»'.-aK 

pur fwm r^ 


the attractive 
old and mod- 
ern pictures. 
How well they 
have succeed- 
ed in the 
artistic side of 
is shown in the 
large facsimile 
reproducti on 
in colours from 
C . Napier 
Hemy's pic- 
ture o f z ?yv, 

just issued. 
The subject, 
a small \acht 
bounding over 
a foam-flecked 
sea, is not an 
easy one for 
translation, for 
there are sub- 
tle variations 
in the colour 
of the waves 
which might 
easily be lost, 
and with them 
the whole 
charm of the 
picture. In the 
plate, ho w- 
est discrep- 
ancies in the 
hues and tones 
of the original 
appear to have 
been scrupu- 
lously fol- 
lowed, and 
this not in a 
slavish and mechanical manner, but with a freedom and 
vigour that loses nothing of the spirit of the original. 
The plate is a triumph for British colour-printing, and a 
worthy translation of Mr. Hemy's picture, which was 
one of the attractions of the Royal Academy of 1913, and 
one of the most successful and characteristic efforts of 
his late period. 

In our issue for August, 1918, we gave prominence 
to a scheme whereby disabled soldiers might be trained 
to weave tapestries as memorials of 
Designs for ^,^^ Great War. The preparatory 

iapes ry \\o\& was provided by Sir George 

Frampton, R.A.,and as the well-known sculptor is 
nothing if not a man of ideas, it is interesting to note 



Ci I rye lit Art \otcs 

the practical development of his suggestion. In its task 
of securing artistic designs to form the basis of the move- 
ment, the Guild i under the presidency of the Earl of 

clever Memorial to a Soldier who fell in Action on the 
Western Front, wherein effective use has been made of 
a map as a background to the Good Samaritan subject 



Plymouth) has been faced by a serious obstacle. This 
lies in the fact that the decay of the tapestry-weaving 
industry has unfitted many artists for pursuing a branch 
of decorative art which is limited by severe technical 
restrictions. Fortunately, the exhibition of designs held 
at the galleries of Messrs. T. Agnew & Sons (43, Old 
Bond Street) shows that the selection of the committee 
has been well considered. Mr. G. Clausen, R. A., had a 
veritable inspiration when limning In Memory of those 
fallen in the War, with the peace angel hovering over 
the graves of the slain. Although less perfect as a work 
of art, there is much to be said in praise of a panel 
depicting The Communion at the Front, by Mr. Reginald 
Frampton and his pupils. It is imbued with a rare 
breadth of devotion, and would form an admirable adjunct 
to the furniture of a church, whilst the careful study of 
details will render it valuable to posterity. Very charm- 
ing, too, is Miss Muriel Dawson's sunny conception of 
children in the branches of a fruit tree, and Miss Isabel 
Walton's pseudo-antique design, the principle motif 
being pages holding hounds in leash. Two other small 
panels are from the hands of Miss Gladys Derrick 
(a spirited hunting scene), and the late Mr. Byam Shaw 
(a border to surround an inscription for the Highland 
Light Infantry. Mr. Harold Morley contributes a 

providing the theme. On the other hand, Mr. Walter 
Hayes' Road to Peace leaves much to be desired. There 
seems to be no adequate reason, apart from the painter's 
obvious predilection for Oriental art, why the figures in 
the foreground should be so similar in size to those far 
away. It is preferable to turn to Messrs. F. Apple- 
yard's and H. Watson's Regiinental Memorial, which, if 
somewhat mannered, has at least the charm of good 

The interesting collection of war subjects at the 

Burlington Gallery 1)15, Green Street, Leicester Square 

consists of pictures which are primarily 

war on records. If a few canvases incline 

Land, Sea, and j^^.^^ds the didactic, the shortcoming 

in the Air , j r ^u- 

may be excused lor this very reason. 

The most generally artistic contributions come from the 
hand of Lieut. M. Meredith Williams, whose accom- 
plished brush-work and pleasant colour are evidenced 
in some choice examples. Chief amongst these are a 
decorati\-e Beuvrequen Mill, Bourlon IVoodand Village, 
and the German Wire at Marquette, with a poilu 
trudging through the sunlit snow. These are sufficiently 
good to cause regret that Lieut. Williams should have 
marred his Bullecourt Part of the Hindcnbiir<; Line 


The Coniioissciti'' 

by introducing a rather poorly drawn skull, or by ex- 
hibiting a pair of small figure studies which suffer through 
the stiffness of the models. Far better is the grey 
Sentry, Calonne, although even this leaves something 
to be desired. Mr. Percy F. S. Spence shows numerous 
marine subjects which just miss being interesting as 
pictures, as the artist fails to make the most of their 
dramatic possibilities. Capt. C. E. Turner, R.A.F., is 
more happy, and is marvellously true to detail. He is 
seen at his best in The English Mail leaving Cher- 
bourg; In from the Sea, and The Western Boom. 
The second-named work is highly successful in its por- 
trayal of a short seaplane returning to Calshot beach 
with the sunlight behind it. Another striking drawing 
of The Attack emphasises the dramatism of Handley- 
Page bombers strafing Zeebrugge from the depths of the 

The series of etchings which is housed in an upper 
room forms a valuable commentary on M. Jan Poorte- 
naar's methods. He is obviouslv 

Etchings by 
Jan Poortenaar 

interested in patterns of light and 
shade, and does not concern himself 
overmuch with topography. Therefore his night scenes, 
such as Trafalgar Square, gain all that is lost in his 
daylight studies, where, as in his IVesiininster School, the 
proportions of buildings are sometimes faulty. A very 
poetic little Moonrise deserves a place of honour, whilst 
a more detailed interest animates The Old Cabhorse 
standing in the full glare of the arc-lamps. 

It is not the easiest task to criticise Miss Gosse's work 
in rooms of ordinary dimensions, and even the Goupil 

Gallery (5, Regent Street) did not 
Works by Miss ^,^^. provide the sufficiently distant 
bylvia (josse . . , , , > . 

view-pomt necessitated by her method 

of painting. Miss Gosse is not afraid of colour ; perhaps 
she is a trifle too fearless. A similar sensation is con- 
veyed by her handling, which, although always de.xter- 
ous, might be improved by reticent passages. In many 
cases she does not draw so much as imply form by 
patches of apparently unallied tones, which only assume 
their correct values when seen from afar. The Guards'' 
Return, as suggested by two women peering between 
the slats of a Venetian blind, was one of the happiest 
examples of Miss Gosse's bravura, whilst The Printing 
Press and The Sick Civilian were noteworthy for their 
vigour. The last-named would be conspicuous for its 
composition alone, as all the main features are beyond 
the direct line of sight. The patient's head is lost behind 
the form of the watcher by the bedside, whose reflection 
in a mirror provides the central point of interest. Possibly 
the conception is a shade too ingenious to be absolutely 
convincing. The studies from the nude were not 
altogether pleasing, and one suspects that the life is one 
instance in which the artist adheres almost too faitlxfuUy 
to her model. If Miss Gosse has won notice as an oil- 
painter, however, she shines as an aquarellist, her water- 
colours being marked by a sympathy for pure harmonies 
which suggests that she is verv much at home in the 

management of this medium. Especially interesting 
were a Girl on Sofa: Nude ; and Study of Two Women, 
which caught the eye and compelled attention. The 
drawings in pencil, charcoal, etc., were highly conscien- 
tious, if not particularly inspired, whilst the draughtsman- 
ship did not tell in every case. In spite of all that has 
been urged or implied, there seems to be no real argu- 
ment against an artist adding a knowledge of drawing to 
his or her box of tricks. Even beings like Rembrandt or 
Reynolds found it useful. 

Although many persons must be weary of war scenes, 

there can be but few who remained indifferent to Mr. 

Hughes-Stanton's exhibition at the 

" '^P'"" '° ^*- Fine Art Society's Galleries 148, New 

Quentin," by g^^^ Street!. One of the most 

H. Hughes- , 1 r r u •■ • .1 

. X, . subtle features of his pictures is the 
Stanton, A.R.A. , ,■,,■, 

manner by which the artist has con- 
formed treatment to subject. \'iews in ruined towns, 
for instance, are portrayed by means of a quasi-chaotic 
technique which is one of the few adequate methods of 
depicting a cosmic bouleversement. Everything has 
been kicked and smashed by the Furies, and the gaunt 
silence of desolation descends on the debris. There 
are no leading lines, for the precise reason that there 
were none. Almost every canvas is dignified by a deep 
feeling for colour. Some of the best are the Woods at 
Souchez; Souchez ; and Peronne and Mont St. (2uentin 
from the South- West, the symphonic treatment of the 
backgrounds placing them amongst the finest productions 
of Mr. Hughes- Stanton's brush. Very effective is the 
St. (luentin-Cambrai Road, seen beneath a lowering 
blue-grey sky, to which the fitful sunlight playing midst 
the tortured trunks of Bourlon Wood forms an almost 
cheerful contrast. The large canvas of The St. Quentin 
Canal, which the artist has presented to the Imperial 
War Museum, is a dexterous conception, but is, perhaps, 
a trifle nebulous when considered from the standpoint of 
pictorial record. 

Artistic life in Belgium has been nearly dormant 
since the Armistice, and except for a few one-man exhibi- 
tions at private galleries, there is very 
little to mention. Several small "war 
exhibitions " have exemplified those 
monotonous presentations of ruined 
buildings, decapitated trees, and devastated fields, with 
some sketches of military life— so often seen already — 
that they have lost the interest formerly attached to them. 
With lune a revival of interest in art exhibitions is 
noticeable in Brussels. The first important event is the 
exhibition of the engraved work of Sir Frank Brang- 
wyn, R.A., presented by the artist himself to the Belgian 
Government. The prints are included in a large exhibi- 
tion of art and "souvenirs de guerre" at the Palais 
d'Egmont. This wonderful series of more than two 
hundred remarkable etchings— a gift of great intrinsic 
value — attracts enthusiastic and appreciative crowds. 
Brangwyn's art, I need not say, was well known in 
Belgium before the war, but never such a collection of 

Current Art 
Events in 


Cur rent Art Xotes 

his engravings had been assembled here, and it arouses 
the utmost admiration. Belgian artists have suggested 
the signing of a collective address of gratitude in order to 
show to Sir Frank Brangu-yn their appreciation for his 

Another feature of the month is the si.xth "Salon de 
Printemps de la Societe Royale des Beaux-Arts de 
Bru.xelles." Before the war these "salons" used to 
be arranged in the huge buildings of the Palais du 
Cinquantenaire. The walls were available not only for 
the works of the members of the Society, but were' also 
open to^ every artist desiring to submit his work to the 
"Jury." Moreover, numerous distinguished foreign 
pamters, sculptors, and engravers were, as a rule, in- 
vited to contribute to the exhibition. This year the Salon 
had to be organised on a less ambitious' scale. The 
galleries of the Palais du Cinquantenaire have been left 
by the Boche in such a condition of filthiness that there 
was no question of using them again before a complete 
and immensely costly cleansing and restoration could be 
made. On the other hand, the ditticulties of transport 
made it impossible to secure the works of foreign artists 
m time for the exhibition. Owing to the same cause, 
very few works came from Antwerp, Ghent, and the other 
provincial centres. 

The Salon is opened in the rooms of that charming 
club called "Le Cercle Artistique et Litteraire,^' so 
happily and conveniently situated in the " Pare." It is 
very much visited. A representative selection of pictures, 
sculptures, and drawings fills the large concert hall and 
the two galleries, and a good number of conspicuous 
names from among the most modern Belgian schools 
appear in the catalogue. There is nothing very new or 
strange, and no very important contribution, only a re- 
presentative example of each exhibitor. Emile Claus 
shows a pre-war landscape, but keeps for a personal ex- 
hibition his Thames Reverberations, though art-lo\er3 
would prefer to see them immediately. Baertsoen ab- 
stains from contributing, as does the sculptor Rombaux, 
who is on the managing committee. Leon Frederic' 
Fernand Khnopff, Auguste Dounay, A. J. Heymans| 
Michel Sterckmans, Maurice Blieck, are all well' repre- 
sented ; and so is \'ictor Rousseau, who has sent two 
beautiful bronzes. Let us hope that in May, 1920, we 
shall see, as in the old days, a real " Salon de Prin- 
temps," with its large assemblage of pictures and sculp- 
ture, and an extensive department devoted to decoration 
and arts and crafts.^ P. L. 

Miss ]VLarg.4.RET Kees' first exhibition, held by Messrs. 
Arthur Ackermann& Sons, Ltd. (157a, New Bond Street), 
" Idylls of Japan " ^"^'^'^'^ "^ to form a very favourable 
by Miss ' impression of her art. The charm 

Margaret Kees °^ ^^^ drawings lies in their 

colour -schemes, which are always 
harmonious. ^ As the idylls are frankly nothing mo're 
than impressions, we cannot take serious umbrage at a 
nebulosity of subject and a weakness of draughtsmanship 
that might be troublesome in more studied performances. 
Miss Kees has a pronounced penchant for colour, and 

succeeds in producing many tasteful effects. Her com- 
positions are sufficiently similar to obviate detailed de- 
scription, but praise is due to her Cherry Blossom Dance; 
Pipers Song, and Tlie Festival. 

It was inevitable that the Paris art season, which has 
just drawn to a close, should bear the impress of the 
Paris Notes "'^'^' ^^'^ smaller galleries, however, 

held almost as many exhibitions of 
modern work as in normal times, and were as much 
frequented by that small but cultured public to whom 
such shows make their appeal, while the Salon was re- 
opened with much the same pomp and ceremony as is 
characteristic of the Royal Academy at Burlington House, 
to which it is nowadays but little inferior in point of 
mediocrity '. In brief, it may be acknowledged that this 
revered institution can lay claim this year to no new de- 
parture in respect either of art or of artists. Though in 
a short article of this description it is impossible to enter 
into details as to such exhibitions, it may be remarked 
that the advent of no new genius occurred to herald the 
arrival of a new era in the political sphere or to accom- 
pany that upheaval which during the past five years has 
transformed the face of the earth. Sufiice it to say that 
those years provided many a young artist with the 
opportunity of recording the numerous and varied im- 
pressions which the war afforded him, and enabled those 
painters who worked in a capacity more or less official 
to add, in the many canvases in which they represented 
life in the trenches and behind the lines, a fresh note to 
those on which for so many years they have continued to 
ring the changes. 

The year has been marked by the following features :— 
Firstly, there have been a number of important auction- 
room events in which prices ruled high throughout, but 
especially and abnormally high in certain cases. 

Secondly, there has occurred a noticeable dearth in 
the supply of really fine pictures and works of art, not- 
withstanding that slackness ofdemand which might reason- 
ably have been expected in war-time. The exportation 
of objets d'art which took place to a very marked ex- 
tent to America and 'the neutral countries of Northern 
Europe throughout 1916 and 1917, helped no little to 
accentuate the depletion in the stocks of the art firms of 
established reputation. 

Thirdly, there has arisen on the part of the great 
French collectors an obvious diffidence in buying, trace- 
able not only to the political outlook and the incentive to- 
wards investment provided by the War Loans as opposed 
to the inducements offered by works of art, but also to 
the ill-advised Luxury Tax. The latter is, however, in its 
present form likely to undergo considerable revision. 

Fourthly, an unexpected impetus has been given to 
the sale of mediocre work and of purely decorative pieces 
in practically every department of art, whether it be 
in china, furniture, prints, pictures, or so on. The 
same has held good in regard to modern work, which 
has found ready purchasers in the profiteers and noii- 
veattx riches produced by the war —people who ha\e 
acquired less taste and knowledge of art than wealth, 


The Connoisseur 

and who are better able to appreciate the simplicity of 
much of the modern painting than to comprehend the 
subtleties of the Old Master. 

Thus, in short, it has come about that there has been a 
steady rise in prices of really fine work, rare though their 
sale has been, their scarcity maintaining those prices at 
an abnormally high level, in spite of the fact that, so far 
as France was concerned, there has in fact been no real 
market for them. Simultaneously with that of the rub- 
bish, their price has continued to soar, and will continue, 
it may be prophesied, to pursue its upward flight. 

Among the important sales, of which mention has been 
made, was that of the Hoentschel collection, which in- 
cluded two designs for a ceiling by Tiepolo. A notable 
sensation, too, was created by the Degas sale, in which 
record prices were fetched by those wondrous works in 
which, with characteristic modernity, the painter has, with 
the science which is distinctive of him, and which places 
him in the first rank of his day, given e.xpression to his 
emotion. Nor did the interest in the dispersal abate 
with the third and fourth sales, which took place in .-Xpril 
and J uly of this year. 

The Denys-Cochin sale was likewise a notable event, dis- 
playing, as it did, the aspect under which war happenings 
had no influence whatsoever upon record figures. Remark- 
able for the quality of the china was the Brasseur sale, while 
the Michel Levy sale, with its miscellaneous collection of 
works of art, was not without distinct interest, though, as 
confirmed by the record of prices reached, all the works 
were not of perfect quality. The collection of drawings 
by Boucher was, however, very remarkable, as were also 
some of the Fragonards and one of the famous Perronneau 
pastels. Among the pictures, those by Watteau were 
the most noteworthy. 

Following on the heels of this sale came that of the 
Flameng collection, when nearly fifty pictures and numer- 
ous drawings were dispersed. It contained also some 
fine sculpture, among it a St. Barbe and two terra-cottas 
by Houdon and Falconet respectively. The examples 
of Lawrence were typical, and the man's portrait by 
Raeburn was a fair specimen of the master. 

Another important sale was that of the collection of 
L. de Mont-Germont, composed of pictures, drawings, 
and other works of art. The modern pictures were less 
interesting in this sale than the Old Masters. Special 
mention must be made of the fine bronzes by Barye and 
of the French drawings of the eighteenth and early 
nineteenth centuries. 

Among the exhibitions, the most striking was un- 
doubtedly that of the Italian artists of the eighteenth 
century, held at the Petit Palais, and including several 
masterpieces by Longhi and some representative work 
by the Canaletti. Of the latter, some were no doubt 
by the originator of the school, Antonio Canaletto, and 
others by Fabio. Others were from the hand of the no 
less remarkable artist, Bernardo di Belotto, his nephew, 
while a number were the work of the father, Bernardo 
di Canale. Next in importance came that bevy of 
artists whose work is in England so often confused 
the one with the other. I refer to such men as Panini, 

Marieski, Locatelli, Zuccarelli, and Griselli, to mention 
a few at random. As might be expected, some confu- 
sion likewise occurred in this instance as to the correct 

There were also some remarkable Guardis, attributed 
very naturally for the most part to the greatest of this 
remarkable family, Francesco. Personally, I am of the 
opinion that some were clearly the work of Jacopo 
Guardi and of Paolo Guaidi. This remarkable collection 
also contained a few fine Tiepolos and Piazzettas, as well 
as some fine examples in pastel by Rosalba Carriera. 

In the same building there was held an exhibition of 
the modern Spanish school, one room being specially 
devoted to Goya. The marvellous tapestries lent by the 
Spanish royal family were hung in the hall of the Petit 
Palais. No more than cursory mention can be made of the 
interesting Spanish artists, among whom the principal 
are Zorolla Frederico, Beltran y Masses, Jose Pinazo 
Martinez, Jose Benliure Gil, Zuloaga, and Ruiz. Even 
when we have added to the list the names of Gallardo 
and Palmaroli, a number of brilliant men have still 
been omitted. 

The exhibition by the Czecho-Slovak sculptors, close 
by, was interesting for the Byzantine influence discernible 
in their monumental sculpture. These men are without 
doubt aiming high, and, when they have passed through 
the period of transition, will no doubt in years to come 
produce work of real greatness. 

Last in regard to mention, but by no means last in 
regard to importance, comes the exhibition of " Les 
lllustrateurs Francais,'' with its fine examples by Debu- 
court. Cochin, Lavreince, and St. Aubin, and its specially 
wonderful set of Fragonard drawings, illustrating the story 
of Don Quixote. 

The Museum of the Louvre has at last partially re- 
opened its doors, and the limited exhibition now on view 
is particularly interesting by reason of the addition of a 
number of works on loan. Among the latter are some 
splendid examples of Leonardo da Vinci, whose quatro- 
centenary takes place this year. Most interesting also is 
the collection of pastels by Latour from St. Quentin, 
while scarcely less attractive is the Barye room, wherein 
this artist's paintings, water-colours, drawings and bronzes 
are to be seen and studied. — R.R.M.S. 

We have now reached the end of the summer season, 
the period when in Italy everyone who can, from Mini- 
ster to "impiegato," from Prince to 
Art Notes from 5,,op.i.egpe,.^ goes either into " ville- 

''^ giatura'' or the "bagni di mare." 

It will be of interest at this time to take a necessarily 
brief survey of the season which is just over, and to note 
what have been its successes, its failures, its features of 
dominant interest. 

On the whole, art has held her own, both during the 
earlier conditions of war and the later economic uncer- 
tainty, combined with general high prices, of the armistice 
leading up to a peace, which at any rate in Italy is not 
regarded with general satisfaction. Even in art matters 
Milan mav be fairl\- taken as an index, for Milan is the 


Current Art Notes 

great business centre of North Italy, the place where most 
money is spent, and where art is most alive ; and in 
Milan, through the spring and early summer, there has 
been a series of brilliant and successful exhibitions, 
accompanied by exceptionally good sales. Two great 
centres of art exhibitions in Milan are the Galleria Pesaro, 
under its present able management, and the Galleria 
Centrale. At both of these the past season has a very 
good record. 

At the Pesaro, early in 1918, the Venetians Ferruccio 
Scattola and Italico Brass had been well presented. Last 
winter (October-November) \'enice appeared again in the 
Mostra Individuale of Rafaelle Taguri, and yet again 
(November-December, 191S in those of two other Vene- 
tians who exhibited together, \'incenzo de' Stefani and 
Emma Ciardi. The Ciardi at \'enice, it has been well 
said, " renew to-day the classic example of those \'ene- 
tian families entirely of painters who in the golden ages 
of our art were famed throughout Europe — the Tintoretto, 
including Marietta and Domenico, the two Tiepolos, the 
two Canalettos, the two Longhi " ; and Emma Ciardi, 
\\\io is a good deal younger than her famous brother 
Heppe, is well known in London, where she has exhibited 
w'ith success, at the Leicester Galleries, her charming 
visions of the life of the eighteenth century in \'enice, and 
in the lovely villas of the mainland — such as the Villa 
Keale at Stra, the \'illa Palladiana at \'icenza, the Giusti 
( hardens at \'erona — of which her Tcatro Verde was a 
beautiful e.xample. 

" La scene se passe dans un pare de Watteau vers une 
fin d'apres-midi d'ete '' : these words of X'erlaine could be 
written, says a famous Milanese critic, on the first page 
of the catalogue of Emma Ciardi's best-known pictures. 
But a yet more recent and even more successful X'enetian 
exhibition at the Pesaro Gallery was that held this spring 
of the paintings of Professor Ettore Tito. 

Ettore Tito stands at this moment in the front of modern 
Italian art. .Southern by birth — he was born at Castella- 
mare, though his mother was Venetian — he has always 
lived in Venice, and has made that city his home. From 
his initial success of the Old Fisli Market of Venice (La 
Pescheria Vecchia) of 1887, w-hich was acquired at once 
for the National Gallery of Modern Art in Rome, he has 
developed his art, and brought within its scope not only 
the delightfullv fresh and alive studies of Italian — and 

especially \'enetian — popular life, which secured his fame, 
but classic mythology and finely decorative creations, 
both treated from a personal and independent standpoint. 

It has been well said of him, referring directly to the 
sixty or more paintings which he sent last spring to the 
Pesaro Gallery, that he has started from the tradition 
of Favretto, to turn in his full power to the grander 
memories of \'enice, in the art of Veronese, and yet more 
directly of Tiepolo. And yet Tito remains always a 
realist, and Sig. Ojetti, in the catalogue to this exhibition, 
writes: "Ettore Tito is no theorist — he is simply a 
painter. . . . Vet he seeks real life in his work, and 
knows how to control and dominate it. He invents, 
composes, refines, and colours it, adapts it to his own 
nature and taste, which is always conscious and awake." 

The success of the exhibition was immediate and 
complete : it included every side of Professor Tito's art, 
from the sculpturesque beauty of his Saiiiaritana^ and 
such fine portrait work as his Dr. Corrado Ricci and 
Signora Venturini, to those charming scenes of popular 
life in \'enice, at Rocca di Papa, overlooking the Roman 
Campagna, and Valsesia, and the studies for his recent 
decorative panels of the Villa Berlinghieri. 

Following this exhibition at the Pesaro came that of 
a Roman group, the paintings of Enrico Lionne, the 
sculpture of .Amleto Cataldi, who excels, like D'Antino, 
in his figures of dancing girls, with their suggestion of 
supple movement, and the goldsmith's art of Vincenzo 
Miranda: while at the same time the Futurists held an 
exhibition at the Galleria Centrale, which created a good 
deal of public interest and curiosity. 

Lastly, at Florence there has been recently shown a 
collection of paintings by the Tuscan artist Plinio 
Nomellini, whose art, full of the open air and sunlight, 
created such an impression at the Rome " Secession " in 
the years before the war. Nomellini's work is pre- 
eminently vigorous, sane, in sympathy with the life of 
the country and work upon the land, but just now he is 
busy on military subjects, following up the success of his 
great painting of the victory on the Piave. 

The fourth centenary of the death of Leonardo da 
Vinci has been wortMly celebrated throughout Italy. A 
special volume is being prepared, and there have been 
commemorations at Rome, Milan, Bologna, Florence, 
and Naples. — S. B. 


"The Seventh Volume of the Walpok Society, 
1918-1919." Edited by A. J. Finberg 
" The Note-book and Account Book of Nicholas 
Stone," by Walter Lewis Spiers. (The Walpole Society. 
Issued only to subscribers) 

.\MO.NG the best - known monuments in St. Pauls 
Cathedral is that to Dr. John Donne, a ghastly shrouded 
figure perched upright on a cinerary urn, and confronting 
the spectator from a niche in the wall of the south aisle of 

he choir. Nearly every sightseer in the cathedral scruti- 
nises the monument and wonders at its eccentricity, yet 
not one in a hundred learns that it is the work of Nicholas 
Stone, the greatest of all known English sculptors and 
monument designers anterior to the eighteenth century. 
The spectator is not to be blamed for his ignorance, as a 
diligent search on the part of the writer through several 
guide-books and Dr. 
Sinclair's Memorials of St. 
Paul's Cathedral \\a.s af- 
forded no clue to the iden- 
tity of the artist of this 

mural monument. There 
are finer works by the same 

hand at Westminster 

Abbey, such as the detached 
altar-tombs of Sir George 

Villiers and the Earl of 

Middlesex, or the pedestal 

monuments to Sir George 

and Francis Holies, while 

many others are contained 

in less famous churches in 

London, the home counties, 

andfurtherafield. One may 

take it, unfortunately, that 

the same ignorance gene- 
rally prevails regarding the 

authorship of these fine 

works, and that though 

most cultured people have 

heard of the Stones — 

Nicholas and his sons 

Henry, Nicholas, and John 

— few, except professed stu- 
dents of archeology, would 

be able to give an account of 

ihem or their manifold 


achievements as sculptors, architects, and designers. 
There is less excuse for this ignorance, as Nicholas Stone 
left behind him a note-book and an account book, now 
treasured in Sir John Soane's Museum, which contained 
a fairly full record of his work, while a journal kept by 
Nicholas Stone the younger while in Italy is preserved 
among the Harleian MSS. at the British Museum. The 
first two books, once owned by Vertue, were made use 
of by Walpole in his Anecdotes of Painters, and all three 
by Dallaway in his edition of that work and Mr. Beres- 
ford Chancellor in his Lives of the British Sculptors; 
but in comprehensive works of this nature it is impossi- 
ble for the authors to linger unduly on the career of any 
individual artist, so the extracts given were rather of a 
kind to whet the appetite far more than to completely 
satisfy it. The latter office is now fulfilled in the current 

volume of the Walpole 
Society's publications, in 
which Mr. Finberg presents, 
posthumously unfortunate- 
ly, the fruit of the enthusi- 
astic research of the late 
Mr. Walter Lewis Spiers in 
regard to these MSS. of the 
Stone family. He was cu- 
rator of the Soane M useum, 
so that the books of Nicho- 
las Stone were under his 
immediate charge, and he 
spared no pains in elucidat- 
ing them and discovering 
the present whereabouts of 
the monuments and other 
architectural and sculptural 
works mentioned in them, 
taking an admirable series 
of photographs of them. 
This labour of love was the 
more difficult as Stoneappa- 
rently compiled a large por- 
tion of his memoranda from 
memory, and was not always 
accurate in recording the 
names of the people for 
whom he executed his com- 
missions or the localities 
where the work was done. 

BY D. 


The Connoisseur Bookshelf 



Mr. Spiers' notes, supple- 
mented by those of Mr. 
Finberg, correct the ma- 
jority of these errors; 
while even more valuable 
to the student are the re- 
productions of the superb 
series of photographs 
taken byMr. Spiers, which 
give for the first time a 
comprehensive idea of 
the work of Nicholas 
Stone and his sons. 

The father was a native 
of Devon, being born at 
Woodbury, near Exeter, 
in I 587. It is possible 
that he had relatives in 
London, f o r a William 
Stone is mentioned as 
one of the contributories 
towards the cost of the 
repairs of the church of 
St. Martin- in -the-Fields 
in 1596, and it was in 
St. Martin's parish that 
Stone ultimately took up 
his residence. This, however, is purely conjectural ; all 
that is certain is that, when sixteen or seventeen, Nicholas 
came to London and was apprenticed for two years to 
Isaac James — probably one of the numerous contemporary 
statuaries of repute — and served him for a third year as 
journeyman. At that period the sculpture and architec- 
ture of England were in a state of transition. The classic 
style introduced into the country by the Italian work- 
men brought over by Henry VUL had become debased 
and coarsened in the reigns of his immediate successors, 
during which Italian influence had been replaced by that 
of Holland and ("lermany. Fortunately for Stone, he had 
the opportun- 
i t >• of cor- 
recting the 
knowledge he 
acqui red of 
English styles 
and traditions 
by w o r k in g 
abroad. Hen- 
rikde Keyser, 
master mason 
and sculptor 
to the city of 
paid a visit to 
London in 
1606. He was 
attracted by 
the artistic 
promise of the 
young man, rise of the full moon by palizzi 


and persuaded the latter 
to return with him to Hol- 
land. Here Stone re- 
mained until 16 1 3, when, 
after marrying de Keyser's 
daughter Maria, he 
brought her back with 
him to England, and set 
up in London as a master 
mason. He appears to 
have already established 
a high reputation, for his 
note-book records details 
of important commissions 
undertaken immediately 
after his return. Mr. 
Spiers points out that 
Stone's early examples 
show a tendency to follow 
the conventional formal- 
ism of the time, but that 
presently he adopted a 
freer and purer style. It 
is possible that the influ- 
ence of Inigo Jones contri- 
butedtothisend, for.Stone 
was workingdirectly under 
him in 161 9, and as he was executing work in the royal 
palaces three years earlier, it is probable that he then 
came into contact with the great architect in the latter's 
capacity of surveyor-general to the royal buildings. A 
number of Stone's works have been destroyed, some by 
fire and others at the hands of the restorer, but sufficient 
remain to show what a prolific, accomplished, and versatile 
artist he was. He was no mere imitator, but brought to 
his work an originality and picturesque fancy that stamped 
it with an individuality of its own, and helped to establish 
an independent English artistic tradition. In his sculpture 
he succeeded in investing his figures with both dignity 

and natural- 
ness of pose, 
while his exe- 
c u t i o n w a s 
marked b \ a 
delicacy and 
hardly ob- 
servable in 
English work 
before his 
time. Stone 
designed and 
n early all 
forms of deco- 
rative mason- 
r \- , from a 
humble font 
at London 



The Connoisseur 

£i ot "a letell chemny peces in a banking Hows ^30,'' 
to a more stately and ornate " chemney pecs for Sir 
John Holland .... at quidnon in Xorthfolk," for which 
he had yji,ooo, and several monuments each at the 
same price. Sundials, ornamental gates, woodwork, and 
numerous mural tablets came within his province, and 
when he died in 1647, he had left an enduring imprint 
on English monumental architecture. His second son, 
Nicholas, died within a few days of him ; Henry, the eldest 
son, in 1653 ; and John, the youngest, in 1667. The 
three sons left little work behind them. Nicholas, after 
showing great promise as a student in Italy, came home 
apparently only to die. John executed a few monuments 
which Mr. Spiers was able to identify and illustrate ; while 
Henry — known as " Old Stone " — is chiefly famous as a 
painter, most early copies of Van Dyck which cannot be 
otherwise identified being set down to his credit. The 
record of the family as set down in the Walpole Society's 
publication worthily perpetuates the memory of one of 
the greatest and earliest sculptors, and forms a valuable 
addition to the series of volumes already produced. 

"Mary Beale," by Gery Milner-Gibson-CuIIum, F.S.A. 
Reprinted from the Proceedings cf the Suffolk Institute 
of ArchcEology and Natural History 
(W. E. Harrison, Ipswich) 

M.\RV Be.\LE was the earliest of well-known English 
women artists, the forerunner of Angelica Kauftmann, 
Mary Moser, and the host of lady professionals who since 
the eighteenth century have competed with their male 
contemporaries on well-nigh level terms. Walpole gave 
her lengthy mention in his Anecdotes of Painting, but 
until Mr. Collins Baker authenticated a number of her 
principal pictures, her name was largely used for christen- 
ing seventeenth-century portraits too poor to be ascribed 
to Lely, Kneller, or their better-known contemporaries. 
Mr. Gery Milner-Gibson-Cullum has now gathered to- 
gether all the information known concerning this artist 
in an interesting pamphlet, illustrated with several re- 
productions from self and other portraits by her. Mary 
Beale, nee Cradock, was born in 1633 at Barrow, in 
Suffolk, the daughter of the rector of that parish. She 
married, in 165 1, Charles Beale, who united the varied 
occupations of a member of the Office of Green Cloth, 
a maker of colours, and an amateur painter. He was 
also Lord of the Manor of, which 
may account for Walpole erroneously stating that his 
father-in-law, Mr. John Cradock, was incumbent there. 
Mary Beale has generally been called a pupil of Lely, 
but she appears to have commenced her career as a 
popular painter before she came into direct contact with 
him. She worked in Sufl:blk, probably at Bury St. 
Edmunds, and several of her early pictures are still to 
be found in the neighbourhood. When she and her 
husband removed to London, the latter appears to have 
acted as Lely's colour dealer. Many of the artist's pictures 
passed through his hands, and there was continuous 
intercourse between the two households, by which Mary 
Beale profited, to the improvement of her work and artistic 
reputation. Her vogue grew apace, and quite a number 

of famous people sat to her, including King Charles II. 
his sister-in-law, the Duchess of York, many of the 
beauties of his court, several of the leading statesmen, 
and a fair sprinkling of the Church and nobility. The 
best source of information concerning the artist is con- 
tained in the note-books kept by her husband, Charles 
Beale, of which one is preserved in the National Portrait 
Gallery, while others were copied more or less fully by 
\'ertue. Mr. Milner-Gibson-Cullum has made good use 
of these in compiHng his list of sitters, though one could 
have wished that he could have given more verbatim 
extracts from them, as some of the entries are both quaint 
and informative. Thus in one not quoted Charles Beale 
writes: "1674. Received this yeare for pictures done by 
my dearest ^216-5." As Mary was generally paid £^ 
for a head and £\o for a half-length in oil, this gives a 
good idea of the large number of pictures she produced. 
Many of them doubtless are still masquerading under 
the guise of Lelys and Knellers, but the research work 
of Mr. Milner-Gibson-Cullum and his predecessors 
should lead to the majority of these being restored to 
their true author. 

The Masters of 
the Art cf 
Modern Italy 

Under the general heading of "The Masters of .\rt 
who worked in Italy from 1800 to our own days," the 
well-known art publishers, E. Celanza, 
of Turin, are bringing out, under the 
very efficient editorial supervision of 
Sig. Francesco Sapori, a series of 
small separate volumes upon the art of modern Italy, 
which are not only much appreciated in Italy herself, but 
in general criticism will fill a gap in which accessible in- 
formation was much needed. For modern Italian art — 
which has its evolution just as much as that of her great 
old Masters, and which still follows, even as they did, 
in Milan, \'enice, Tuscany, and Rome, the indi\idual 
type and tradition of her great centres — is to most 
students without, and to many visitors within Italy, a 
sealed volume of which they are entirely ignorant. 

.\nd this is just where this little series of Sig. Celanza, 
which may be considered as complementary to his larger 
collection of " Artisti d'ltalia," is of invaluable service : 
small in size, and inexpensive, but charming in "format," 
and artistically bound, each volume provided with a very 
complete selection of some twenty to thirty illustrations 
and a few pages of illuminating criticism, they open the 
volume we have just described and focus our interest on 
some very fascinating chapters in its story. Not only do 
they do this, but they approach their theme from the true 
standpoint of evolution ; for Domenico Morelli, who com- 
mences this series of " I Maestri dell' Arte, " stands on the 
threshold of this art of new Italy just as truly as Giotto in 
old Florence or Cosimo Tura at Ferrara. Born at Naples 
in 1S26, he is a painter by instinct — what Ugo Ojetti has 
aptly called " uno p'ntore pittore." "When I see the 
colours," he exclaimed, "I am another man " ; and his 
touch with advancing years became richer, more free, 
more "juicy." His toil and research at length resulted 
in "a tremulous touch, light as a falling leaf; so that 
these last canvases of .Morelli, inspired by a refined and 


The Coniioissettr Bookshelf 

subtle idealism, give the im- 
pression ofbeing scarcely 
covered by t he colours. " A 
master of figure art, he is 
romantic in his choice of sub- 
jects — for his was the age of 
"Romanticism" — and takes 
them from Byron and Shake- 
speare. Even the liible he ap- 
proaches from the same stand- 
point in such subjects as The 
Daughter of Jairus, The Wife 
of Potiphar, and his Susanna 
at the Bath, which we repro- 
duce. It is of importance here 
to note that this new birth of 
Italy's creative art corresponds 
with the birth of her political 
liberty. We find this most 
directly with Costa and Vela, 
who come next under our 
notice here. 

The sculptor Vincenzo Vela, 
born in 1820, enrols himself in 
1847 in the Carabineers of 
Lugano, and refuses a good 
commission because "it is 
better in these days to kill a 
Croat than to make a statue." 
His lofty spirit of rebellion finds 
e.vpression in such themes as 
his Spar tacus, his William 
Tell, and, in a gentler mood, 
in that beautiful Prayer of the Dead, which we are able 
to reproduce. 

No less did that fine landscape artist, Giovanni Costa, 
share in his country's struggle for freedom. In 1848 he 
tears down the arms of -Austria from the Palazzo Venezia, 
joins the Roman Legion, fights at Villa Pamphili, is 
beside Mazzini at Rome, and from '48 to '59 is a persis- 
tent conspirator. It was at this time that he came to 
know Corot and our Leighton, who fully recognised and 
appreciated his genius, his marvellous landscape art, so 
refined that he has " the finish of a miniaturist in his pro- 
files of distant mountain peaks, in his gleams of water 
among the grass." But he never forgot the call of Italy, 
and in 1870 was among the first to enter by the breach of 
Porta Pia. Among the Society of Six, " In Arte Liber- 
tas," which he founded, were two great painters of the 
Roman Campagna, Henry Coleman and one who is still 
with us, Aristide Sartorio. 

And it is to the modern masters in this series that we 
now come, mentioning on our way the sculptor Giovanni 
Dupre, the painters Barabino, Serra, and Palizzi, whose 
beautiful Rise of the Full Moon we here reproduce. 
At the front of Italian art of to-day are two names, those 
of Sartorio and Tito. Born in 1861, Giulio Aristide 
Sartorio came in his early years under the influence of 
Fortuny. Then Costa watched over his canvases and 
gave him something of his delicate touch, and Michetti 
revealed to him the wonderful attraction of the Abruzzi. 


Then he travelled to England 
in 1893, and two years later to 
Germany; and in these last 
years he has revealed himself 
to us as a great decorator in 
his paintings of Monte Citorio, 
and, as a fine landscape artist, 
a successor to Costa and Cole- 
man, in his series of studies of 
the Roman Campagna. But 
the call of Italy was as real to 
him as to the men of '48. An 
accomplished horseman, when 
war came he volunteered at 
once, and t h e d a \- t h a t his 
London Exhibition opened at 
the Fine Art Society he was 
lying, wounded and a prisoner, 
in Austrian hands, whence he 
returned only to offerhis powers 
again to his country's needs. 

Last o f these volumes, but 
one of the most interesting, is 
that which deals with the 
X'enetian painter, EttoreTito, 
whose recent exhibitions at 
Paris and the Galleria Pesaro 
of Milan have been such a suc- 
cess. We reproduce here his 
portrait of Signora \'enturini, 
which was one of the successes 
of the Milan Exhibition, where 
he showed such representative 
works as his beautiful nude figure oiNinfea, his decorative 
paintings for the Villa Berlinghien at Rome, his portrait 
of Dr. Corrado Ricci, and such studies of popular life as 
\\\i Moccichino. The series thus covers some eighty years 
of Italian art ; but the material is ample, and we await with 
interest the announcement of future volumes. — S. B. 

L. De Mauri (Ernesto Sarrasino). L'Epigramme 
Italiano, dal Risorgimento delle Lettere ai tempi 
moderni, con Cenni Storici, Biografie, e Note Biblio- 
grafice. (Ulrico Hoepli, Editore Libraio della Real 
Casa. Milano, MCMXVIII.) 

In this work, Sig. L. De Mauri, who is the author of 
the excellent Ainatore di Miniature, enters a different 
field of study, and gives an account of Epigram in Italy 
from Sacchetti and Francesco da Barberino in the four- 
teenth century down to our own times, the work being 
accompanied by biographical notices and numerous ex- 
amples of epigrams. Many of these last are of historical 
interest— as, for instance, that of Nicolo Macchiavelli on 
the Florentine Piero Soderini, of Paolo Giovio on the 
notorious Pietro Aretino, and of this latter (given in the 
author's " Brief Discourse upon Epigram") upon Mi- 
chelangelo and his Last fudgiiicnt. 

The work is one of considerable erudition ; and, though 
obviously it is a selection, many of the longer epigrams 
being eliminated, it will be of real value to the student of 
this subject for reference. 




gyAM SWAVv<$o: 

Enquiries should be made on the Enquiry Coupon. 
See Advertising Pa^es. 

A. Plea for Logic 

Very frequemly The Connoisseur experts are invited to 
express opinions on an ultra-speculative piece. In the event of 
it being declared a copy or imitation, the possessor sometimes 
executes a rearguard action by explaining that **it belonged to 
Mr. So-and-so. I do not think he would have a copy." Why 
not ? Let us examine an analogous case. A collector feeling an 
admiration for the Venus de Milo, purchases a replica of it. In 
course of time he goes the way of all flesh, and the replica 
passes into other hands. '"It must be an original," exclaims 
the new owner in ecstasy. " So-and-so would never h.ive a 
copy ! " Is it reasonable tu suppose that, because a man is an 
authority, he is not to permit himself the pleasure of owning 
something that appeals to his taste alone ? 

Another and similar argument is sometimes advanced by 
picture buyers. " Must be some good," they urge. " Came out 
of the Musee des Choses in 1840." Quite so. The expert 
examines the canvas and realises why a discreet curator dis- 
carded the work. 

It should be remembered, moreover, that many of the highest 
experts possess really dangerous orgeries, which, they have 
bought to keep with the intention of "refreshing the eye " at 
constant intervals. 

Now and again one meets with an individual of mysterious 
reasoning powers. He desires an expert opinion, obtains it, 
finds that it does not tally with his own personal beliefs, and 
s.ays that the expert is wrong. This is more than absurd : it is 

However, it often happens that the speculative articles really 
prove to be of interest. During the last eight montlis this depart- 
ment valued articles amounting to a total of several thousand 
pounds. This is anything but a record, especially when it has 
come to a few odd thousands in a single week. 

In conclusion, we should remind readers to endorse all corres- 
pondence subsequent to the first letter with the office reference 
number. Also, that a communication in writing should be 
made before submitting articles for inspection. 

Andrea da Solario.— 82,530 ("Enquirer "). We need 
not enter into a dissertation on the life of this artist here, as you 
will (ind an account in Bryan. As regards the frescoes men- 
tioned, the same apparent discrepancy is noted by Bryan, but 
we fear that any further elucidation of the matter would only be 
achieved after considerable research, which might prove costly. 
If you are anxious to follow the matter up, however, perhaps 
you would kindly advise us of your address in order that we may 
correspond with you more speedily. We regret that the pressure 
on our space has precluded us from replying to you before now. 

Clock.— B2, 606 (Sheffield). Judging from the print, your 
clock is an eighteenth-century production, but as there were many 
Wrights practising as clockmakers in London during this period, 
we regret that we cannot attribute it to any especial hand. Under 
ordinary conditions, we think that its selling value should be about 
^iS. T. S. Robins.— Thomas Sewell Robins was a member 
of the New Water Colour Society, now the Royal Institute of 
Painters in Water Colours, where he exhibited no less than 317 
works. He was also represented at the Royal Academy and at 
other galleries, exhibiting a total of 412 pictures between the 
years 1S29 and 1879. He executed sea-pieces, so that we think 
it highly possible that the view of Ca/ais Harbour in your 
possession is from his brush. If you care to send it to us, we 
shall be pleased to obtain an expert opinion on it for you, as we 
cannot value drawings or pictures from descriptions alone. 

Sporting Subject. — 82,623 (Sunderland). We have come 
across the name of M. Preston as a painter of a sporting 
suliject, dated in the first half of last century, but no details of 
his life are recorded in any of the usual channels of information. 

Chippendale.— 62,642 (Cardiff). The high prices realised 
by furniture have been a feature of the season in the sale-rooms, 
Chippendale chairs, whether singly or in sets, securing pheno- 
menal sums. Queen Anne walnut furniture is also very fashion- 
able when of good quality. Oak is rapidly regaining its old 
position of importance, and is m.iking big prices. We regret 
that we cannot say more than this here, but if you will forward 
photographs, we shall be pleased to obtain the best expert 
opinion possible under the circumstances. 

Registered for transmission to Canada and Newfoundland at Magazine Post Rates. Printed by Bemrose & Sons Ltd., 13a, Hign 
Holborn, London, W.C.I, and Derby, and published by the Proprietor, W. Claude Johnson, at 1, DUKE STREET, ST. JAMES S, 
LONDON, S.W.I, England. Subscript. ons-lnland 30 -. Foreign 31 -. to Canada 26 -, per annum. Published the 1st of each month. 
Published by Gordon & Gotch, in Australia and New Zealand; by The Central News Agency, in South Africa; by Higginbotham & Co., 
in Bombay and Calcutta; and by The International News Co.. in U.S.A. 




MAY, 1919 Price 2s. net Vol. LIV. No. 213 




ANTIQUE DEPT. Some interesting examples of 17th and 18th Century ENGLISH Furniture from our own Collection 

at present displayed in our recently acquired Soho Square premises. Tlie Oak Panelling in the bacl<ground 

is 17th Century. Interior Decoration with Oak Panelling, old or new, is a speciality. 

rSjILL &^ 

The Soho 



and 31, East 57th Street, NEW YORK 

^ '^^^*^^^'^^ ''OP^ COLLECTORS 

JUNE. 1919 "'^ p . '^^^'NALD GRUNDY 

The Artist 

l;y GAunn; 






ANTIQUE DEPT. Genuine early Georgian Mahogany Bureau Bool<case. with carved and fluted pilasters and 
dentil cornice: interior fitted as Secretaire. Height 7 ft. 8 in., width 4 ft., and depth 1 ft. 1 1 in. 
We have several fine old Bookcases in Stock at present 


ILL &i 

The Soho 




and 31, East 57th Street, NEW YORK 




JULY. 1919 Price 2s. net 

Vol. LIV. No. 215 




CURIOS AND FINE ARTS DEPT. The illustration portrays a few examples from a fine-collection 
of Blue and White Crescent-marked Worcester China in stock. There are many other specimens 

besides those here shown. 

ILL & 

The Soho 




and 31, East 57th Street, NEW YORK 


Edited by C REGINALD GRlTvr.^ 

AUGUST, 1919 PHee 2s. net 

Vol. LI V. No. 216 

^L.>^-^^^ /y i?.'yt::j^/. 



ANTIQUE DEPT. This fine and genuine antique ChiDpendale Arm Chair in stock, together with 

numerous other authentic examples, both arm and single chairs: also specimens of Hepplewhite, 

Sheraton, Adam, etc., in sets and single pieces. 


The SoHO I Kl Galleries. 


and 31, E«st 57eli Slieel, NEW YORK 

I^ Tlie Cormoisseiir